'Treated as a number, not treated as a person': a qualitative exploration of the perceived barriers to effective pain management of patients with chronic pain.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To identify barriers to effective pain management encountered by patients with chronic pain within the UK's National Health Service (NHS). DESIGN:Secondary analysis of face-to-face, semistructured qualitative interviews using thematic analysis. SETTING:A community-based chronic pain clinic jointly managed by a nurse and pharmacist located in the North of England. PARTICIPANTS:Nineteen adult (>18 years) patients with chronic pain discharged from a pain clinic, with the ability to understand and speak the English language. RESULTS:In general, patients were highly disappointed with the quality of pain management services provided both within primary and secondary care, and consequently were willing to seek private medical care. Barriers to effective pain management were divided into two main themes: healthcare professional-related and health systems-related. Three subthemes emerged under healthcare professionals-related barriers, namely (1) healthcare professionals' lack of interest and empathy, (2) general practitioners' (GP) lack of specialised knowledge in pain management and (3) lack of communication between healthcare professionals. Three subthemes emerged under health system-related barriers: (1) long waiting time for appointments in secondary care, (2) short consultation times with GPs and (3) lack of an integrated multidisciplinary approach. CONCLUSIONS:The patients expressed a clear desire for the improved provision and quality of chronic pain management services within the NHS to overcome barriers identified in this study. An integrated holistic approach based on a biopsychosocial model is required to effectively manage pain and improve patient satisfaction. Future research should explore the feasibility, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of integrated care delivery models for chronic pain management within primary care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Postoperative pain remains a challenge in the developed world, but the consequences of inadequately treated postoperative pain are particularly severe in low- and middle-income countries. Since 2011, reports have drawn attention to the poor quality of postoperative pain management in Ethiopia; however, our multicenter qualitative study was the first to attempt to understand the factors that are barriers to and facilitators of quality pain managment in the country. To this aim, the study explored the perspectives of patients, healthcare professionals, and hospital officials. We expected that the results of this study would inform strategies to improve the provision of quality pain management in Ethiopia and perhaps even in other low- and middle-income countries. METHODS:This study used a qualitative, descriptive approach in which nine healthcare professionals, nine patients, and six hospital officials (i.e. executives in a managerial or leadership position in administration, nursing, or education) participated in face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. Thematic data analysis was conducted, and patterns were explained with the help of a theoretical framework. FINDINGS:The barriers identified ranged from healthcare professionals' lack of empathy to a positive social appraisal of patients' ability to cope with pain. They also included a lack of emphasis on pain and its management during early medical education, together with the absence of available resources. Enhancing the ability of healthcare professionals to create favorable rapport with patients and increasing the cultural competence of professionals are essential ingredients of future pain education interventions. CONCLUSIONS:Barriers to and facilitators of postoperative pain management do not exist independently but are reciprocally linked. This finding calls for holistic and inclusive interventions targeting healthcare professionals, patients, and hospital officials. The current situation is unlikely to improve if only healthcare professionals are educated about pain physiology, pharmacology, and management. Patients should also be educated, and the hospital environment should be modified to provide high-quality postoperative pain management.
Project description:Ghana's chronic disease burden is on the rise. An essential aspect of clinical care in chronic disease management is to improve the quality of life of both patients and their families and to help them cope with the experience of life-limiting illness. Specialist palliative care services help reach this objective, especially in the context of complex psychosocial challenges and high symptom burden. It is, therefore, necessary that as many patients as possible get access to available specialist palliative care services. This paper explores the factors influencing referral of patients with nonmalignant chronic diseases for specialist palliative care. A qualitative approach was used to explore these factors from eight (8) participants-four (4) physician specialists and four (4) next of kin of patients with advanced nonmalignant chronic illness. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted using a semistructured interview guide. Interviews were audio-recorded and data coded, themes and subthemes were identified, and thematic analysis was done. Barriers and motivators identified were categorized as either related to physicians, institution, or family. Barriers to referral were perception of the scope of palliative care, medical paternalism, lack of an institutional referral policy, poor human resource capacity of the palliative care team, and lack of awareness about the existence of specialist palliative care service. Poor economic status of the patient and family, poor prognosis, previous interaction with the palliative care team, and an appreciation of patients' expectations of the healthcare system were identified as motivators for referral. The palliative care team must therefore increase awareness among other health professionals about their services and facilitate the development and availability of a clear policy to guide and improve referrals.
