ABSTRACT: Irisin is a myokine encoded in its precursor fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5). It is abundantly expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle, and is secreted upon the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1 alpha). We aimed to study the role of irisin on cardiac function and muscle protein regulation in zebrafish. Western blot analyses detected the presence of irisin protein (23 kDa) in zebrafish heart and skeletal muscle, and irisin immunoreactivity was detected in both tissues. Irisin siRNA treated samples did not show bands corresponding to irisin in zebrafish. In vitro studies found that treatment with irisin (0.1 nM) downregulated the expression of PGC-1 alpha, myostatin a, and b, while upregulating troponin C mRNA expression in zebrafish heart and skeletal muscle. Exogenous irisin (0.1 and 1 ng/g B.W) increased diastolic volume, heart rate and cardiac output, while knockdown of irisin (10 ng/g B.W) showed opposing effects on cardiovascular function. Irisin (1 and 10 ng/g B.W) downregulated PGC-1 alpha, myostatin a and b, and upregulated troponin C and troponin T2D mRNA expression. Meanwhile, knockdown of irisin showed opposing effects on troponin C, troponin T2D and myostatin a and b mRNAs in zebrafish heart and skeletal muscle. Collectively, these results identified muscle proteins as novel targets of irisin, and added irisin to the list of peptide modulators of cardiovascular physiology in zebrafish.
Project description:Traditionally, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?), a 91 kDa transcription factor, regulates lipid metabolism and long-chain fatty acid oxidation by upregulating the expression of several genes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation pathway. In addition, PGC-1? regulates the expression of mitochondrial genes to control mitochondria DNA replication and cellular oxidative metabolism. Recently, new insights showed that several myokines such as irisin and myostatin are epigenetically regulated by PGC-1? in skeletal muscles, thereby modulating systemic energy balance, with marked expansion of mitochondrial volume density and oxidative capacity in healthy or diseased myocardia. In addition, in our studies evaluating whether PGC-1? overexpression in epicardial adipose tissue can act as a paracrine organ to improve or repair cardiac function, we found that overexpression of hepatic PGC-1? increased hepatic fatty acid oxidation and decreased triacylglycerol storage and secretion in vivo and in vitro. In this review, we discuss recent studies showing that PGC-1? may regulate mitochondrial fusion?fission homeostasis and affect the renal function in acute or chronic kidney injury. Furthermore, PGC-1? is an emerging protein with a biphasic role in cancer, acting both as a tumor suppressor and a tumor promoter and thus representing a new and unresolved topic for cancer biology studies. In summary, this review paper demonstrates that PGC-1? plays a central role in coordinating the gene expression of key components of mitochondrial biogenesis and as a critical metabolic regulator in many vital organs, including white and brown adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, heart, liver, and kidney.
Project description:Exposure to high-altitude hypoxia causes physiological and metabolic adaptive changes by disturbing homeostasis. Hypoxia-related changes in skeletal muscle affect the closely interconnected energy and regeneration processes. The balance between protein synthesis and degradation in the skeletal muscle is regulated by several molecules such as myostatin, cytokines, vitamin D, and irisin. This study investigates changes in irisin and myostatin levels in male climbers after a 2-week high-altitude expedition, and their association with 25(OH)D and indices of inflammatory processes. The study was performed in 8 men aged between 23 and 31 years, who participated in a 2-week climbing expedition in the Alps. The measurements of body composition and serum concentrations of irisin, myostatin, 25(OH)D, interleukin-6, myoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, osteoprotegerin, and high-sensitivity soluble receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (sRANKL) were performed before and after expedition. A 2-week exposure to hypobaric hypoxia caused significant decrease in body mass, body mass index (BMI), free fat mass and irisin, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels. On the other hand, significant increase in the levels of myoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and osteoprotegerin were noted. The observed correlations of irisin with 25(OH)D levels, as well as myostatin levels with inflammatory markers and the OPG/RANKL ratio indicate that these myokines may be involved in the energy-related processes and skeletal muscle regeneration in response to 2-week exposure to hypobaric hypoxia.
