Maternal obesity programs reduced leptin signaling in the pituitary and altered GH/IGF1 axis function leading to increased adiposity in adult sheep offspring.
ABSTRACT: Studies in rodents highlight a role for leptin in stimulation of pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion, with an impact on body composition regulation. We have reported that maternal obesity (MO) during ovine pregnancy results in hyperphagia, glucose-insulin dysregulation, increased adiposity, hypercortisolemia and hyperleptinemia in mature offspring subjected to a bout of ad libitum feeding. We hypothesized that MO reduces leptin signaling in the pituitary and down regulates the GH/IGF1 axis and increases circulating cortisol leading to increased adiposity in their adult offspring. Male lambs born to MO (n = 6) or control (CON, n = 6) ewes were fed only to requirements until placed on a 12 week ad libitum feeding trial at maturity. The pituitary, hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, and liver were collected at necropsy and mRNA and protein expression determined. Plasma cortisol concentrations were increased (P<0.05) in MO vs. CON offspring at the end of the feeding trial. Further, serum concentrations of IGF1 decreased (P<0.01) and GH tended to decrease (P<0.08) in MO vs. CON offspring. Pituitary mRNA and leptin receptor protein expression were decreased in MO vs. CON offspring in association with decreased GH mRNA expression, and decreased IGF1 mRNA and protein expression in liver. Liver 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11?HSD1) expression was increased (P<0.01) and its cofactor hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase tended to increase (P<0.06) in MO vs. CON offspring. 11?HSD2 expression remained unchanged. These data indicate that MO induced an increase in liver conversion of cortisone to cortisol in adult offspring and support a role for leptin signaling in the pituitary in mediating offspring adiposity.
Project description:Obesity during human pregnancy predisposes offspring to obesity and cardiovascular disease in postnatal life. In a sheep model of maternal overnutrition/obesity we have previously reported myocardial inflammation and fibrosis, as well as cardiac dysfunction in late term fetuses, in association with chronically elevated blood cortisol. Significant research has suggested a link between elevated glucocorticoid exposure in utero and hypertension and cardiovascular disease postnatally. Here we examined the effects of maternal obesity on myocardial inflammation and fibrosis of their adult offspring. Adult male offspring from control (CON) mothers fed 100% of National Research Council (NRC) recommendations (n = 6) and male offspring from obese mothers (MO) fed 150% NRC (n = 6), were put on a 12-week ad libitum feeding challenge then necropsied. At necropsy, plasma cortisol and left and right ventricular thickness were markedly increased (P<0.05) in adult male MO offspring. Myocardial collagen content and collagen-crosslinking were greater (P<0.05) in MO offspring compared to CON offspring in association with increased mRNA and protein expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GR). No group difference was found in myocardial mineralocorticoids receptor (MR) protein expression. Further, mRNA expression for the proinflammatory cytokines: cluster of differentiation (CD)-68, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were increased (P < 0.05), and protein expression of CD-68, TGF-?1, and TNF-? tended to increase (P<0.10) in MO vs. CON offspring. These data provide evidence for MO-induced programming of elevated plasma cortisol and myocardial inflammation and fibrosis in adult offspring potentially through increased GR.
Project description:Sex differences in pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion (pulsatile in males vs near continuous/persistent in females) impart sex-dependent expression to hundreds of genes in adult mouse liver. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5, a GH-activated transcription factor that is essential for liver sexual dimorphism, is dynamically activated in direct response to each male plasma GH pulse. However, the impact of GH-induced STAT5 pulses on liver chromatin accessibility and downstream transcriptional events is unknown. In this study, we investigated the impact of a single pulse of GH given to hypophysectomized mice on local liver chromatin accessibility (DNase hypersensitive site analysis), transcription rates (heterogeneous nuclear RNA analysis), and gene expression (quantitative polymerase chain reaction and RNA sequencing) determined 30, 90, or 240 minutes later. The STAT5-dependent but sex-independent early GH response genes Igf1 and Cish showed rapid, GH pulse-induced increases in chromatin accessibility and gene transcription, reversing the effects of hypophysectomy. Rapid increases in liver chromatin accessibility and transcriptional activity were also induced in hypophysectomized male mice for some (Ces2b, Ugt2b38) but not for other liver STAT5-dependent male-biased genes (Cyp7b1). Moreover, in pituitary-intact male mice, Igf1, Cish, Ces2b, and Ugt2b38 all showed remarkable cycles of chromatin opening and closing, as well as associated cycles of induced gene transcription, which closely followed each endogenous pulse of liver STAT5 activity. Thus, the endogenous rhythms of male plasma GH pulsation dynamically open and then close liver chromatin at discrete, localized regulatory sites in temporal association with transcriptional activation of Igf1, Cish, and a subset of STAT5-dependent male-biased genes.