Project description:Minority vulnerable communities, such as the European Roma, often face numerous barriers to accessing healthcare services, resulting in negative health outcomes. Both these barriers and outcomes have been reported extensively in the literature. However, reports on barriers faced by European non-Roma native communities are limited. The "Health Care Access Barriers" (HCAB) model identifies pertinent financial, structural and cognitive barriers that can be measured and potentially modified. The present study thus aims to explore the barriers to accessing healthcare for a vulnerable population of mixed ethnicity from a charity community centre in Romania, as perceived by the centre's family users and staff members, and assess whether these reflect the barriers identified from the HCAB model.Eleven community members whose children attend the centre and seven staff members working at the centre participated in face-to-face semi-structured interviews, exploring personal experiences and views on accessing healthcare. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using an initial deductive and secondary inductive approach to identify HCAB themes and other emerging themes and subthemes.Identified themes from both groups aligned with HCAB's themes of financial, structural and cognitive barriers and emergent subthemes important to the specific population were identified. Specifically, financial barriers related mostly to health insurance and bribery issues, structural barriers related mostly to service availability and accessibility, and cognitive barriers related mostly to healthcare professionals' attitudes and discrimination and the vulnerable population's lack of education and health literacy. A unique theme of psychological barriers emerged from both groups with associated subthemes of mistrust, hopelessness, fear and anxiety of this vulnerable population.The current study highlights healthcare access barriers to a vulnerable non-Roma native population involved with a charity community centre in Romania. The "Healthcare Access Barriers for Vulnerable Populations" (HABVP) model is proposed as an adaption to the existing HCAB model to account for the unique perceived barriers to healthcare for this population. Recommendations for future resolution of these identified barriers are proposed.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to explore the barriers to accessing cancer services faced by adults with pre-existing physical disabilities. DESIGN:Cross-sectional, exploratory qualitative study. Data were collected by semistructured interviews and analysed thematically. SETTING:Participants were recruited through statutory and third sector organisations in England and Wales between October 2017 and October 2018. PARTICIPANTS:18 people with a diagnosis of cancer and a pre-existing physical disability. RESULTS:The findings illustrate that people with physical disabilities in England and Wales face a variety of barriers to accessing cancer services. The overall theme that emerged was that participants experienced a lack of attitudinal and institutional preparation both from healthcare professionals and healthcare facilities. This overall theme is illustrated through three subthemes: lack of acknowledgment of disability, unseeing disability and physical inaccessibility. CONCLUSIONS:As the population ages and increasing numbers of people live with cancer and disability, it is important to develop knowledge to respond to the needs of this population. The mere existence of services does not guarantee their usability. Services need to be relevant, flexible, and accessible and offered in a respectful manner. It is important that healthcare professionals work towards inclusive healthcare provision, enabling the utilisation of services by all. Necessary steps to be taken include better communication between the various professionals and across the different teams involved in patients' care, raising awareness of how physical disability can affect or interact with cancer-related treatment and creating more accessible physical environments.
Project description:Knowledge of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and its management options affects adherence to treatment, symptoms, and function. Many sociocultural differences exist between Jordan, as a representative of the Middle East, and the developed world which might influence the knowledge of the pathology and its impact on health. Objectives. To explore the knowledge of the pathology and the experience of people diagnosed with knee OA living in Jordan. Methods. Qualitative study design using a triangulation method of both focus groups and in-depth semistructured interviews. Fourteen participants were included (13 females and one male). One focus group and seven in-depth semistructured interviews were conducted. Discussions were audiotaped and transcribed. Framework analysis was used, and data were mapped to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework. Results. The themes are as follows: (1) body functions and structures included two subthemes: physical changes and psychological impact; (2) activity limitation and participation restriction included three subthemes: factors influencing the activities, cultural and social perspectives to activity limitation, and participation restriction; (3) personal factors included three subthemes: knowledge and personal interpretation of disease process, knowledge of management options to relief symptoms, and influence of personal factors on activity and participation; and (4) environmental factors included three subthemes: service delivery process, ineffective communication across the care pathway, and facilitators and barriers. Conclusions. Knowledge of the disease was lacking as a consequence of inappropriate service delivery and culture. Activity limitations and participation restrictions are similar in Jordan to other cultures in addition to limitations in religious, employment, and transportation activities. The results demonstrate that the effect of knee OA varies among different cultures and highlight the role of healthcare professionals worldwide in understanding the impact of culture on health. They also increase the awareness of healthcare professionals, specifically in Jordan, on the limitations in delivered services and the importance of education.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Pain is considered the most common and debilitating symptom reported by patients affected by cancer, and opioids are at the front line for its effective management. However, the appropriate use of opioids can be limited by healthcare professionals' perceptions on opioids. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore their perceptions on the use of opioids medication.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a study of sequential mixed-method design conducted in Cyprus. As part of the quantitative phase of the study, the Barriers to Opioid Analgesic Availability Test questionnaire was completed by 73 physicians randomly selected. In the qualitative phase, 28 healthcare professionals working in primary and secondary healthcare centers participated in two focus groups. They were asked to express their perceptions on the use of opioid analgesics for the treatment of cancer-related pain. Data were analyzed according to Colaizzis' seven-stage phenomenological analysis.