Project description:Background:Previous studies have revealed the inductive effect of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) catabolism on fatty acid oxidation and metabolism, especially in muscle cells. In the present investigation, we have attempted to address whether a combination of BCAAs supplement consumption with aerobic exercise could elaborate the expression of PPAR?, Pgc-1? and Fndc5 genes in gastrocnemius muscle and heart tissue of male C57BL/6 mice. Methods:Thirty-six young male mice with an average weight of 18?±?2 g were selected. Mice were randomly assigned to 6 groups: 20 mg/mL of BCAAs consumption with simultaneous exercise-training, 60 mg/mL of BCAAs consumption with simultaneous exercise-training, exercise-trained with no BCAAs consumption group, 20 mg/mL BCAAs without exercise-training, 60 mg/mL BCAAs without exercise-training, and untrained mice without BCAAs consumption. Results:The findings showed a combination of 20 mg/mL BCAAs with aerobic exercise significantly increased Fndc5, PPAR?, Pgc-1? gene expression in skeletal muscles although, circulating Irisin levels remained unchanged (p?<?0.05). Interestingly, plasma urea and lactate levels were significantly increased in 60 mg/mL BCAAs administrated mice which performed exercised (p?<?0.05). Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine significant difference between groups and sedentary group. Conclusions:Results showed inductive effect of 20 mg/mL BCAAs on expression levels of Fndc5, PPAR?, Pgc-1? in gastrocnemius muscle similar with counterparts in heart tissue. Of note, higher serum irisin levels were detected after 20 mg/mL BCAAs supplementation coincided with the exercise. Graphical abstract:An Overview on supplemantaion of branched chain amoinoacids on metablism of skeletal muscle and heart.
Project description:The zebrafish mutant silent partner is characterized by a dysmorphic, non-contractile ventricle resulting in an inability to generate normal blood flow. We have identified the genetic lesion in the zebrafish homolog of the slow twitch skeletal/cardiac troponin C gene. Although human troponin C1 (TNNC1) is expressed in both cardiac and skeletal muscle, duplication of this gene in zebrafish has resulted in tissue-specific partitioning of troponin C expression and function. Mutation of the zebrafish paralog tnnc1a, which is expressed predominantly in the heart, results in a loss of contractility and myofibrillar organization within ventricular cardiomyocytes, while skeletal muscle remains functional and intact. We further show that defective contractility in the developing heart results in abnormal atrial and ventricular chamber morphology. Together, our results suggest that tnnc1a is required both for the function and structural integrity of the contractile machinery in cardiomyocytes, helping to clarify potential mechanisms of troponin C-mediated cardiomyopathy.
Project description:PGC-1? is a transcriptional coactivator induced by exercise that gives muscle many of the best known adaptations to endurance-type exercise but has no effects on muscle strength or hypertrophy. We have identified a form of PGC-1? (PGC-1?4) that results from alternative promoter usage and splicing of the primary transcript. PGC-1?4 is highly expressed in exercised muscle but does not regulate most known PGC-1? targets such as the mitochondrial OXPHOS genes. Rather, it specifically induces IGF1 and represses myostatin, and expression of PGC-1?4 in vitro and in vivo induces robust skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Importantly, mice with skeletal muscle-specific transgenic expression of PGC-1?4 show increased muscle mass and strength and dramatic resistance to the muscle wasting of cancer cachexia. Expression of PGC-1?4 is preferentially induced in mouse and human muscle during resistance exercise. These studies identify a PGC-1? protein that regulates and coordinates factors involved in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.
Project description:Myostatin-deficient mice showed a remarkable hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, with a decreased fat mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Currently, it is unclear if the inhibition of myostatin could be used as an approach to treat human obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated if the inhibition of porcine myostatin has any effect on fat deposition and insulin sensitivity using genetically engineered Meishan pigs containing a myostatin loss-of-function mutation (Mstn -/- ). Our results indicated that, when compared with wild-type pigs, the amount of subcutaneous fat and leaf fat of Mstn -/- pigs were significantly decreased mainly due to the browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Additionally, the serum insulin level decreased and the insulin sensitivity increased significantly in Mstn -/- pigs. Moreover, we found a significant increase in levels of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate proteins in skeletal muscle of Mstn -/- pigs, which then activating the insulin signaling pathway. Irisin-mediated regulation is not the only pathway for the activation of insulin signal in Mstn -/- skeletal muscle. This study provides valuable insight for the treatment of human obesity and diabetes mellitus.
Project description:Endurance exercise training prevents atherosclerosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) increases myokine secretion from the skeletal muscle, and these myokines have been shown to affect the function of multiple organs. Since endurance exercise training increases PGC-1α expression in skeletal muscles, we investigated whether skeletal muscle-specific PGC-1α overexpression suppresses atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO)/PGC-1α mice, which overexpress PGC-1α in the skeletal muscle of ApoE-KO mice, were sacrificed, and the atherosclerotic plaque area, spontaneous activity, plasma lipid profile, and aortic gene expression were measured. Immunohistochemical analyses were also performed. The atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-KO/PGC-1α mice were 40% smaller than those in ApoE-KO mice, concomitant with the reduction in vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA and protein levels in the aorta. Spontaneous activity and plasma lipid profiles were not changed by the overexpression of PGC-1α in the skeletal muscle. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, Irisin and β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA), PGC-1α-dependent myokines, inhibited the tumor necrosis factor α-induced VCAM-1 gene and protein expression. BAIBA also inhibited TNFα-induced MCP-1 gene expression. These results showed that the skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of PGC-1α suppresses atherosclerosis and that PGC-1α-dependent myokines may be involved in the preventive effects observed.
