Efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX for borderline resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma: improved efficacy compared with gemcitabine-based regimen.
ABSTRACT: Borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) is a potentially resectable disease but is associated with poorer survival compared to primary resectable disease. There has been no prospective trial that compare the efficacy of FOLFIRNOX and gemcitabine-based regimen for BRPC. Between February 2013 and December 2014, 18 patients with BRPC receiving FOLFIRINOX were reviewed retrospectively. For comparative analysis, data for all BRPC patients (n=18) in our previous phase 2 study of neoadjuvant fixed-dose rate-gemcitabine plus capecitabine were pooled. Patients received a median 6 cycles (range, 3-13) of FOLFIRINOX. Surgical resection was performed in 12 patients (67%) and R0 resection in 9 patients. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 16.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.4-24.2) and 21.2 (95% CI, 14.2-28.2) months, respectively. Patients who underwent surgical resection showed significantly better PFS (p=0.01) and OS (p=0.003) than those unresected. In the exploratory analysis, patients receiving FOLFIRINOX showed significantly longer PFS compared to those receiving fixed-dose rate-gemcitabine plus capecitabine (median 16.8 months [95% CI, 9.4-24.2] vs. 6.5 months [1.6-11.3]; p = 0.04). There was a trend toward improved OS in patients who received FOLFIRINOX (median 21.2 months [95% CI, 14.2-28.2]) compared to those who received fixed-dose rate-gemcitabine plus capecitabine (13.6 months [11.8-15.4]; p=0.12). FOLFIRINOX was feasible and effective as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with BRPC and may have improved efficacy compared to a gemcitabine-based regimen.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Preoperative therapy in borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) is intended to increase R0 resection rates. An optimal approach in BRPC is yet to be defined.<h4>Methods and materials</h4>Patients with BRPC, confirmed adenocarcinoma, performance status ?1, and adequate organ function enrolled in a single-institution, phase 2 trial. Patients received FOLFIRINOX × 6 cycles, then radiation therapy (50 Gy in 25 fractions) concurrent with fixed-dose rate gemcitabine (1 g/m<sup>2</sup> over 100 minutes) followed by 2 additional gemcitabine infusions. Computed tomography scans were performed at 2-month intervals during treatment. Patients without distant disease were offered surgical exploration. The primary objective was R0 resection rate with an alternate hypothesis of 55%. Secondary objectives included median progression-free survival (PFS), median overall survival (OS), response rate, and safety. The trial registration number is NCT01661088.<h4>Results</h4>Twenty-five patients with median age of 60 years (range, 47-77 years) enrolled from November 2011 through January 2017. Twenty-one (84%) completed FOLFIRINOX and 19 (76%) completed all protocol therapy. Treatment-related grade 3 to 4 toxicities included neutropenia (40%), nausea and vomiting (28%), diarrhea (16%), and fatigue (12%). Eighteen patients (72%) underwent laparotomy, 13 (52%) were resected (all R0). The median PFS and OS in 25 patients were 13.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.3-24.7) and 24.4 months (95% CI, 12.6-40.0), respectively. For resected patients, median PFS was 21.6 months (95% CI, 8.2-37.1) and OS was 37.1 months (95% CI, 15.4-not reached).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Neoadjuvant therapy with FOLFIRINOX, followed by intensity modulated radiation therapy concurrent with fixed-dose-rate gemcitabine in BRPC is feasible and tolerated. Although the alternate hypothesis was not met, the OS of the resected cohort was favorable.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While clinical outcomes following induction chemotherapy and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) have been reported for borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) patients, pathologic response has not previously been described. METHODS:This single-institution retrospective review evaluated BRPC patients who completed induction gemcitabine-based chemotherapy followed by SBRT and surgical resection. Each surgical specimen was assigned two tumor regression grades (TRG), one using the College of American Pathologists (CAP) criteria and one using the MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) criteria. Overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) were correlated to TRG score. RESULTS:We evaluated 36 patients with a median follow-up of 13.8 months (range, 6.1-24.8 months). The most common induction chemotherapy regimen (82%) was GTX (gemcitabine, docetaxel, capecitabine). A median SBRT dose of 35 Gy (range, 30-40 Gy) in 5 fractions was delivered to the region of vascular involvement. The margin-negative resection rate was 97.2%. Improved response according to MDACC grade trended towards superior PFS (P=061), but not OS. Any neoadjuvant treatment effect according to MDACC scoring (IIa-IV vs. I) was associated with improved OS and PFS (both P=0.019). We found no relationship between CAP score and OS or PFS. CONCLUSIONS:These data suggest that the increased pathologic response after induction chemotherapy and SBRT is correlated with improved survival for BRPC patients.
