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Genome-Wide Association Studies of Chemotherapeutic Toxicities: Genomics of Inequality.


ABSTRACT: With an estimated global population of cancer survivors exceeding 32 million and growing, there is a heightened awareness of the long-term toxicities resulting from cancer treatments and their impact on quality of life. Unexplained heterogeneity in the persistence and development of toxicities, as well as an incomplete understanding of their mechanisms, have generated a growing need for the identification of predictive pharmacogenomic markers. Early studies addressing this need used a candidate gene approach; however, over the last decade, unbiased and comprehensive genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided markers of phenotypic risk and potential targets to explore the mechanistic and regulatory pathways of biological functions associated with chemotherapeutic toxicity. In this review, we provide the current status of GWAS of chemotherapeutic toxicities with an emphasis on examining the ancestral diversity of the representative cohorts within these studies. Persistent calls to incorporate both ancestrally diverse and/or admixed populations into genomic efforts resulted in a recent rise in the number of studies utilizing cohorts of East Asian descent; however, few pharmacogenomic studies to date include cohorts of African, Indigenous American, Southwest Asian, and admixed populations. Through comprehensively evaluating sample size, composition by ancestry, genome-wide significant variants, and population-specific minor allele frequencies as reported by HapMap/dbSNP using NCBI PubMed and the NHGRI-EBI GWAS Catalog, we illustrate how allele frequencies and effect sizes tend to vary among individuals of differing ancestries. In an era of personalized medicine, the lack of diversity in genome-wide studies of anticancer agent toxicity may contribute to the health disparity gap. Clin Cancer Res; 23(15); 4010-9. ©2017 AACR.

SUBMITTER: Mapes B 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5540779 | BioStudies | 2017-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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