The Effect of the Superior Cavopulmonary Anastomosis on Ventricular Remodeling in Infants with Single Ventricle.
ABSTRACT: Infants with single ventricular physiology have volume and pressure overload that adversely affect ventricular mechanics. The impact of superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (SCPA) on single left ventricles versus single right ventricles is not known.As part of the Pediatric Heart Network placebo-controlled trial of enalapril in infants with single ventricular physiology, echocardiograms were obtained before SCPA and at 14 months and analyzed in a core laboratory. Retrospective analysis of the following measurements included single ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), mass, mass-to-volume ratio (mass/volume), and ejection fraction. Qualitative assessment of atrioventricular valve regurgitation and assessment of diastolic function were also performed.A total of 156 participants underwent echocardiography at both time points. Before SCPA, mean ESV and mass Z scores were elevated (3.4 ± 3.7 and 4.2 ± 2.9, respectively) as were mean EDV and mass/volume Z scores (2.1 ± 2.5 and 2.0 ± 2.9, respectively). EDV, ESV, and mass decreased after SCPA, but mass/volume and the degree of atrioventricular valve regurgitation did not change. Subjects with morphologic left ventricles demonstrated greater reductions in ventricular volumes and mass than those with right ventricles (mean change in Z score: left ventricular [LV] EDV, -1.9 ± 2.1; right ventricular EDV, -0.7 ± 2.5; LV ESV, -2.3 ± 2.9; right ventricular ESV, -0.9 ± 4.6; LV mass, -2.5 ± 2.8; right ventricular mass, -1.3 ± 2.6; P ? .03 for all). Approximately one third of patients whose diastolic function could be assessed had abnormalities at each time point.Decreases in ventricular size and mass occur in patients with single ventricle after SCPA, and the effect is greater in those with LV morphology. The remodeling process resulted in commensurate changes in ventricular mass and volume such that the mass/volume did not change significantly in response to the volume-unloading surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We investigated the feasibility of left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volume and function estimation using a first-pass gated 15O-water PET. This prospective study included 19 patients addressed for myocardial perfusion reserve assessment using 15O-water PET. PET data were acquired at rest and after regadenoson stress, and gated first-pass images were reconstructed over the time range corresponding to tracer first-pass through the cardiac cavities and post-processed using TomPool software; LV and RV were segmented using a semi-automated 4D immersion algorithm. LV volumes were computed using a count-based model and a fixed threshold at 30% of the maximal activity. RV volumes were computed using a geometrical model and an adjustable threshold that was set so as to fit LV and RV stroke volumes. Ejection curves were fitted using a deformable reference curve model. LV results were compared to those obtained using 99mTc-sestamibi gated myocardial SPECT in terms of end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), and ejection fraction (EF). RESULTS:There was an excellent concordance between rest and stress PET in terms of EDV and ESV (Lin's coefficient ~ 0.85-0.90), SV (~ 0.80), and EF (~ 0.75) for both ventricles. Correlation with myocardial SPECT was high for LV EDV (Pearson's R = 0.89, p < 0.001) and ESV (R = 0.87, p < 0.001) and satisfying for LV SV (R = 0.67, p < 0.001) and EF (R = 0.67, p < 0.001). Minimal LV ESV overestimation (+ 4 mL, p = 0.03) and EF underestimation (- 4%, p = 0.01) were observed using PET. CONCLUSIONS:Biventricular volume and function assessment are achievable using the first-pass PET, and LV parameters correlate well with those derived from gated myocardial SPECT.
