Sensitive SERS nanotags for use with a hand-held 1064?nm Raman spectrometer.
ABSTRACT: This is the first report of the use of a hand-held 1064?nm Raman spectrometer combined with red-shifted surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanotags to provide an unprecedented performance in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region. A library consisting of 17 chalcogenopyrylium nanotags produce extraordinary SERS responses with femtomolar detection limits being obtained using the portable instrument. This is well beyond previous SERS detection limits at this far red-shifted wavelength and opens up new options for SERS sensors in the SWIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum (between 950 and 1700?nm).
Project description:Surfaced enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanotags operating with 1280 nm excitation were constructed from reporter molecules selected from a library of 14 chalcogenopyrylium dyes containing phenyl, 2-thienyl, and 2-selenophenyl substituents and a surface of hollow gold nanoshells (HGNs). These 1280 SERS nanotags are unique as they have multiple chalcogen atoms available which allow them to adsorb strongly onto the gold surface of the HGN thus producing exceptional SERS signals at this long excitation wavelength. Picomolar limits of detection (LOD) were observed and individual reporters of the library were identified by principal component analysis and classified according to their unique structure and SERS spectra.
Project description:Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique is becoming highly popular for multiplex biosensing due to the 'fingerprint' Raman spectra from every molecule. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrated the actively targeted multiplex in vitro and in vivo detection of three intrinsic cancer biomarkers - EGFR, CD44 and TGF?RII in a breast cancer model using three multiplexing capable, biocompatible SERS nanoparticles/nanotags. Intra-tumorally injected antibody conjugated nanotags specifically targeting the three biomarkers exhibited maximum signal at 6 hours and no detectable signal at 72 hours. However, nanotags without antibodies showed no detectable signal after 6 hours. This difference could be due to the specific binding of the bioconjugated nanotags to the receptors on the cell surface. Thus, this study establishes SERS nanotags as an ultrasensitive nanoprobe for the multiplex detection of biomarkers and opens up its potential application in monitoring tumor progression and therapy and development into a theranostic probe.
Project description:Herein, we report fifty four membered, a new set of novel NIR Raman reporters and CyRLA-572 has been selected to be the best among them considering the signal intensity and stability. This new reporter molecule is an excellent partner with our in house Raman reporters (Cy7LA and Cy7.5LA). These three NIR Raman reporters are adsorbed on the gold nanoparticles to obtain their corresponding unique SERS fingerprints in which three individual characteristic peaks are capable to multiplex among them. These multiplexed Raman reporters are applied to develop biocompatible and specific targeting SERS nanotags after tagging with specific antibodies. These multiplex targeted SERS nanotags are applied to detect three targeting receptors in differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) consisting three germ layers such as ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. After successful recognition of cells by SERS techniques, we detect simultaneously three germ layers in teratoma which is a monster tumor formed from mESC cells in animal xenograft model.
Project description:We report a quantitative evaluation of the choice of reporters for multiplexed surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). An initial library consisted of 15 reporter molecules that included commonly used Raman dyes, thiolated reporters, and other small molecules. We used a correlation matrix to downselect Raman reporters from the library to choose five candidates: 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene, 4-mercaptobenzoic acid, 3,5-dichlorobenzenthiol, pentachlorothiophenol, and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid). We evaluated the ability to distinguish the five SERS reporters in a dipstick immunoassay for the biomarker human IgG. Raman nanotags, or gold nanostars conjugated to the five reporters and anti-human IgG polyclonal antibodies were constructed. A linear discriminant analysis approach was used to evaluate the separation of the nanotag spectra in mixtures of fixed ratios.
Project description:Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are severe acute infectious diseases, which require the timely and accurate identification of the pathogens involved so that the individual treatment plan can be selected, including optimized use of antibiotics. However, high throughput and ultrasensitive quantification of multiple nucleic acids is a challenge in a point of care testing (POCT) device. Methods: Herein, we developed a 2×3 microarray on a lateral flow strip with surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanotags encoding the nucleic acids of 11 common RTI pathogens. On account of the signal magnification of encoded SERS nanotags in addition to the high surface area to volume ratio of the nitrocellulose (NC) membrane, rapid quantification of the 11 pathogens with a broad linear dynamic range (LDR) and ultra-high sensitivity was achieved on one lateral flow microarray. Results: The limit of detection (LOD) for influenza A, parainfluenza 1, parainfluenza 3, respiratory syncytial virus, coxiella burnetii, legionella pneumophila, influenza B, parainfluenza 2, adenovirus, chlamydophila pneumoniae, and mycoplasma pneumoniae were calculated to be 0.031 pM, 0.030 pM, 0.038 pM, 0.038 pM, 0.040 pM, 0.039 pM, 0.035 pM, 0.032 pM, 0.040 pM, 0.039 pM, and 0.041 pM, respectively. The LDR of measurement of the target nucleic acids of the eleven RTI pathogens were 1 pM-50 nM, which span 5 orders of magnitude. Conclusions: We anticipate this novel approach could be widely adopted in the early and precise diagnosis of RTI and other diseases.
