Complete surgical resection improves outcome in INRG high-risk patients with localized neuroblastoma older than 18 months.
ABSTRACT: Although several studies have been conducted on the role of surgery in localized neuroblastoma, the impact of surgical timing and extent of primary tumor resection on outcome in high-risk patients remains controversial.Patients from the German neuroblastoma trial NB97 with localized neuroblastoma INSS stage 1-3 age > 18 months were included for retrospective analysis. Imaging reports were reviewed by two independent physicians for Image Defined Risk Factors (IDRF). Operation notes and corresponding imaging reports were analyzed for surgical radicality. The extent of tumor resection was classified as complete resection (95-100%), gross total resection (90-95%), incomplete resection (50-90%), and biopsy (<50%) and correlated with local control rate and outcome. Patients were stratified according to the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) staging system. Survival curves were estimated according to the method of Kaplan and Meier and compared by the log-rank test.A total of 179 patients were included in this study. 77 patients underwent more than one primary tumor operation. After best surgery, 68.7% of patients achieved complete resection of the primary tumor, 16.8% gross total resection, 14.0% incomplete surgery, and 0.5% biopsy only. The cumulative complication rate was 20.3% and the surgery associated mortality rate was 1.1%. Image defined risk factors (IDRF) predicted the extent of resection. Patients with complete resection had a better local-progression-free survival (LPFS), event-free survival (EFS) and OS (overall survival) than the other groups. Subgroup analyses showed better EFS, LPFS and OS for patients with complete resection in INRG high-risk patients. Multivariable analyses revealed resection (complete vs. other), and MYCN (non-amplified vs. amplified) as independent prognostic factors for EFS, LPFS and OS.In patients with localized neuroblastoma age 18 months or older, especially in INRG high-risk patients harboring MYCN amplification, extended surgery of the primary tumor site improved local control rate and survival with an acceptable risk of complications.
Project description:To determine whether regional hyperthermia (RHT) in addition to chemotherapy improves local tumor control after macroscopically complete resection of abdominal or retroperitoneal high-risk sarcomas.Within the prospectively randomized EORTC 62961 phase-III trial, RHT and systemic chemotherapy significantly improved local progression-free survival (LPFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with abdominal and extremity sarcomas. That trial included macroscopically complete and R2 resections.A subgroup analysis of the EORTC trial was performed and long-term survival determined. From 341 patients, 149 (median age 52 years, 18-69) were identified with macroscopic complete resection (R0, R1) of abdominal and retroperitoneal soft-tissue sarcomas (median diameter 10 cm, G2 48.3%, G3 51.7%). Seventy-six patients were treated with EIA (etoposide, ifosfamide, doxorubicin)+RHT (?5 cycles: 69.7%) versus 73 patients receiving EIA alone (?5 cycles: 52.1%, P=0.027). LPFS and DFS as well as overall survival were determined.RHT and systemic chemotherapy significantly improved LPFS (56% vs 45% after 5 years, P=0.044) and DFS (34% vs 27% after 5 years, P=0.040). Overall survival was not significantly improved in the RHT group (57% vs 55% after 5 years, P=0.82). Perioperative morbidity and mortality were not significantly different between groups.In patients with macroscopically complete tumor resection, RHT in addition to chemotherapy resulted in significantly improved local tumor control and DFS without increasing surgical complications. Within a multimodal therapeutic concept for abdominal and retroperitoneal high-risk sarcomas, RHT is a treatment option beside radical surgery and should be further evaluated in future trials.
Project description:The primary objective of Children's Oncology Group study P9641 was to demonstrate that surgery alone would achieve 3-year overall survival (OS) ? 95% for patients with asymptomatic International Neuroblastoma Staging System stages 2a and 2b neuroblastoma (NBL). Secondary objectives focused on other low-risk patients with NBL and on those who required chemotherapy according to protocol-defined criteria.Patients underwent maximally safe resection of tumor. Chemotherapy was reserved for patients with, or at risk for, symptomatic disease, with less than 50% tumor resection at diagnosis, or with unresectable progressive disease after surgery alone.For all 915 eligible patients, 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and OS were 89% ± 1% and 97% ± 1%, respectively. For patients with asymptomatic stage 2a or 2b disease, 5-year EFS and OS were 87% ± 2% and 96% ± 1%, respectively. Among patients with stage 2b disease, EFS and OS were significantly lower for those with unfavorable histology or diploid tumors, and OS was significantly lower for those ? 18 months old. For patients with stage 1 and 4s NBL, 5-year OS rates were 99% ± 1% and 91% ± 1%, respectively. Patients who required chemotherapy at diagnosis achieved 5-year OS of 98% ± 1%. Of all patients observed after surgery, 11.1% experienced recurrence or progression of disease.Excellent survival rates can be achieved in asymptomatic low-risk patients with stages 2a and 2b NBL after surgery alone. Immediate use of chemotherapy may be restricted to a minority of patients with low-risk NBL. Patients with stage 2b disease who are older or have diploid or unfavorable histology tumors fare less well. Future studies will seek to refine risk classification.
