Medication errors among nurses in teaching hospitals in the west of Iran: what we need to know about prevalence, types, and barriers to reporting.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to examine the prevalence and types of medication errors (MEs), as well as barriers to reporting MEs, among nurses working in 7 teaching hospitals affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2016.A convenience sampling method was used to select the study participants (n=500 nurses). A self-constructed questionnaire was employed to collect information on participants' socio-demographic characteristics (10 items), their perceptions about the main causes of MEs (31 items), and barriers to reporting MEs to nurse managers (11 items). Data were collected from September 1 to November 30, 2016. Negative binomial regression was used to identify the main predictors of the frequency of MEs among nurses.The prevalence of MEs was 17.0% (95% confidence interval, 13.7 to 20.3%). The most common types of MEs were administering medications at the wrong time (24.0%), dosage errors (16.8%), and administering medications to the wrong patient (13.8%). A heavy workload and the type of shift work were considered to be the main causes of MEs by nursing staff. Our findings showed that 45.0% of nurses did not report MEs. A heavy workload due to a high number of patients was the most important reason for not reporting MEs (mean score, 3.57±1.03) among nurses. Being male, having a second unrelated job, and fixed shift work significantly increased MEs among nurses (p=0.001).Our study documented a high prevalence of MEs among nurses in the west of Iran. A heavy workload was considered to be the most important barrier to reporting MEs among nurses. Thus, appropriate strategies (e.g., reducing the nursing staff workload) should be developed to address MEs and improve patient safety in hospital settings in Iran.
Project description:Aim:To examine (a) when medication incidents occur and which type is most frequent; (b) consequences for patients; (c) incident reporters' perceptions of causes; and (d) professional categories reporting the incidents. Design:A descriptive multicentre register study. Methods:This study included 775 medication incident reports from 19 Swedish hospitals during 2016-2017. From the 775 reports, 128 were chosen to establish the third aim. Incidents were classified and analysed statistically. Perceived causes of incidents were analysed using content analysis. Results:Incidents occurred as often in prescribing as in administering. Wrong dose was the most common error, followed by missed dose and lack of prescription. Most incidents did not harm the patients. Errors in administering reached the patients more often than errors in prescribing. The most frequently perceived causes were shortcomings in knowledge, skills and abilities, followed by workload. Most medication incidents were reported by nurses.
Project description:Purpose:Nursing is a practice-based discipline. Clinical education is one of the most important parts of nursing education; nurses play an important role in the learning of nursing students. This study was carried out to unveil the challenges of nursing students' learning through working with nurses. Methods:A qualitative design was used to conduct the study in city of Khalkhal, Ardabil province, Iran. In order to collect data through purposive sampling, twenty students were interviewed using in-depth semi-structured individual techniques. Data analysis was done using MAXODA 12. Results:Challenges of nursing students' learning were generally categorized into three main themes including inappropriate social norms, inadequate organizational atmosphere, and inadequate resources. Conclusion:It seems that inappropriate organizational culture in the clinical setting and wrong distribution of resources will lead to disruption of student-nurse relationships and ultimately disruption of clinical education.
Project description:AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:To test the method of self- and external assessment as a feedback system to decrease illegibility and incorrectness of handwritten prescriptions and to reduce additional workload for nursing staff. BACKGROUND:Illegibility and incorrectness of handwritten prescriptions occur very often and are the most crucial factors affecting patient safety. DESIGN:Self- versus external assessment using a 15 items checklist. METHODS:Nurses randomly selected five fever charts of their wards. Each fever chart was self- as well as externally assessed. Nurses and doctors took part in the self-assessment, and the external assessment was performed by external experts. According to a monitor suspension system, assessment results were considered "green," "yellow" or "red." After the first assessment and issuing feedback of the results "red" scored wards by the external assessment, additional trainings were performed. Thereafter, a second assessment was performed to rate eligibility and completeness of prescriptions. The research and reporting methodology followed squire 2.0. RESULTS:In total, 580 fever charts were self- as well as externally assessed (290 in each of the two assessment periods). Out of the 58 participating wards, 31 were surgical and 27 were non-surgical wards. Averaging over all checklist items, surgical and non-surgical wards improved only slightly over time. Linear regression models for ward means showed that there were significant improvements over time for non-surgical wards. CONCLUSIONS:This method directly involves those who commit errors and stimulate learning from errors. The approach of self- and external assessment was a useful instrument to detect inadequate prescriptions and to monitor improvements. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:Significant improvements were achieved regarding correctness and legibility of handwritten prescription and helped to decrease additional workload for nursing staff and thereby enhanced patient safety.