Project description:Approximately 20% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients have (borderline) resectable pancreatic cancer [(B)RPC] at diagnosis. Upfront resection with adjuvant chemotherapy has long been the standard of care for these patients. However, although surgical quality has improved, still about 50% of patients never receive adjuvant treatment. Therefore, recent developments have focused on a neoadjuvant approach. Directly comparing results from neoadjuvant and adjuvant regimens is challenging due to differences in patient populations that influence outcomes. Neoadjuvant trials include all patients who have (B)RPC on imaging, while adjuvant-only trials include patients who underwent a complete resection and recovered to a good performance status without any evidence of residual disease. Guidelines recommend neoadjuvant treatment for BRPC patients mainly to improve negative resection margin (R0) rates. For resectable PDAC, upfront resection is still considered the standard of care. However, theoretical advantages of neoadjuvant treatment, including the increased R0 resection rate, early delivery of systemic therapy to all patients, directly addressing occult metastatic disease, and improved patient selection for resection, may also apply to these patients. A systematic review by intention-to-treat showed a superior median overall survival (OS) for any neoadjuvant approach (19 months) compared to upfront surgery (15 months) in (B)RPC patients. A neoadjuvant approach was recently supported by three randomized controlled trials (RCTs). For resectable PDAC, neoadjuvant treatment was superior in a Japanese RCT of neoadjuvant gemcitabine with S-1 vs. upfront surgery, with adjuvant S-1 in both arms (median OS: 37 vs. 27 months, p = 0.015). A Korean trial of neoadjuvant gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy vs. upfront resection in BRPC patients was terminated early due to superiority of the neoadjuvant group (median OS: 21 vs. 12 months, p = 0.028; R0 resection: 52 vs. 26%, p = 0.004). The PREOPANC-1 trial for (B)RPC patients also showed favorable outcome for neoadjuvant gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy vs. upfront surgery (median OS: 17 vs. 14 months, p = 0.07; R0 resection: 63 vs. 31%, p < 0.001). FOLFIRINOX is likely a better neoadjuvant regimen, because of superiority compared to gemcitabine in both the metastatic and adjuvant setting. Currently, five RCTs evaluating neoadjuvant modified or fulldose FOLFIRINOX are accruing patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>FOLFIRINOX is a standard treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer patients. The effectiveness of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX in patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) remains debated.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a systematic review and patient-level meta-analysis on neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX in patients with BRPC. Studies with BRPC patients who received FOLFIRINOX as first-line neoadjuvant treatment were included. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), and secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, resection rate, R0 resection rate, and grade III-IV adverse events. Patient-level survival outcomes were obtained from authors of the included studies and analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method.<h4>Results</h4>We included 24 studies (8 prospective, 16 retrospective), comprising 313 (38.1%) BRPC patients treated with FOLFIRINOX. Most studies (n?=?20) presented intention-to-treat results. The median number of administered neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX cycles ranged from 4 to 9. The resection rate was 67.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 60.1% to 74.6%), and the R0-resection rate was 83.9% (95% CI = 76.8% to 89.1%). The median OS varied from 11.0 to 34.2?months across studies. Patient-level survival data were obtained for 20 studies representing 283 BRPC patients. The patient-level median OS was 22.2?months (95% CI = 18.8 to 25.6 months), and patient-level median progression-free survival was 18.0?months (95% CI = 14.5 to 21.5 months). Pooled event rates for grade III-IV adverse events were highest for neutropenia (17.5 per 100 patients, 95% CI = 10.3% to 28.3%), diarrhea (11.1 per 100 patients, 95% CI = 8.6 to 14.3), and fatigue (10.8 per 100 patients, 95% CI = 8.1 to 14.2). No deaths were attributed to FOLFIRINOX.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This patient-level meta-analysis of BRPC patients treated with neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX showed a favorable median OS, resection rate, and R0-resection rate. These results need to be assessed in a randomized trial.
Project description:Background:Despite the scarcity of data based on randomized trials, FOLFIRINOX is widely used in the management of borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) and locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer (LAPC). We investigated the clinical outcomes of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX in patients with BRPC and LAPC. Methods:This single-center retrospective analysis included a total of 199 consecutive patients with BRPC or LAPC who received conventional or modified FOLFIRINOX between February 2013 and January 2017. An independent radiologist reviewed all baseline computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans were reviewed for vascular invasion status. Results:With median follow-up duration of 40.3?months [95% confidence interval (CI), 36.7-43.8] in surviving patients, median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 10.6 (95% CI, 9.5-11.7) and 18.1 (95% CI, 16.0-20.3) months, respectively. The 1-year PFS rate was 66.0% (95% CI, 65.3-66.7%), and the 2-year OS rate was 37.2% (95% CI, 36.5-37.9%). PFS and OS did not differ between BRPC and LAPC groups [median PFS, 11.1?months (95% CI, 8.8-13.5) versus 10.1?months (95% CI, 8.4-11.8), p?=?0.47; median OS, 18.4?months (95% CI, 16.1-20.8) versus 17.1?months (95% CI, 13.2-20.9), p?=?0.50]. Curative-intent conversion surgery (R0/R1) was performed in 63 patients (31.7%). C•A 19-9 response, objective tumor response to FOLFIRINOX, and conversion surgery were independent prognostic factors for OS. Conclusion:FOLFIRINOX was effective for management of BRPC and LAPC. Given the potential for cure, a significant proportion of patients can undergo conversion curative-intent surgery following FOLFIRINOX.