Project description:Background:There has been no prospective or retrospective studies reporting the comparison outcome between surgery and ablation for resectable-ablative (lesions could be treated by resection or complete ablation) colorectal liver oligometastases (CLOM). The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and prognostic difference in patients who underwent R0 resection vs. complete ablation within the resectable-ablative CLOM criteria. Methods:From January 2008 to May 2018, a total of 2,367 patients diagnosed with colorectal liver metastases were included in this observational study. The metastasis was characterized by only limited to liver with number ?5, size ?5 cm, and resectable-ablative (lesions could be treated by resection or complete ablation). The evaluated indications, including liver progression-free survival (LPFS), overall survival (OS), survival rates, pattern and number of recurrences, and complications, were compared by using propensity score matching (PSM). The Kaplan-Meier curves were generated, and a log-rank test was performed. The Cox regression model was used for univariate and multivariate analyses to identify predictors of outcomes. Results:A total of 421 consecutive patients were eligible for this study, with 250 and 171 undergoing R0 resection and complete ablation, respectively. PSM identified 145 patients from each group. The 1-, 3-, 5- and 8-year OS rates in the resection group and the ablation group were 95.8% vs. 95.0%, 69.8% vs. 60.1%, 53.6% vs. 42.5%, and 45.1% vs. 32.9% (p = 0.075), respectively. The median LPFS in the resection group was significantly longer than that in the ablation group (35 months vs. 15 months, p = 0.011). No statistical difference was found in LPFS between the two groups when comparing ?3 cm liver metastases. For liver metastasis >3 cm, the median LPFS in the resection group and ablation group was 11 months and 5 months, respectively (p = 0.001). In terms of high risk of clinical risk score (CRS), the resection group showed longer LPFS than the ablation group (median 18 months vs. 10 months, p = 0.043). Conclusion:For patients within the CLOM criteria suggesting that liver metastases were resectable as well as ablative, resection could result in longer liver recurrence-free survival than ablation in cases with size >3 cm or high risk of CRS. But for ?3 cm liver metastases, their treatment efficacies were comparable.
Project description:Purpose This analysis of patients in the Children's Oncology Group A3973 study evaluated the impact of extent of primary tumor resection on local progression and survival and assessed concordance between clinical and central imaging review-based assessments of resection extent. Patients and Methods The analytic cohort (n = 220) included patients who had both central surgery review and resection of the primary tumor site. For this analysis, resection categories of < 90% and ? 90% were used, with data on resection extent derived from operating surgeons' assessments (all patients), as well as blinded central imaging review of computed tomography scans for a subset of 84 patients; assessment results were compared for concordance. Treatment outcomes included event-free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS), and cumulative incidence of local progression (CILP). Results Surgeon-assessed extent of resection was ? 90% in 154 (70%) patients and < 90% in 66 (30%). Five-year EFS, OS, and CILP (± SE) were 43.5% ± 3.7%, 54.9% ± 3.7%, and 11.9% ± 2.2%, respectively. EFS was higher with ? 90% resection (45.9% ± 4.3%) than with < 90% resection (37.9% ± 7.2%; P = .04). Lower CILP ( P = .01) was associated with ? 90% resection (8.5% ± 2.3%) compared with < 90% resection (19.8% ± 5.0%). On multivariable analysis, ? 90% resection was associated with longer EFS after adjustment for MYCN amplification or diploidy but had no significant effect on OS. Concordance between surgeons' assessments of resection extent and central image-guided review was low, with agreement of 63% (< 90% v ? 90%; simple ? = -0.0301). Conclusion Despite discordance between clinical assessment of resection extent and assessment via central imaging review, a surgeon-assessed resection extent ? 90% was associated with significantly better EFS and lower CILP. Improving OS, however, remains a challenge in this disease. These findings support continued attempts at ? 90% resection of the primary tumor in high-risk neuroblastoma.