Project description:Background:Although the concept of workload is important to nursing practice, only a few nursing researchers have focused on the issue of workload within the nursing context. Knowledge of how the dynamics of workload affects the job stress of nurses working in a specific unit or department in a hospital setting, and the influence of coworker support on this relationship, still remains limited. This study, therefore examined the effect of workload on job stress of Ghanaian outpatient department nurses and the moderating effect of coworker support on this relationship. Methods:A cross-sectional survey design was used, and questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 216 outpatient department nurses from four major hospitals in Ghana. The data collected measured workload, job stress, and coworker support using National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Task Load Index, job stress scale, and coworker support scale, respectively. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation, and hierarchical regression. Results:High levels of workload were associated with high levels of job stress of the nurses. Also, higher levels of workload were related to higher levels of job stress for nurses who received high levels of coworker support, but this was not the case for those who received low levels of coworker support (reserve buffering effect). Conclusion:The finding reiterates the adverse effect of workloads on employees' health, and the reverse buffering effect implies that supporting a colleague at work should be conveyed in a positive manner devoid of negative appraisal.
Project description:Nursing burnout is associated with reduced nursing performance outcomes. Positive psychological capital is known to play an important role in improving workers' job performance. However, the association among the three variables has rarely been addressed. The purpose of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to explore the association between burnout and nursing performance outcomes among Korean nurses working at a tertiary hospital and the mediating role of psychological capital in this relationship. Recruited through convenience sampling, a total of 285 nurses provided data on their demographic characteristics and completed a structured questionnaire consisting of items from the Professional Quality of Life Scale (burnout), Nursing Performance Scale, and Psychology Capital Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, student's t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and multiple linear regression analyses were used to analyze data. The significance of the mediation effect was obtained using a bootstrap approach with the PROCESS macro. The mean age of participants was 30.51 years, and most participants were females (94.0%) and unmarried (71.6%); more than half (57.5%) experienced a severe workload. The average (±standard deviation) scores of burnout, nursing performance outcomes, and positive psychological capital were 28.77 ± 4.93, 2.98 ± 0.32, and 3.19 ± 0.45, respectively. Burnout was associated with nursing performance among clinical nurses (? = -0.20, p < 0.001). Positive psychological capital mediated the association between burnout and nursing performance outcomes (? = 0.41, p < 0.001). These findings contribute to the understanding that burnout among nurses could be reduced by increased positive psychological capital, which results in improved performance outcomes. The findings also indicate that interventions to improve positive psychological capital should be developed and implemented for nurses' burnout management and improvement in nursing performance outcomes.
Project description:To study the impact of performance obstacles on intensive care nurses' workload, quality and safety of care, and quality of working life (QWL). Performance obstacles are factors that hinder nurses' capacity to perform their job and that are closely associated with their immediate work system.Data were collected from 265 nurses in 17 intensive care units (ICUs) between February and August 2004 via a structured questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 80 percent.A cross-sectional study design was used. Data were analyzed by correlation analyses and structural equation modeling.Performance obstacles were found to affect perceived quality and safety of care and QWL of ICU nurses. Workload mediated the impact of performance obstacles with the exception of equipment-related issues on perceived quality and safety of care as well as QWL.Performance obstacles in ICUs are a major determinant of nursing workload, perceived quality and safety of care, and QWL. In general, performance obstacles increase nursing workload, which in turn negatively affect perceived quality and safety of care and QWL. Redesigning the ICU work system to reduce performance obstacles may improve nurses' work.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Medication errors (MEs) are the main type of preventable adverse events in medical care, as well as safety indicators in the medication processes. Advances in the quality of care in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have enabled to improve clinical outcomes. However, ME epidemiology in pediatric oncology is still incipient in developing countries. In view of this, the objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence of MEs, determine their types and consequences, as well as their preventability in the induction treatment of children with ALL at Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gómez.<h4>Methods</h4>We reviewed the remission-induction chemotherapy records of children with ALL between January 2015 and December 2017. A two-phase review was carried out for ME identification and verification. The consequences of errors were determined by agreement between reviewers.<h4>Results</h4>We reviewed 1762 chemotherapy orders involving 181 children. MEs were observed in 16.9% of orders and in 57.5% of patients. Prescription errors were the most common (93.3%), with wrong dose errors (90.2%) being predominant. Only 3.7% of wrong dose errors were intercepted, while 12.2% of the children experienced adverse drug events (ADEs) preceded by some wrong dose error.<h4>Conclusions</h4>MEs were common, since they occurred in 57.5% of children with ALL on induction treatment and involved 16.5% of chemotherapy orders. Only 3.7% of MEs were intercepted, while 12.2% of children had ADEs related to overdose. Measures are required to prevent calculation error in prescriptions, as well as training of the nursing staff to intercept MEs.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This study aimed to assess the current workload and staffing need of physicians and nurses for delivering optimum healthcare services at the Upazila Health Complexes (UpHCs) in Bangladesh.<h4>Design</h4>Mixed-methods, combining qualitative (eg, document reviews, key informant interviews, in-depth interviews, observations) and quantitative methods (time-motion survey).<h4>Setting</h4>Study was conducted in 24 health facilities of Bangladesh. However, UpHCs being the nucleus of primary healthcare in Bangladesh, this manuscript limits itself to reporting the findings from the providers at four UpHCs under this project.<h4>Participants</h4>18 physicians and 51 nurses, males and females.<h4>Primary outcome measures</h4>Workload components were defined based on inputs from five experts, refined by nine service providers. Using WHO Workload Indicator of Staffing Need (WISN) software, standard workload, category allowance factor, individual allowance factor, total required number of staff, WISN difference and WISN ratio were calculated.<h4>Results</h4>Physicians have very high (WISN ratio 0.43) and nurse high (WISN ratio 0.69) workload pressure. 50% of nurses' time are occupied with support activities, instead of nursing care. There are different workloads among the same staff category in different health facilities. If only the vacant posts are filled, the workload is reduced. In fact, sanctioned number of physicians and nurses is more than actual need.<h4>Conclusions</h4>It is evident that high workload pressures prevail for physicians and nurses at the UpHCs. This reveals high demand for these health workforces in the respective subdistricts. WISN method can aid the policy-makers in optimising utilisation of existing human resources. Therefore, the government should adopt flexible health workforce planning and recruitment policy to manage the patient load and disease burden. WISN should, thus, be incorporated as a planning tool for health managers. There should be a regular review of health workforce management decisions, and these should be amended based on periodic reviews.
