Persistent current in 2D topological superconductors.
ABSTRACT: A junction between two boundaries of a topological superconductor (TSC), mediated by localized edge modes of Majorana fermions, is investigated. The tunneling of fermions across the junction depends on the magnetic flux. It breaks the time-reversal symmetry at the boundary of the sample. The persistent current is determined by the emergence of Majorana edge modes. The structure of the edge modes depends on the magnitude of the tunneling amplitude across the junction. It is shown that there are two different regimes, which correspond to strong and weak tunneling of Majorana fermions, distinctive in the persistent current behavior. In a strong tunneling regime, the fermion parity of edge modes is not conserved and the persistent current is a 2π-periodic function of the magnetic flux. When the tunneling is weak the chiral Majorana states, which are propagating along the edges have the same fermion parity. They form a 4π-phase periodic persistent current along the boundaries. The regions in the space of parameters, which correspond to the emergence of 2π- and of 4π-harmonics, are numerically determined. The peculiarities in the persistent current behavior are studied.
Project description:The chiral Majorana fermion is a massless self-conjugate fermion which can arise as the edge state of certain 2D topological matters. It has been theoretically predicted and experimentally observed in a hybrid device of a quantum anomalous Hall insulator and a conventional superconductor. Its closely related cousin, the Majorana zero mode in the bulk of the corresponding topological matter, is known to be applicable in topological quantum computations. Here we show that the propagation of chiral Majorana fermions leads to the same unitary transformation as that in the braiding of Majorana zero modes and propose a platform to perform quantum computation with chiral Majorana fermions. A Corbino ring junction of the hybrid device can use quantum coherent chiral Majorana fermions to implement the Hadamard gate and the phase gate, and the junction conductance yields a natural readout for the qubit state.
Project description:Majorana fermions are long-sought exotic particles that are their own antiparticles. Here we propose to utilize superconducting circuits to construct two superconducting-qubit arrays where Majorana modes can occur. A so-called Majorana qubit is encoded by using the unpaired Majorana modes, which emerge at the left and right ends of the chain in the Majorana-fermion representation. We also show this Majorana qubit in the spin representation and its advantage, over a single superconducting qubit, regarding quantum coherence. Moreover, we propose to use four superconducting qubits as the smallest system to demonstrate the braiding of Majorana modes and show how the states before and after braiding Majoranas can be discriminated.
Project description:Under certain conditions, a fermion in a superconductor can separate in space into two parts known as Majorana zero modes, which are immune to decoherence from local noise sources and are attractive building blocks for quantum computers. Promising experimental progress has been made to demonstrate Majorana zero modes in materials with strong spin-orbit coupling proximity coupled to superconductors. Here we report signatures of Majorana zero modes in a material platform utilizing the surface states of gold. Using scanning tunneling microscope to probe EuS islands grown on top of gold nanowires, we observe two well-separated zero-bias tunneling conductance peaks aligned along the direction of the applied magnetic field, as expected for a pair of Majorana zero modes. This platform has the advantage of having a robust energy scale and the possibility of realizing complex designs using lithographic methods.
Project description:In the present work, we theoretically propose an optical scheme to detect the possible signature of Majorana fermions via the optical pump-probe spectroscopy, which is very different from the current tunneling measurement based on electrical methods. The scheme consists of a metal nanoparticle and a semiconductor quantum dot coupled to a hybrid semiconductor/superconductor heterostructures. The results show that the probe absorption spectrum of the quantum dot presents a distinct splitting due to the existence of Majorana fermions. Owing to surface plasmon enhanced effect, this splitting will be more obvious, which makes Majorana fermions more easy to be detectable. The technique proposed here open the door for new applications ranging from robust manipulation of Majorana fermions to quantum information processing based on Majorana fermions.
Project description:We study the decoherence of Majorana modes of a fermion chain, where the fermions interact with their nearest neighbours. We investigate the effect of dissipation and dephasing on the Majorana modes of a fermionic chain. The dissipative and dephasing noises induce the non-parity- and parity-preserving transitions between the eigenstates of the system, respectively. Therefore, these two types of noises lead to the different decoherence mechanisms. In each type of noise, we discuss the low- and high-frequency regimes to describe the different environments. We numerically calculate the dissipation and dephasing rates in the presence of long-range interactions. We find that the decoherence rate of interacting Majorana modes is different to that of non-interacting modes. We show the examples that the long-range interactions can reduce the decoherence rate. It is advantageous to the potential applications of quantum information processing.