Project description:Heart failure (HF) may be accompanied by considerable alterations of left ventricular (LV) volume, depending on the particular phenotype. Two major types of HF have been identified, although heterogeneity within each category may be considerable. All variants of HF show substantially elevated LV filling pressures, which tend to induce changes in LV size and shape. Yet, one type of HF is characterized by near-normal values for LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) and even a smaller end-systolic volume (ESV) than in matched groups of persons without cardiac disease. Furthermore, accumulating evidence indicates that, both in terms of shape and size, in men and women, the heart reacts differently to adaptive stimuli as well as to certain pharmacological interventions. Adjustments of ESV and EDV such as in HF patients are associated with (reverse) remodeling mechanisms. Therefore, it is logical to analyze HF subtypes in a graphical representation that relates ESV to EDV. Following this route, one may expect that the two major phenotypes of HF are identified as distinct entities localized in different areas of the LV volume domain. The precise coordinates of this position imply unique characteristics in terms of the actual operating point for LV volume regulation. Evidently, ejection fraction (EF; equal to 1 minus the ratio of ESV and EDV) carries little information within the LV volume representation. Thus far, classification of HF is based on information regarding EF combined with EDV. Our analysis shows that ESV in the two HF groups follows different patterns in dependency of EDV. This observation suggests that a superior HF classification system should primarily be founded on information embodied by ESV.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>The UK Biobank is a large-scale population-based study utilising cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to generate measurements of atrial and ventricular structure and function. This study aimed to quantify the association between modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and cardiac morphology and function in individuals without known cardiovascular disease.<h4>Methods</h4>Age, sex, ethnicity (non-modifiable) and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, smoking status, exercise, body mass index (BMI), high cholesterol, diabetes, alcohol intake (modifiable) were considered important cardiovascular risk factors. Multivariable regression models were built to ascertain the association of risk factors on left ventricular (LV), right ventricular (RV), left atrial (LA) and right atrial (RA) CMR parameters.<h4>Results</h4>4,651 participants were included in the analysis. All modifiable risk factors had significant effects on differing atrial and ventricular parameters. BMI was the modifiable risk factor most consistently associated with subclinical changes to CMR parameters, particularly in relation to higher LV mass (+8.3% per SD [4.3 kg/m2], 95% CI: 7.6 to 8.9%), LV (EDV: +4.8% per SD, 95% CI: 4.2 to 5.4%); ESV: +4.4% per SD, 95% CI: 3.5 to 5.3%), RV (EDV: +5.3% per SD, 95% CI: 4.7 to 5.9%; ESV: +5.4% per SD, 95% CI: 4.5 to 6.4%) and LA maximal (+8.6% per SD, 95% CI: 7.4 to 9.7%) volumes. Increases in SBP were associated with higher LV mass (+6.8% per SD, 95% CI: 5.9 to 7.7%), LV (EDV: +4.5% per SD, 95% CI: 3.6 to 5.4%; ESV: +2.0% per SD, 95% CI: 0.8 to 3.3%) volumes. The presence of diabetes or high cholesterol resulted in smaller volumes and lower ejection fractions.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Modifiable risk factors are associated with subclinical alterations in structure and function in all four cardiac chambers. BMI and systolic blood pressure are the most important modifiable risk factors affecting CMR parameters known to be linked to adverse outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is a renewed interest in lower field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), due to their favorable physical properties, reduced costs, and increased accessibility to patients with implants. We sought to assess the diagnostic capabilities of high-performance low-field (0.55?T) CMR imaging for quantification of right and left ventricular volumes and systolic function in both healthy subjects and patients referred for clinical CMR. METHODS:Sixty-five subjects underwent paired exams at 1.5?T using a clinical CMR scanner and using an identical CMR system modified to operate at 0.55?T. Volumetric coverage of the right ventricle (RV) and left ventricles (LV) was obtained using either a breath-held cine balanced steady-state free-precession acquisition or a motion-corrected free-breathing re-binned cine acquisition. Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare LV and RV end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF), and LV mass. Diagnostic confidence was scored on a Likert-type ordinal scale by blinded readers. RESULTS:There were no significant differences in LV and RV EDV between the two scanners (e.g., LVEDV: p =?0.77, bias?=?0.40?mL, correlation coefficient?=?0.99; RVEDV: p =?0.17, bias?=?-?1.6?mL, correlation coefficient?=?0.98), and regional wall motion abnormality scoring was similar (kappa 0.99). Blood-myocardium contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) at 0.55?T was 48?±?7% of the 1.5?T CNR, and contrast was sufficient for endocardial segmentation in all cases. Diagnostic confidence of images was scored as "good" to "excellent" for the two field strengths in the majority of studies. CONCLUSION:A high-performance 0.55?T system offers good bSSFP CMR image quality, and quantification of biventricular volumes and systolic function that is comparable to 1.5?T in patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03331380, NCT03581318.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: To compare Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Computed Tomography (CT) for the assessment of left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular functional parameters. METHODS: Seventy nine patients underwent both Cardiac CT and Cardiac MR. Images were acquired using short axis (SAX) reconstructions for CT and 2D cine b-SSFP (balanced-steady state free precession) SAX sequence for MR, and evaluated using dedicated software. RESULTS: CT and MR images showed good agreement: LV EF (Ejection Fraction) (52 ?