Project description:Growth hormone (GH)-deficiency is usually associated with elevated adiposity, hyperleptinemia, and increased fracture risk. Since leptin is thought to enhance cortical bone formation, we have investigated the contribution of elevated adiposity and hyperleptinemia on femoral strength in rodent models of GH deficiency. Quantification of the transpubertal development of femoral strength in the moderately GH-deficient/hyperleptinemic Tgr rat and the profoundly GH-deficient/hypoleptinemic dw/dw rat revealed that the mechanical properties of cortical bone in these two models were similarly compromised, a 25-30% reduction in failure load being entirely due to impairment of geometric variables. In contrast, murine models of partial (GH antagonist transgenic) and complete (GH receptor-null) loss of GH signaling and elevated adiposity showed an impairment of femoral cortical strength proportionate to the reduction of GH signaling. To determine whether impaired femoral strength is exacerbated by obesity/hyperleptinemia, femoral strength was assessed in dw/dw rats following two developmental manipulations that elevate abdominal adiposity and circulating leptin, neonatal monosodium glutamate (MSG) treatment, and maintenance on an elevated fat diet. The additional impairment of femoral strength following MSG treatment is likely to have resulted from a reduction in residual activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-GH-IGF-I axis, but consumption of elevated dietary fat, which did not reduce circulating IGF-I, failed to exacerbate the compromised femoral strength in dw/dw rats. Taken together, our data indicate that the obesity and hyperleptinemia usually associated with GH deficiency do not exert a significant influence over the strength of cortical bone.
Project description:Both maternal and offspring-derived factors contribute to lifelong growth and bone mass accrual, although the specific role of maternal deficiencies in the growth and bone mass of offspring is poorly understood. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in a murine genetic model results in severe postweaning growth retardation and osteoporosis, and the severity and time of onset of this phenotype in the offspring depends on the maternal genotype. Using integrated physiological and metabolomic analysis, we determined that B12 deficiency in the offspring decreases liver taurine production and associates with abrogation of a growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1) axis. Taurine increased GH-dependent IGF1 synthesis in the liver, which subsequently enhanced osteoblast function, and in B12-deficient offspring, oral administration of taurine rescued their growth retardation and osteoporosis phenotypes. These results identify B12 as an essential vitamin that positively regulates postweaning growth and bone formation through taurine synthesis and suggests potential therapies to increase bone mass.
Project description:Leptin, a potent anorexigenic hormone, is found in the anterior pituitary (AP). The aim of this study was to determine whether and how pituitary leptin-bearing cells are regulated by nutritional status. Male rats showed 64% reductions in pituitary leptin mRNA 24 hr after fasting, accompanied by significant (30-50%) reductions in growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and luteinizing hormone (LH), and 70-80% reductions in target cells for gonadotropin-releasing hormone or growth hormone-releasing hormone. There was a 2-fold increase in corticotropes. Subsets (22%) of pituitary cells coexpressed leptin and GH, and <5% coexpressed leptin and LH, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, or adrenocorticotropic hormone. Fasting resulted in significant (55-75%) losses in cells with leptin proteins or mRNA, and GH or LH. To determine whether restoration of serum glucose could rescue leptin, LH, and GH, additional fasted rats were given 10% glucose water for 24 hr. Restoring serum glucose in fasted rats resulted in pituitary cell populations with normal levels of leptin and GH and LH cells. Similarly, LH and GH cells were restored in vitro after populations from fasted rats were treated for as little as 1 hr in 10-100 pg/ml leptin. These correlative changes in pituitary leptin, LH, and GH, coupled with leptin's rapid restoration of GH and LH in vitro, suggest that pituitary leptin may signal nutritional changes. Collectively, the findings suggest that pituitary leptin expression could be coupled to glucose sensors like glucokinase to facilitate rapid responses by the neuroendocrine system to nutritional cues.
Project description:Premature proliferative arrest in benign or early-stage tumors induced by oncoproteins, chromosomal instability, or DNA damage is associated with p53/p21 activation, culminating in either senescence or apoptosis, depending on cell context. Growth hormone (GH) elicits direct peripheral metabolic actions as well as growth effects mediated by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Locally produced peripheral tissue GH, in contrast to circulating pituitary-derived endocrine GH, has been proposed to be both proapoptotic and prooncogenic. Pituitary adenomas expressing and secreting GH are invariably benign and exhibit DNA damage and a senescent phenotype. We therefore tested effects of nutlin-induced p53-mediated senescence in rat and human pituitary cells. We show that DNA damage senescence induced by nutlin triggers the p53/p21 senescent pathway, with subsequent marked induction of intracellular pituitary GH in vitro. In contrast, GH is not induced in cells devoid of p53. Furthermore we show that p53 binds specific GH promoter motifs and enhances GH transcription and secretion in senescent pituitary adenoma cells and also in nonpituitary (human breast and colon) cells. In vivo, treatment with nutlin results in up-regulation of both p53 and GH in the pituitary gland, as well as increased GH expression in nonpituitary tissues (lung and liver). Intracrine GH acts in pituitary cells as an apoptosis switch for p53-mediated senescence, likely protecting the pituitary adenoma from progression to malignancy. Unlike in the pituitary, in nonpituitary cells GH exerts antiapoptotic properties. Thus, the results show that GH is a direct p53 transcriptional target and fulfills criteria as a p53 target gene. Induced GH is a readily measurable cell marker for p53-mediated cellular senescence.