Project description:We propose a scheme for extracting entangled charge qubits from quantum-dot chains that support zero-energy edge modes. The edge mode is composed of Majorana fermions localized at the ends of each chain. The qubit, logically encoded in double quantum dots, can be manipulated through tunneling and pairing interactions between them. The detailed form of the entangled state depends on both the parity measurement (an even or odd number) of the boundary-site electrons in each chain and the teleportation between the chains. The parity measurement is realized through the dispersive coupling of coherent-state microwave photons to the boundary sites, while the teleportation is performed via Bell measurements. Our scheme illustrates localizable entanglement in a fermionic system, which serves feasibly as a quantum repeater under realistic experimental conditions, as it allows for finite temperature effect and is robust against disorders, decoherence and quasi-particle poisoning.
Project description:Using a systematic symmetry and topology analysis, we establish that three-dimensional chiral superconductors with strong spin-orbit coupling and odd-parity pairing generically host low-energy nodal quasiparticles that are spin-nondegenerate and realize Majorana fermions in three dimensions. By examining all types of chiral Cooper pairs with total angular momentum J formed by Bloch electrons with angular momentum j in crystals, we obtain a comprehensive classification of gapless Majorana quasiparticles in terms of energy-momentum relation and location on the Fermi surface. We show that the existence of bulk Majorana fermions in the vicinity of spin-selective point nodes is rooted in the nonunitary nature of chiral pairing in spin-orbit-coupled superconductors. We address experimental signatures of Majorana fermions and find that the nuclear magnetic resonance spin relaxation rate is significantly suppressed for nuclear spins polarized along the nodal direction as a consequence of the spin-selective Majorana nature of nodal quasiparticles. Furthermore, Majorana nodes in the bulk have nontrivial topology and imply the presence of Majorana bound states on the surface, which form arcs in momentum space. We conclude by proposing the heavy fermion superconductor PrOs4Sb12 and related materials as promising candidates for nonunitary chiral superconductors hosting three-dimensional Majorana fermions.
Project description:There has been growing interest in searching for exotic self-conjugate, charge-neutral low-energy fermionic quasi-particles, known as Majorana fermions (MFs) in solid state systems. Their signatures have been proposed and potentially observed at edges of topological superconcuctors with non-trivial topological invariant in the bulk electronic band structure. Much effort have been focused on realizing MFs in odd-parity superconductors made of strong spin-orbit coupled materials in proximity to conventional superconductors. In this paper, we propose a novel mechanism for realizing MFs in 2D spin-singlet topological superconducting state induced by doping a correlated quantum spin Hall (Kane-Mele) insulator. Via a renormalized mean-field approach, the system is found to exhibits time-reversal symmetry (TRS) breaking d(x2-y2) + id(xy)-wave (chiral d-wave) superconductivity near half-filling in the limit of large on-site repulsion. Surprisingly, however, at large spin-orbit coupling, the system undergoes a topological phase transition and enter into a new topological phase protected by a pseudo-spin Chern number, which can be viewed as a persistent extension of the quantum spin Hall phase upon doping. From bulk-edge correspondence, this phase is featured by the presence of two pairs of counter-propagating helical Majorana modes per edge, instead of two chiral propagating edge modes in the d?+?id' superconductors.
Project description:One Majorana doublet can be realized at each end of the time-reversal-invariant Majorana nanowires. We investigate the Josephson effect in the Majorana-doublet-presented junction modified by different inter-doublet coupling manners. It is found that when the Majorana doublets couple indirectly via a non-magnetic quantum dot, only the normal Josephson effect occurs, and the fermion parity in the system just affects the current direction and amplitude. However, one magnetic field applied on the dot can induce the fractional Josephson effect in the odd-parity case. Next if the direct and indirect couplings between the Majorana doublets coexist, no fractional Josephson effect takes place, regardless of the presence of magnetic field. Instead, there almost appears the π-period-like current in some special cases. All the results are clarified by analyzing the influence of the fermion occupation in the quantum dot on the parity conservation in the whole system. We ascertain that this work will be helpful for describing the dot-assisted Josephson effect between the Majorana doublets.
Project description:Topological superconductors, which support Majorana fermion excitations, have been the subject of intense studies due to their novel transport properties and their potential applications in fault-tolerant quantum computations. Here we propose a new type of topological superconductors that can be used as a novel source of correlated spin currents. We show that inducing superconductivity on a AIII class topological insulator wire, which respects a chiral symmetry and supports protected fermionic end states, will result in a topological superconductor. This topological superconductor supports two topological phases with one or two Majorana fermion end states, respectively. In the phase with two Majorana fermions, the superconductor can split Cooper pairs efficiently into electrons in two spatially separated leads due to Majorana-induced resonant-crossed Andreev reflections. The resulting currents in the leads are correlated and spin-polarized. Importantly, the proposed topological superconductors can be realized using quantum anomalous Hall insulators in proximity to superconductors.