Project description:Hospitalized children are at risk of medication errors (MEs) due to complex dosage calculations and preparations. Incident reporting systems may facilitate prevention of MEs but underreporting potentially undermines this system. We aimed to examine whether scenarios involving medications should be reported to a national mandatory incident reporting system and the likelihood of self- and peer-reporting these scenarios among paediatric nurses and physicians.Participants' reporting of MEs was explored through a questionnaire involving 20 medication scenarios. The scenarios represented different steps in the medication process, types of error, patient outcomes and medications. Reporting rates and odds ratios with 95% confidence interval [OR, (95% CI)] were calculated. Barriers to and enablers of reporting were identified through content analysis of participants' comments.The response rate was 42% (291/689). Overall, 61% of participants reported that scenarios should be reported. The likelihood of reporting was 60% for self-reporting and 37% for peer-reporting. Nurses versus physicians, and healthcare professionals with versus without patient safety responsibilities assessed to a larger extent that the scenarios should be reported [OR = 1.34 (1.05-1.70) and OR = 1.41 (1.12-1.78), respectively]; were more likely to self-report, [OR = 2.81 (1.71-4.62) and OR = 2.93 (1.47-5.84), respectively]; and were more likely to peer-report [OR = 1.89 (1.36-2.63) and OR = 3.61 (2.57-5.06), respectively].Healthcare professionals with versus without management responsibilities were more likely to peer-report [OR = 5.16 (3.44-7.72)]. Participants reported that scenarios resulting in actual injury or incidents considered to have a learning potential should be reported.The likelihood of underreporting scenarios was high among paediatric nurses and physicians. Nurses and staff with patient safety responsibilities were more likely to assess that scenarios should be reported and to report. Incidents with actual injury or learning potential were more likely to be reported. The potential for improving reporting rates involving MEs seems high.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nursing informatics (NI) along with growth and development of health information technology (HIT) is becoming a fundamental part of all domains of nursing practice especially in critical care settings. Nurses are expected to equip with NI competency for providing patient-centered evidence-based care. Therefore, it is important and necessary to improve nurses' NI competency through educational programs for effective using of HIT. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a training program on NI competency of critical care nurses. METHODS:This interventional study was conducted in 2019. Stratified sampling technique was used to select 60 nurses working in critical care units of three hospitals affiliated with a large University of Medical Sciences in the southeast of Iran. These nurses were assigned randomly and equally to the control and intervention groups. NI competency was trained to the intervention group in a three-day workshop. Data were collected using demographic questionnaire and the adapted Nursing Informatics Competency Assessment Tool (NICAT) before and 1 month after the intervention. Rahman in the US (2015) developed and validated the original NICAT to assess self-reported NI competency of nurses with 30 items and three dimensions (Computer literacy, Informatics literacy Information management skills). The NICAT is scored on a five-point Likert scale and the overall score ranges from 30 to150. Two medical informatics specialists and eight nursing faculty members approved the validity of the adapted version of NICAT and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha (95%). RESULTS:All 60 participants completed the educational program and returned the completed questionnaire. Majority of participants in the intervention and control groups were female (83.30%), married nurses (70.90, 73.30%) aged 30-40?years (51.6, 35.5%). In the pretest stage, both intervention and control groups were competent in terms of the NI competency and its dimensions, and no significant difference was observed between them (p?=?0.65). However, in the posttest, the NI competency and its dimensions in the intervention group significantly increased with a large effect size compared with the control group (p?=?0.001). This difference showed that the intervention group was proficient in the posttest stage. The highest mean difference in the intervention group was associated with the informatics literacy dimension and the lowest mean difference was associated with the informatics management skills dimension. CONCLUSIONS:The improved scores of NI competency and its dimensions after using the training program implied the effectiveness of this method in enhancing the NI competency of nurses working in the critical care units. The application of the training program in diverse domains of nursing practice shows its high efficiency. The project is fundamental for improving nurses' NI competency through continuous educational programs in Iran, other cultures and contexts.