<h4>Results</h4>The quantitative analysis showed that 69.85% of physicians acknowledge opiophobia as a main barrier to appropriate pain relief but also explicitly for cancer pain which is not adequately managed (45.19%). In terms of opioids availability, physicians stated that moderate to severe problems in opioids availability were mainly caused by their reluctance to prescribe opioids (49.3%) followed by the laws/regulations in place (41.08%). The qualitative analysis yielded the following six main themes: inadequate training of healthcare professionals in the use of opioid analgesics, inadequate patient/caregivers' awareness of opioid analgesics, opiophobia in healthcare professionals, opiophobia of patients/caregivers, poor management of opioid analgesics by healthcare professionals and patients/caregivers, and ineffective pain relief with opioids.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The lack of appropriate education is a significant barrier to opioids use in Cyprus. This is compounded by the attitudes and phobias of both healthcare professionals and the general public. In addition, there are barriers to opioid availability and unsatisfactory cancer pain relief.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The implementation of multiple health behaviour change interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction in primary care is suboptimal. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to implementing multiple health behaviour change interventions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction in primary care. METHODS:Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of healthcare professionals working in the implementation of the NHS Health Check programme in London. Data were analysed using the Framework method. RESULTS:Thirty participants were recruited including ten general practitioners, ten practice nurses, seven healthcare assistants and three practice managers from 23 practices. Qualitative analysis identified three main themes: healthcare professionals' conceptualising health behaviour change; delivering multiple health behaviour change interventions in primary care; and delivering the health check programme. Healthcare professionals generally recognised the importance of health behaviour change for CVD risk reduction but were more sceptical about the potential for successful intervention through primary care. Participants identified the difficulty of sustained behaviour change for patients, the lack of evidence for effective interventions and limited access to appropriate resources in primary care as barriers. Discussing changing multiple health behaviours was perceived to be overwhelming for patients and difficult to implement for healthcare professionals with current primary care resources. The health check programme consists of several components that are difficult to fully complete in limited time. CONCLUSIONS:Advancing the prevention agenda will require strategies to support the delivery of behaviour change interventions in primary care. Greater emphasis needs to be given to promoting behaviour change through supportive environmental context. Further research is needed to evaluate current external lifestyle services to improve the intervention outcomes.
Project description:For medical teams, one of the main objectives of rehabilitation for people with chronic low back pain is adherence to physical activity (PA).The objective of this study was to identify PA barriers and facilitators in this population.This qualitative study included 4 discussion groups and 16 semi-structured interviews conducted among people with non-specific chronic low back pain who were involved in a specific rehabilitation program or seen in primary care settings.Three main themes were identified: physical factors, psychological factors and socio-environmental factors. The main barrier to PA practice is pain. Psychological barriers were associated with the difficulty in integrating PA in the person's daily life. Environmental barriers were dominated by lack of time. Facilitators identified associated the supervised nature of the physical activity (supervision by professionals) and group practice, which improved people's adherence.The results of this study will allow teams to target relevant educational objectives for these people and develop dedicated self-management programs.
Project description:We aimed to gain insight into the barriers and facilitators to fall risk screening of older adults visiting the hospital as experienced by patients and healthcare professionals, and to examine the differences between chronic- and acute-care patients. We invited patients (? 70 years) attending the nephrology and emergency department to participate in the screening. Patients and their healthcare professionals were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire based on the "Barriers and Facilitators Assessment Instrument". Differences in barriers and facilitators between acute- and chronic-care patients were examined with chi-square tests. A total of 216 patients were screened, and 103 completed the questionnaire. They considered many factors as facilitators, and none as barriers. Acute-care patients were more positive than chronic-care patients about healthcare worker characteristics, such as knowledge and skills. After screening, patients were more open to receiving advice regarding fall prevention. The 36 healthcare professionals considered program characteristics to be facilitators and mainly factors regarding healthcare worker characteristics as barriers to implementation. For patients, the outpatient setting seemed to be a good place to be screened for fall risk. Healthcare professionals also suggested that program characteristics could enhance implementation. However, healthcare professionals' mindsets and the changing of routines are barriers that have to be addressed first.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>We aimed to explore healthcare professionals' experience of treating chronic non-malignant pain by conducting a qualitative evidence synthesis. Understanding this experience from the perspective of healthcare professionals will contribute to improvements in the provision of care.<h4>Design</h4>Qualitative evidence synthesis using meta-ethnography. We searched five electronic bibliographic databases from inception to November 2016. We included studies that explore healthcare professionals' experience of treating adults with chronic non-malignant pain. We used the GRADE-CERQual framework to rate confidence in review findings.<h4>Results</h4>We screened the 954 abstracts and 184 full texts and included 77 published studies reporting the experiences of over 1551 international healthcare professionals including doctors, nurses and other health professionals. We abstracted six themes: (1) a sceptical cultural lens, (2) navigating juxtaposed models of medicine, (3) navigating the geography between patient and clinician, (4) challenge of dual advocacy, (5) personal costs and (6) the craft of pain management. We rated confidence in review findings as moderate to high.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This is the first qualitative evidence synthesis of healthcare professionals' experiences of treating people with chronic non-malignant pain. We have presented a model that we developed to help healthcare professionals to understand, think about and modify their experiences of treating patients with chronic pain. Our findings highlight scepticism about chronic pain that might explain why patients feel they are not believed. Findings also indicate a dualism in the biopsychosocial model and the complexity of navigating therapeutic relationships. Our model may be transferable to other patient groups or situations.