What Hong-Ou-Mandel interference says on two-photon frequency entanglement.
ABSTRACT: Not much, in the end. Here we put forward some considerations on how Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometry provides signatures of frequency entanglement in the two-photon state produced by parametric down-conversion. We find that some quantitative information can be inferred in the limit of long-pulse pumping, while the short-pulse limit remains elusive.
Project description:When two indistinguishable photons are each incident on separate input ports of a beamsplitter, they "bunch" deterministically, exiting via the same port as a direct consequence of their bosonic nature. This two-photon interference effect has long-held the potential for application in precision measurement of time delays, such as those induced by transparent specimens with unknown thickness profiles. However, the technique has never achieved resolutions significantly better than the few-femtosecond (micrometer) scale other than in a common-path geometry that severely limits applications. We develop the precision of Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometry toward the ultimate limits dictated by statistical estimation theory, achieving few-attosecond (or nanometer path length) scale resolutions in a dual-arm geometry, thus providing access to length scales pertinent to cell biology and monoatomic layer two-dimensional materials.
Project description:A modification of the standard Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer is proposed which allows one to replicate the celebrated coincidence dip in the case of two-independent delay parameters. In the ideal case where such delays are sufficiently stable with respect to the mean wavelength of the pump source, properly symmetrized input bi-photon states allow one to pinpoint their values through the identification of a zero in the coincidence counts, a feature that cannot be simulated by semiclassical inputs having the same spectral properties. Besides, in the presence of fluctuating parameters the zero in the coincidences is washed away: still the bi-photon state permits to recover the values of parameters with a visibility which is higher than the one allowed by semiclassical sources. The detrimental role of loss and dispersion is also analyzed and an application in the context of quantum positioning is presented.
Project description:The Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect is widely regarded as the quintessential quantum interference phenomenon in optics. In this work we examine how nonlinearity can smear statistical photon bunching in the HOM interferometer. We model both the nonlinearity and a balanced beam splitter with a single two-level system and calculate a finite probability of anti-bunching arising in this geometry. We thus argue that the presence of such nonlinearity would reduce the visibility in the standard HOM setup, offering some explanation for the diminution of the HOM visibility observed in many experiments. We use the same model to show that the nonlinearity affects a resonant two-photon propagation through a two-level impurity in a waveguide due to a "weak photon blockade" caused by the impossibility of double-occupancy and argue that this effect might be stronger for multi-photon propagation.
Project description:Coulomb interaction has a striking effect on electronic propagation in one-dimensional conductors. The interaction of an elementary excitation with neighbouring conductors favours the emergence of collective modes, which eventually leads to the destruction of the Landau quasiparticle. In this process, an injected electron tends to fractionalize into separated pulses carrying a fraction of the electron charge. Here we use two-particle interferences in the electronic analogue of the Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment in a quantum Hall conductor at filling factor 2 to probe the fate of a single electron emitted in the outer edge channel and interacting with the inner one. By studying both channels, we analyse the propagation of the single electron and the generation of interaction-induced collective excitations in the inner channel. These complementary pieces of information reveal the fractionalization process in the time domain and establish its relevance for the destruction of the quasiparticle, which degrades into the collective modes.
Project description:Highly entangled quantum states, shared by remote parties, are vital for quantum communications and metrology. Particularly promising are the N00N states-entangled N-photon wavepackets delocalized between two different locations-which outperform coherent states in measurement sensitivity. However, these states are notoriously vulnerable to losses, making them difficult to both share them between remote locations and recombine in order to exploit interference effects. Here we address this challenge by utilizing the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect to prepare a high-fidelity two-photon N00N state shared between two parties connected by a lossy optical medium. We measure the prepared state by two-mode homodyne tomography, thereby demonstrating that the enhanced phase sensitivity can be exploited without recombining the two parts of the N00N state. Finally, we demonstrate the application of our method to remotely prepare superpositions of coherent states, known as Schrödinger's cat states.