Project description:Dysregulated growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion is usually caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma and leads to acromegaly - a disorder of disproportionate skeletal, tissue, and organ growth. High GH and IGF1 levels lead to comorbidities including arthritis, facial changes, prognathism, and glucose intolerance. If the condition is untreated, enhanced mortality due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and pulmonary dysfunction is associated with a 30% decrease in life span. This Review discusses acromegaly pathogenesis and management options. The latter include surgery, radiation, and use of novel medications. Somatostatin receptor (SSTR) ligands inhibit GH release, control tumor growth, and attenuate peripheral GH action, while GH receptor antagonists block GH action and effectively lower IGF1 levels. Novel peptides, including SSTR ligands, exhibiting polyreceptor subtype affinities and chimeric dopaminergic-somatostatinergic properties are currently in clinical trials. Effective control of GH and IGF1 hypersecretion and ablation or stabilization of the pituitary tumor mass lead to improved comorbidities and lowering of mortality rates for this hormonal disorder.
Project description:The recently identified myokine irisin conveys some of the benefits of exercise. Hypopituitarism with adult growth hormone deficiency (HP) is a situation characterized by decreased GH secretion and an altered body composition.Our aim was to study the skeletal muscle hormone irisin in HP, and compare the results with a similar group of normal subjects.Seventeen HP patients and fifty-one normal subjects of similar age and sex were studied. The diagnosis of GH deficiency was confirmed by the presence of pituitary disease and a peak GH secretion below 3 ?g/L after an insulin tolerance test. The patients were adequately treated for all pituitary hormone deficits, except for GH. Fasting serum irisin was measured with an enzyme immunoassay, and HOMA-IR, QUICKI and HOMA-? were calculated.Fasting irisin levels (ng/ml) were similar in normal [208.42 (168.44-249.23)] and HP patients [195.13 (178.44-241.44)]. In the control group there were moderate significant positive correlations between irisin and BMI, waist circumference, leptin, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-?, triglycerides, and cholesterol. In the control group there were moderate significant negative correlations between irisin and IGF-I and QUICKI. In the hypopituitary group there were moderate significant positive correlations between irisin and body fat and HOMA-?.We found similar irisin levels in GH deficiency hypopituitary patients when compared with normal subjects. The correlation between irisin and adiposity related factors suggests that that in the case of this clinical model, irisin is regulated by adiposity and not by GH.
Project description:To study the role of the neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) gene in mammalian brain development, we recently generated mice in which Nf1 gene inactivation occurs in neuroglial progenitor cells using the brain lipid binding protein (BLBP) promoter. We found that Nf1(BLBP)CKO mice exhibit significantly reduced body weights and anterior pituitary gland sizes. We further demonstrate that the small anterior pituitary size reflects loss of neurofibromin expression in the hypothalamus, leading to reduced growth hormone releasing hormone, pituitary growth hormone (GH) and liver insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) production. Since neurofibromin both negatively regulates Ras activity and positively modulates cAMP levels, we examined the signaling pathway responsible for these abnormalities. While BLBP-mediated expression of an activated Ras molecule did not recapitulate the body weight and hypothalamic/pituitary defects, treatment of Nf1(BLBP)CKO mice with rolipram to increase cAMP levels resulted in a partial restoration of the body weight phenotype. Furthermore, conditional expression of the Ras regulatory GAP domain of neurofibromin also did not rescue the body weight or Igf1 mRNA defects in Nf1(BLBP)CKO mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate a critical role for neurofibromin in hypothalamic-pituitary axis function and provide further insights into the short stature and GH deficits seen in children with NF1.
Project description:Fish shows great difference in growth rate between individuals during larval development and early growth. This difference seriously reduces the production efficiency in fish culture. Growth hormone (GH)/Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) system is said to play some pivotal roles in fish growth. In this study, we investigated differences of GH, IGF1 and GHR gene expressions in juvenile red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) with different growth performance. Red spotted groupers were reared under the same environmental condition (water temperature 24±1?, natural light) for 96 days after hatching. They were divided into 3 groups by size (fast growing, middle growing and slow growing groups: FGG, MGG, and SGG, respectively). RNA was extracted from the brain, liver and muscle tissues from each group, and target gene expression was examined by real-time PCR. In the brain with pituitary gland, expression of GH gene in FGG was significantly higher than the expression in SGG, but the expression of IGF1 and GHR genes in the muscle was highest in SGG. Difference of GHR and IGF1 mRNA in the liver between groups with different growth performance was less clear than that in other tissues, although level of IGF1 mRNA was higher in SGG than in MGG. These results suggest that hormonal governing of growth is not the same in fast growing and slow growing fish, and size grading could cause a shift of hormonal state and growth pattern in this species.