Project description:Irisin, a skeletal-muscle secreted myokine, facilitates muscle-bone crosstalk and skeletal remodeling in part by its action on osteoblasts and osteocytes. In this study, we investigated whether irisin directly regulates osteoclasts. In vitro, irisin (2-10 ng/mL) increased osteoclast differentiation in C57BL/6J mouse bone marrow progenitors; however, this increase was blocked by a neutralizing antibody to integrin ?V?5. Irisin also increased bone resorption on several substrates in situ. RNAseq revealed differential gene expression induced by irisin including upregulation of markers for osteoclast differentiation and resorption, as well as osteoblast-stimulating 'clastokines'. Forced expression of the irisin precursor Fndc5 in transgenic C57BL/6J mice resulted in lower bone mass at three ages and greater in vitro osteoclastogenesis from Fndc5-transgenic bone marrow progenitors. This study demonstrates that irisin acts directly on osteoclast progenitors to increase differentiation and promote bone resorption, supporting the tenet that irisin not only stimulates bone remodeling but may also be an important counter-regulatory hormone.
Project description:AIMS/INTRODUCTION:Our aims were to examine the add-on effects of a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, compared with existing antidiabetes treatments, on anthropometric/metabolic parameters, the levels of an endocrine regulator, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21); a skeletal muscle mass (SMM) negative regulator, myostatin; and a metabolic regulator, irisin, in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 54 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly divided into dapagliflozin and control groups. The dapagliflozin group received dapagliflozin 5 mg/day in addition to conventional therapy for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was the change in the level of serum FGF21 from baseline. The secondary outcomes included changes from baseline in anthropometric/metabolic parameters and serum levels of myostatin and irisin. RESULTS:Bodyweight decreased in the dapagliflozin group compared with the control group (P < 0.001), but the changes in SMM were not significant between the groups (P = 0.611), thereby elevating the ratio of SMM-to-bodyweight in the dapagliflozin group (P = 0.028). Myostatin levels were significantly decreased (P = 0.010), and irisin levels showed a nearly significant reduction (P = 0.052) in the dapagliflozin group compared with the control group, whereas FGF21 levels did not change significantly from baseline to the end of the intervention in both the dapagliflozin (P = 0.673) and the control (P = 0.823) groups. CONCLUSIONS:Dapagliflozin add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes reduced myostatin levels significantly and maintained SMM, without significant changes in FGF21 levels.
Project description:Apigenin, a natural flavone abundant in various plant-derived foods including parsley and celery, has been shown to prevent inflammation and inflammatory diseases. However, the effect of apigenin on skeletal muscle hypertrophy and myogenic differentiation has not previously been elucidated. Here, we investigated the effects of apigenin on quadricep muscle weight and running distance using C57BL/6 mice on an accelerating treadmill. Apigenin stimulated mRNA expression of MHC (myosin heavy chain) 1, MHC2A, and MHC2B in the quadricep muscles of these animals. GPR56 (G protein-coupled receptor 56) and its ligand collagen III were upregulated by apigenin supplementation, together with enhanced PGC-1?, PGC-1?1, PGC-1?4, IGF1, and IGF2 expression. Prmt7 protein expression increased in conjunction with Akt and mTORC1 activation. Apigenin treatment also upregulated FNDC5 (fibronectin type III domain containing 5) mRNA expression and serum irisin levels. Furthermore, apigenin stimulated C2C12 myogenic differentiation and upregulated total MHC, MHC2A, and MHC2B expression. These events were attributable to an increase in Prmt7-p38-myoD expression and Akt and S6K1 phosphorylation. We also observed that Prmt7 regulates both PGC-1?1 and PGC-1?4 expression, resulting in a subsequent increase in GPR56 expression and mTORC1 activation. Taken together, these findings suggest that apigenin supplementation can promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy and myogenic differentiation by regulating the Prmt7-PGC-1?-GPR56 pathway, as well as the Prmt7-p38-myoD pathway, which may contribute toward the prevention of skeletal muscle weakness.