Project description:Entanglement swapping at telecom wavelengths is at the heart of quantum networking in optical fiber infrastructures. Although entanglement swapping has been demonstrated experimentally so far using various types of entangled photon sources both in near-infrared and telecom wavelength regions, the rate of swapping operation has been too low to be applied to practical quantum protocols, due to limited efficiency of entangled photon sources and photon detectors. Here we demonstrate drastic improvement of the efficiency at telecom wavelength by using two ultra-bright entangled photon sources and four highly efficient superconducting nanowire single photon detectors. We have attained a four-fold coincidence count rate of 108 counts per second, which is three orders higher than the previous experiments at telecom wavelengths. A raw (net) visibility in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between the two independent entangled sources was 73.3 ± 1.0% (85.1 ± 0.8%). We performed the teleportation and entanglement swapping, and obtained a fidelity of 76.3% in the swapping test. Our results on the coincidence count rates are comparable with the ones ever recorded in teleportation/swapping and multi-photon entanglement generation experiments at around 800 nm wavelengths. Our setup opens the way to practical implementation of device-independent quantum key distribution and its distance extension by the entanglement swapping as well as multi-photon entangled state generation in telecom band infrastructures with both space and fiber links.
Project description:Superposition and indistinguishablility between probability amplitudes have played an essential role in observing quantum interference effects of correlated photons. The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and interferences of the path-entangled photon number state are of special interest in the field of quantum information technologies. However, a fully generalized two-photon quantum interferometric scheme accounting for the Hong-Ou-Mandel scheme and path-entangled photon number states has not yet been proposed. Here we report the experimental demonstrations of the generalized two-photon interferometry with both the interferometric properties of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect and the fully unfolded version of the path-entangled photon number state using photon-pair sources, which are independently generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our experimental scheme explains two-photon interference fringes revealing single- and two-photon coherence properties in a single interferometer setup. Using the proposed interferometric measurement, it is possible to directly estimate the joint spectral intensity of a photon pair source.
Project description:The Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) experiment was a benchmark in quantum optics, evidencing the non-classical nature of photon pairs, later generalized to quantum systems with either bosonic or fermionic statistics. We show that a simple modification in the well-known and widely used HOM experiment provides the direct measurement of the Wigner function. We apply our results to one of the most reliable quantum systems, consisting of biphotons generated by parametric down conversion. A consequence of our results is that a negative value of the Wigner function is a sufficient condition for non-gaussian entanglement between two photons. In the general case, the Wigner function provides all the required information to infer entanglement using well known necessary and sufficient criteria. The present work offers a new vision of the HOM experiment that further develops its possibilities to realize fundamental tests of quantum mechanics using simple optical set-ups.
Project description:Quantum systems combining indistinguishable photon generation and spin-based quantum information processing are essential for remote quantum applications and networking. However, identification of suitable systems in scalable platforms remains a challenge. Here, we investigate the silicon vacancy centre in silicon carbide and demonstrate controlled emission of indistinguishable and distinguishable photons via coherent spin manipulation. Using strong off-resonant excitation and collecting zero-phonon line photons, we show a two-photon interference contrast close to 90% in Hong-Ou-Mandel type experiments. Further, we exploit the system's intimate spin-photon relation to spin-control the colour and indistinguishability of consecutively emitted photons. Our results provide a deep insight into the system's spin-phonon-photon physics and underline the potential of the industrially compatible silicon carbide platform for measurement-based entanglement distribution and photonic cluster state generation. Additional coupling to quantum registers based on individual nuclear spins would further allow for high-level network-relevant quantum information processing, such as error correction and entanglement purification.
Project description:A novel method of macroscopically entangled light-pair generation is presented for a quantum laser using randomness-based deterministic phase control of coherent light in a coupled Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). Unlike the particle nature-based quantum correlation in conventional quantum mechanics, the wave nature of photons is applied for collective phase control of coherent fields, resulting in a deterministically controllable nonclassical phenomenon. For the proof of principle, the entanglement between output light fields from a coupled MZI is examined using the Hong-Ou-Mandel-type anticorrelation technique, where the anticorrelation is a direct evidence of the nonclassical features in an interferometric scheme. For the generation of random phase bases between two bipartite input coherent fields, a deterministic control of opposite frequency shifts results in phase sensitive anticorrelation, which is a macroscopic quantum feature.