± ?14% for CT vs. 52? ± ?14% for MR; r? =? 0.73; p ?> ?0.05); RV EF (47 ?±? 12% for CT vs. 47?±?12% for MR; r ?= ?0.74; p?>?0.05); LV EDV (End Diastolic Volume) (74? ± ?21 ml/m² for CT vs. 76? ±? 25 ml/m² for MR; r? =? 0.59; p?>?0.05); RV EDV (84? ± ?25 ml/m² for CT vs. 80 ?±? 23 ml/m² for MR; r? =? 0.58; p?>?0.05); LV ESV (End Systolic Volume)(37? ± ?19 ml/m² for CT vs. 38 ?±? 23 ml/m² for MR; r ?= ?0.76; p ?> ?0.05); RV ESV (46? ± ?21 ml/m² for CT vs. 43 ?±? 18 ml/m² for MR; r? = ?0.70; p ?>? 0.05). Intra- and inter-observer variability were good, and the performance of CT was maintained for different EF subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac CT provides accurate and reproducible LV and RV volume parameters compared with MR, and can be considered as a reliable alternative for patients who are not suitable to undergo MR. KEY POINTS: • Cardiac-CT is able to provide Left and Right Ventricular function. • Cardiac-CT is accurate as MR for LV and RV volume assessment. • Cardiac-CT can provide accurate evaluation of coronary arteries and LV and RV function.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that real-time three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography (RT3DE) gives more accurate and reproducible left ventricular (LV) volume and ejection fraction (EF) measurements than traditional two-dimensional methods. A new semi-automated tool (4DLVQ) for volume measurements in RT3DE has been developed. We sought to evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of this method compared to a 3D echo standard. METHODS: LV end-diastolic volumes (EDV), end-systolic volumes (ESV), and EF measured using 4DLVQ were compared with a commercially available semi-automated analysis tool (TomTec 4D LV-Analysis ver. 2.2) in 35 patients. Repeated measurements were performed to investigate inter- and intra-observer variability. RESULTS: Average analysis time of the new tool was 141s, significantly shorter than 261s using TomTec (p < 0.001). Bland Altman analysis revealed high agreement of measured EDV, ESV, and EF compared to TomTec (p = NS), with bias and 95% limits of agreement of 2.1 +/- 21 ml, -0.88 +/- 17 ml, and 1.6 +/- 11% for EDV, ESV, and EF respectively. Intra-observer variability of 4DLVQ vs. TomTec was 7.5 +/- 6.2 ml vs. 7.7 +/- 7.3 ml for EDV, 5.5 +/- 5.6 ml vs. 5.0 +/- 5.9 ml for ESV, and 3.0 +/- 2.7% vs. 2.1 +/- 2.0% for EF (p = NS). The inter-observer variability of 4DLVQ vs. TomTec was 9.0 +/- 5.9 ml vs. 17 +/- 6.3 ml for EDV (p < 0.05), 5.0 +/- 3.6 ml vs. 12 +/- 7.7 ml for ESV (p < 0.05), and 2.7 +/- 2.8% vs. 3.0 +/- 2.1% for EF (p = NS). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the new analysis tool gives rapid and reproducible measurements of LV volumes and EF, with good agreement compared to another RT3DE volume quantification tool.
Project description:The aim of this study was to establish a feasible and robust magnetic resonance imaging protocol for the quantitative assessment of cardiac function in marmosets and to present normal values of cardiac function across different ages from young adult, middle-aged, to very old clinically healthy animals. Cardiac MRI of 33 anesthetized marmosets at the age of 2-15 years was performed at 9.4?T using IntraGate-FLASH that operates without any ECG-triggering and breath holding. Normalized to post-mortem heart weight, the left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LV-EDV) was significantly reduced in older marmosets. The LV end-systolic volume (LV-ESV) and the LV stroke volume (LV-SV) showed a similar trend while the LV ejection fraction (LV-EF) and wall thickening remained unchanged. Similar observations were made for the right ventricle. Moreover, the total ventricular myocardial volume was lower in older monkeys while no significant difference in heart weight was found. In conclusion, IntraGate-FLASH allowed for quantification of left ventricular cardiac function but seems to underestimate the volumes of the right ventricle. Although less strong and without significant sex differences, the observed age related changes were similar to previously reported findings in humans supporting marmosets as a model system for age related cardiovascular human diseases.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pericardial fat has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related cardiovascular disease. Proposed mechanisms may be relevant in right heart failure, but relationships between pericardial fat and right ventricular (RV) morphology have not been explored.<h4>Methods</h4>The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a prospective cohort that enrolled participants without clinical cardiovascular disease. Pericardial fat was measured using computed tomography and RV parameters using cardiac MRI. Linear regression estimated associations of pericardial fat with RV mass, RV end diastolic volume (RV-EDV), RV end systolic volume (RV-ESV), RV stroke volume (RV-SV), and RV ejection fraction (RV-EF). Limited models adjusted for age, gender, race, height, and study site with and without weight. Fully adjusted models also accounted for socioeconomic parameters and health behaviors. Adjustment for left ventricular morphology, metabolic syndrome, and systemic inflammation was also performed.<h4>Results</h4>The study sample included 3988 participants with complete assessment of RV morphology, pericardial fat and all covariates. Greater pericardial fat volume was associated with reduced RV mass (-0.3g per 40 cm3 increase in pericardial fat, p<0.001), smaller RV-EDV (-3.7ml per 40 cm3 increase in pericardial fat, p<0.001), smaller RV-ESV (-1.0ml per 40cm3 increase in pericardial fat, p<0.001), and smaller RV-SV (-2.7mL per 40 cm3 increase in pericardial fat, p<0.001) in participants after adjustment for weight. Associations were unchanged when accounting for health behaviors, markers of systemic inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Greater pericardial fat was associated with reduced RV mass, smaller RV-EDV, smaller RV-ESV, and smaller RV-SV in participants after adjustment for weight. Relationships between pericardial fat and RV morphology could be relevant to diseases of right heart failure.