Project description:The clinical benefit and potential risks of conversion surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) have not been fully investigated in patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) and locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Therefore, this has been evaluated in a retrospective, prospective cohort-based analysis. Between October 2005 and April 2017, 135 patients (65 with BRPC and 70 with LAPC) received conversion surgery after NACT. Exploratory analysis to assess clinical outcomes in comparison with patients who underwent upfront surgery in the same time period (n = 359) was also conducted. NACT with gemcitabine-based regimens (including gemcitabine monotherapy, gemcitabine-capecitabine combination, and gemcitabine-erlotinib combination) was used in 69 patients (51%) and FOLFIRINOX in 66 patients (49%). The median overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) from the time of surgery was 25.4 months (95% CI, 18.6?32.2 months) and 9.0 months (95% CI, 6.8?11.2 months), respectively. The median OS and progression-free survival from the initiation of NACT was 29.7 months (95% CI, 22.5?36.8 months) and 13.4 months (95% CI, 12.5?14.4 months), respectively. In the exploratory analysis, conversion surgery after NACT was associated with a better median OS and DFS than upfront surgery (vs. 17.1 months; 95% CI, 15.5?18.7 months; p = 0.001 and vs. 7.1 months; 95% CI, 6.4?7.8 months; p = 0.005, respectively). There was no difference in length of hospital stay between the two groups, and conversion surgery after NACT showed a significantly lower incidence of postoperative complications than upfront surgery (38% vs. 27%, p = 0.03). Conversion surgery after NACT is a feasible and effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of patients with BRPC and LAPC. Further clinical trials investigating optimal therapeutic strategies for BRPC and LAPC are warranted.
Project description:Importance:Patients with borderline-resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma have historically poor outcomes with surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Evaluation of a total neoadjuvant approach with highly active therapy is warranted. Objective:To evaluate the margin-negative (R0) resection rate in borderline-resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma after neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) therapy and individualized chemoradiotherapy. Design, Setting, and Participants:A single-arm, phase 2 clinical trial was conducted at a large academic hospital with expertise in pancreatic surgery from August 3, 2012, through August 31, 2016, among 48 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated, localized pancreatic cancer determined to be borderline resectable by multidisciplinary review, who had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1 and adequate hematologic, renal, and hepatic function. Median follow-up for the analysis was 18.0 months among the 30 patients still alive at study completion. Interventions:Patients received FOLFIRINOX for 8 cycles. Upon restaging, patients with resolution of vascular involvement received short-course chemoradiotherapy (5 Gy × 5 with protons) with capecitabine. Patients with persistent vascular involvement received long-course chemoradiotherapy with fluorouracil or capecitabine. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was R0 resection rate; secondary outcomes were median progression-free survival (PFS) and median overall survival (OS). Results:Of the 48 eligible patients, 27 were men and 21 were women, with a median age of 62 years (range, 46-74 years). Of the 43 patients who planned to receive 8 preoperative cycles of chemotherapy, 34 (79%) were able to complete all cycles. Twenty-seven patients (56%) had short-course chemoradiotherapy, while 17 patients (35%) had long-course chemoradiotherapy. R0 resection was achieved in 31 of the 48 eligible patients (65%; 95% CI, 49%-78%). Among the 32 patients who underwent resection, the R0 resection rate was 97% (n = 31). Median PFS among all eligible patients was 14.7 months (95% CI, 10.5 to not reached), with 2-year PFS of 43%; median OS was 37.7 months (95% CI, 19.4 to not reached), with 2-year OS of 56%. Among patients who underwent resection, median PFS was 48.6 months (95% CI, 14.4 to not reached) and median OS has not been reached, with a 2-year PFS of 55% and a 2-year OS of 72%. Conclusions and Relevance:Preoperative FOLFIRINOX followed by individualized chemoradiotherapy in borderline resectable pancreatic cancer results in high rates of R0 resection and prolonged median PFS and median OS, supporting ongoing phase 3 trials. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01591733.