Project description:Rapid and sensitive detection of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) is important for immediate treatment with proper antitoxins. However, it is difficult to detect BoNTs at the acute phase of infection, owing to its rarity and ambiguous symptoms. To resolve this problem, we developed a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based immunoassay technique for the rapid and sensitive detection of BoNTs. Magnetic beads and SERS nanotags as capture substrates and detection probes, respectively, and Nile Blue A (NBA) and malachite green isothiocyanate (MGITC) as Raman reporter molecules were used for the detection of two different types of BoNTs (types A and B), respectively. The corresponding limits of detection (LODs) were determined as 5.7 ng/mL (type A) and 1.3 ng/mL (type B). Total assay time, including that for immunoreaction, washing, and detection, was less than 2 h.
Project description:The use of plasmonic nanotags based on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect is highly promising for several applications in analytical chemistry, biotechnological assays and nanomedicine. To this end, a crucial parameter is the minimum number of SERS tags that allows for the collection of intense Raman signals under real operating conditions. Here, SERS Au nanotags (AuNTs) based on clustered gold nanoparticles are deposited on a substrate and analyzed in the same region using Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In this way, the Raman spectra and the surface density of the SERS tags are correlated directly, showing that 1 tag/µm2 is enough to generate an intense signal above the noise level at 633 nm with an excitation power of only 0.65 mW and an acquisition time of just 1 s with a 50× objective. The AuNT density can be even lower than 1 tag/µm2 when the acquisition time is extended to 10 s, but must be increased to 3 tags/µm2 when a 20× objective is employed under the same excitation conditions. In addition, in order to observe a linear response, it was found that 10 SERS AuNTs inside the probed area are required. These findings indicate that a better signal-to-noise ratio requires high-magnification optics, while linearity versus tag number can be improved by using low-magnification optics or a high tag density. In general the suitability of plasmonic SERS labels for ultrasensitive analytical and biomedical applications is evident.
Project description:Molecular diagnostic testing of KRAS and BRAF mutations has become critical in the management of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Some progress has been made in liquid biopsy detection of mutations in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), which is a fraction of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA), but slow analysis for DNA sequencing methods has limited rapid diagnostics. Other methods such as quantitative PCR and more recently, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), have limitations in multiplexed capacity and the need for expensive specialized equipment. Hence, a robust, rapid and facile strategy is needed for detecting multiple ctDNA mutations to improve the management of CRC patients. To address this significant problem, herein, we propose a new application of multiplex PCR/SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering) assay for the detection of ctDNA in CRC, in a fast and non-invasive manner to diagnose and stratify patients for effective treatment. Methods: To discriminate ctDNA mutations from wild-type cfDNA, allele-specific primers were designed for the amplification of three clinically important DNA point mutations in CRC including KRAS G12V, KRAS G13D and BRAF V600E. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanotags were labelled with a short and specific sequence of oligonucleotide, which can hybridize with the corresponding PCR amplicons. The PCR/SERS assay was implemented by firstly amplifying the multiple mutations, followed by binding with multicolor SERS nanotags specific to each mutation, and subsequent enrichment with magnetic beads. The mutation status was evaluated using a portable Raman spectrometer where the fingerprint spectral peaks of the corresponding SERS nanotags indicate the presence of the mutant targets. The method was then applied to detect ctDNA from CRC patients under a blinded test, the results were further validated by ddPCR. Results: The PCR/SERS strategy showed high specificity and sensitivity for genotyping CRC cell lines and plasma ctDNA, where as few as 0.1% mutant alleles could be detected from a background of abundant wild-type cfDNA. The blinded test using 9 samples from advanced CRC patients by PCR/SERS assay was validated with ddPCR and showed good consistency with pathology testing results. Conclusions: With ddPCR-like sensitivity yet at the convenience of standard PCR, the proposed assay shows great potential in sensitive detection of multiple ctDNA mutations for clinical decision-making.
Project description:Raman spectroscopy is a newly developed, noninvasive preclinical imaging technique that offers picomolar sensitivity and multiplexing capabilities to the field of molecular imaging. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of Raman spectroscopy to separate the spectral fingerprints of up to 10 different types of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles in a living mouse after s.c. injection. Based on these spectral results, we simultaneously injected the five most intense and spectrally unique SERS nanoparticles i.v. to image their natural accumulation in the liver. All five types of SERS nanoparticles were successfully identified and spectrally separated using our optimized noninvasive Raman imaging system. In addition, we were able to linearly correlate Raman signal with SERS concentration after injecting four spectrally unique SERS nanoparticles either s.c. (R(2) = 0.998) or i.v. (R(2) = 0.992). These results show great potential for multiplexed imaging in living subjects in cases in which several targeted SERS probes could offer better detection of multiple biomarkers associated with a specific disease.
Project description:Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been attractive for enhancing the sensitivity of lateral flow immunoassays (LFA). A format that has enabled specific detection of biomarkers is to use Raman reporter molecules linked to gold nanoparticles (NPs), which are conjugated to antibodies specific for the target of interest. Many factors such as the NP and Ab properties and the method of signal readout impact the sensitivity of a SERS based immunoassay. To understand how to optimize assay sensitivity, we studied SERS readouts of multiplexed sandwich immunoassays for the zika and dengue non-structural protein 1 (NS1) biomarkers as a test case. We investigated the effect of NP shape on the SERS enhancement of the reporter molecules 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (BPE) and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA). We also performed SERS imaging of test lines to map the spatial distribution of signal in test lines on the nitrocellulose. Finally, we used a modified least squares analysis to differentiate reporter contributions.