Project description:Left ventricular (LV) wall stress reduction is a cornerstone in treating heart failure. Large animal models and computer simulations indicate that adding non-contractile material to the damaged LV wall can potentially reduce myofiber stress. We sought to quantify the effects of a novel implantable hydrogel (Algisyl-LVR™) treatment in combination with coronary artery bypass grafting (i.e. Algisyl-LVR™+CABG) on both LV function and wall stress in heart failure patients.Magnetic resonance images obtained before treatment (n=3), and at 3 months (n=3) and 6 months (n=2) afterwards were used to reconstruct the LV geometry. Cardiac function was quantified using end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), regional wall thickness, sphericity index and regional myofiber stress computed using validated mathematical modeling. The LV became more ellipsoidal after treatment, and both EDV and ESV decreased substantially 3 months after treatment in all patients; EDV decreased from 264 ± 91 ml to 146 ± 86 ml and ESV decreased from 184 ± 85 ml to 86 ± 76 ml. Ejection fraction increased from 32 ± 8% to 47 ± 18% during that period. Volumetric-averaged wall thickness increased in all patients, from 1.06 ± 0.21 cm (baseline) to 1.3 ± 0.26 cm (3 months). These changes were accompanied by about a 35% decrease in myofiber stress at end-of-diastole and at end-of-systole. Post-treatment myofiber stress became more uniform in the LV.These results support the novel concept that Algisyl-LVR™+CABG treatment leads to decreased myofiber stress, restored LV geometry and improved function.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Quantitative results of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) image analysis influence clinical decision making. Image analysis is performed based on dedicated software. The manufacturers provide different analysis tools whose algorithms are often unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of software on quantification of left ventricular (LV) assessment, 2D flow measurement and T1- and T2-parametric mapping. METHODS:Thirty-one data sets of patients who underwent a CMR Scan on 1.5 T were analyzed using three different software (Circle CVI: cvi42, Siemens Healthineers: Argus, Medis: Qmass/Qflow) by one reader blinded to former results. Cine steady state free precession short axis images were analyzed regarding LV ejection fraction (EF), end-systolic and end-diastolic volume (ESV, EDV) and LV mass. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance images were evaluated for forward stroke volume (SV) and peak velocity (Vmax). Pixel-wise generated native T1- and T2-maps were used to assess T1- and T2-time. Forty-five data sets were evaluated twice (15 per software) for intraobserver analysis. Equivalence was considered if the confidence interval of a paired assessment of two sofware was within a tolerance interval defined by ±1.96 highest standard deviation obtained by intraobserver analysis. RESULTS:For each parameter, thirty data sets could be analyzed with all three software. All three software (A/B, A/C, B/C) were considered equivalent for LV EF, EDV, ESV, mass, 2D flow SV and T2-time. Differences between software were detected in flow measurement for Vmax and in parametric mapping for T1-time. For Vmax, equivalence was given between software A and C and for T1-time equivalence was given between software B and C. CONCLUSION:Software had no impact on quantitative results of LV assessment, T2-time and SV based on 2D flow. In contrast to that, Vmax and T1-time may be influenced by software. CMR reports should contain the name and version of the software applied for image analysis to avoid misinterpretation upon follow-up and research examinations. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ISRCTN12210850 . Registered 14 July 2017, retrospectively registered.