Project description:We conducted an institutional study to compare the clinical and pathological efficacy between the neoadjuvant therapy (NAT)-modified FOLFIRINOX (mFOLF) vs nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel plus gemcitabine (nab-P/G) for borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) and locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) patients who completed resection. The study retrospectively enrolled patients with pathologically confirmed BRPC or LAPC from 2010 to 2018 at our institution. The survival rates were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test was used to test differences. Cox's proportional hazard model was used to assess survival with respect to covariates. Seventy-two patients who completed at least two cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgical resection were included, with 52 (72.2%) patients receiving mFOLF and 20 (27.8%) receiving nab-P/G. Patients treated with mFOLF had statistically higher rates of RECIST 1.1 partial or complete response (16/52 vs 1/20, P = .028). Additionally, mFOLF patients had greater pathological tumor size reduction, fewer positive lymph nodes, and higher treatment response grade compared to the nab-P/G patients (all P < .05). The median overall survival was 33.3 months vs 27.1 months (P = .105), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) was 21.3 months vs 14.6 months (P = .042) in the mFOLF vs nab-P/G groups, respectively. On multivariate analysis, mFOLF (hazard ratio, 0.428; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.186-0.987) and abnormal postoperative CA 19-9 (hazard ratio, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.06-5.76) were associated with DMFS. Among patients with BRPC and LAPC who complete surgical resection, neoadjuvant mFOLF was associated with improved pathological and clinical outcomes compared with nab-P/G.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in Western countries. Upfront resection with adjuvant chemotherapy is the treatment of choice in resectable tumors, offering the chance for cure. Until the 1990s, adjuvant therapy was not routinely used after resection for pancreatic cancer. During the last three decades however, enormous progress has been made in evidence-based onco-surgical management of resectable pancreatic cancer. Based on the results from multicenter randomized controlled trials, primarily initiated by the European Study Group of Pancreatic Cancer (ESPAC), adjuvant chemotherapy has become the gold standard after upfront resection, while adjuvant chemoradiotherapy is not recommended. Combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and capecitabine was shown to significantly prolong median overall survival after resection compared to monotherapy with either gemcitabine or 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid. Recent data from the French-Canadian Uni-Cancer GI PRODIGE 24/CCTG PA.6 trial showed that adjuvant poly-agent chemotherapy with modified FOLFIRINOX achieved median survival times of 54.4 months in selected patients. Despite improved survival times after resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, however, recurrence occurs still in more than 75% of patients within the first 2 years after resection. Further efforts are therefore to be made in early detection tools, the evaluation of neoadjuvant strategies, the development of new drug targets, and stratification strategies to better select patients for the available therapies. This review article summarizes the body of evidence on adjuvant treatment for pancreatic cancer, identifies evidence gaps and provides future perspectives.
Project description:Importance:Patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer have historically poor outcomes. Evaluation of a total neoadjuvant approach is warranted. Objective:To evaluate the margin-negative (R0) resection rate of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan) and losartan followed by chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants:A single-arm phase 2 clinical trial was conducted at a large academic hospital from August 22, 2013, to May 22, 2018, among 49 patients with previously untreated locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer as determined by multidisciplinary review. Patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1 and adequate hematologic, renal, and hepatic function. Median follow-up for the analysis was 17.1 months (range, 5.0-53.7) among 27 patients still alive at study completion. Interventions:Patients received FOLFIRINOX and losartan for 8 cycles. Patients with radiographically resectable tumor after chemotherapy received short-course chemoradiotherapy (5 GyE?×?5 with protons) with capecitabine. Patients with persistent vascular involvement received long-course chemoradiotherapy (50.4 Gy with a vascular boost to 58.8 Gy) with fluorouracil or capecitabine. Main Outcomes and Measures:R0 resection rate. Results:Of the 49 patients (26 women and 23 men; median age 63 years [range, 42-78 years]), 39 completed 8 cycles of FOLFIRINOX and losartan; 10 patients had fewer than 8 cycles due to progression (5 patients), losartan intolerance (3 patients), and toxicity (2 patients). Seven patients (16%) had short-course chemoradiotherapy while 38 (84%) had long-course chemoradiotherapy. Forty-two (86%) patients underwent attempted surgery, with R0 resection achieved in 34 of 49 patients (69%; 95% CI, 55%-82%). Overall median progression-free survival was 17.5 months (95% CI: 13.9-22.7) and median overall survival was 31.4 months (95% CI, 18.1-38.5). Among patients who underwent resection, median progression-free survival was 21.3 months (95% CI, 16.6-28.2), and median overall survival was 33.0 months (95% CI, 31.4 to not reached). Conclusions and Relevance:Total neoadjuvant therapy with FOLFIRINOX, losartan, and chemoradiotherapy provides downstaging of locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and is associated with an R0 resection rate of 61%. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01821729.