Project description:PURPOSE:Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid pediatric malignancy, with poor outcomes in high-risk disease. Standard treatment approaches employ an increasing array of aggressive multimodal therapies, of which local control with surgery and radiotherapy remains a backbone; however, the benefit of broad regional nodal irradiation remains controversial. We analyzed centrally reviewed radiation therapy data from patients enrolled on COG A3973 to evaluate the impact of primary site irradiation and the extent of regional nodal coverage stratified by extent of surgical resection. METHODS:Three hundred thirty high-risk neuroblastoma patients with centrally reviewed radiotherapy plans were analyzed. Outcome was evaluated by the extent of nodal irradiation. For the 171 patients who also underwent surgery (centrally reviewed), outcome was likewise analyzed according to the extent of resection. Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and cumulative incidence of local progression (CILP) were examined by Kaplan-Meier, log-rank test (EFS, OS), and Grey test (CILP). RESULTS:The five-year CILP, EFS, and OS for all 330 patients receiving radiotherapy on A3973 were 8.5% ± 1.5%, 47.2% ± 3.0%, and 59.7% ± 3.0%, respectively. There were no significant differences in outcomes based on the extent of lymph node irradiation regardless of the degree of surgical resection (< 90% or ?90%). CONCLUSION:Although local control remains a significant component of treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma, our results suggest there is no benefit of extensive lymph node irradiation, irrespective of the extent of surgical resection preceding stem cell transplant.
Project description:The management of patients with International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage 3 neuroblastoma (NB) is not consistent worldwide. We describe a single centre approach at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centre (MSKCC) from 1991 to 2007 that minimises therapy except for those patients with MYCN-amplified NB.In this retrospective analysis of 69 patients, tumour MYCN was not amplified in 53 and amplified in 16. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis.Fourteen patients with non-MYCN-amplified tumours were treated with surgery alone (group A) and the remaining 39 (group B) with surgery following chemotherapy that was initiated and administered at non-MSKCC institutions. Chemotherapy was discontinued after surgery in 38/39 of the latter. The 10-year EFS and OS for all patients with MYCN-non-amplified NB were 74.9+/-16.9% and 92.6+/-5.5%, respectively. There was no difference in OS between groups A and B (p=0.2; 10-year OS for groups A and B was 84.6+/-14% and 97.1+/-2.9%, respectively). Patients with MYCN-amplified disease (group C) underwent dose-intensive induction, tumour resection and local radiotherapy: 13 achieved complete or very good partial remission, and 10 received myeloablative chemotherapy. 11/16 patients also received 3F8-based immunotherapy: 10 remain free of disease. The 10-year EFS and OS for patients with MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma treated with immunotherapy were both 90.9+/-8.7%.Patients with MYCN-non-amplified stage 3 NB can be successfully treated with surgery without the need for radiotherapy or continuation of chemotherapy. Combination of dose-intensive chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and immunotherapy was associated with a favourable outcome for most patients with MYCN-amplified stage 3 NB.
Project description:PURPOSE Surgery is curative therapy for pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) in areas of the brain amenable to complete resection. However, LGGs located in areas where complete resection is not possible can threaten both function and life. The purpose of this study was to compare two chemotherapy regimens for LGGs in children younger than age 10 years for whom radiotherapy was felt by the practitioner to pose a high risk of neurodevelopmental injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS Previously untreated children younger than age 10 years with progressive or residual LGGs were eligible. Children were randomly assigned to receive carboplatin and vincristine (CV) or thioguanine, procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (TPCV). Children with neurofibromatosis are reported separately. Results Of 274 randomly assigned patients who met eligibility requirements, 137 received CV and 137 received TPCV. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates for all eligible patients were 45% ± 3.2% and 86% ± 2.2%, respectively. The 5-year EFS rates were 39% ± 4% for CV and 52% ± 5% for TPCV (stratified log-rank test P = .10; cure model analysis P = .007). On multivariate analysis, factors independently predictive of worse EFS and OS were younger age and tumor size greater than 3 cm(2). Tumor location in the thalamus was also associated with poor OS. CONCLUSION The difference in EFS between the regimens did not reach significance on the basis of the stratified log-rank test. The 5-year EFS was higher for TPCV on the basis of the cure model analysis. Differences in toxicity may influence physician choice of regimens.
Project description:Objective:This study was to review the efficacy of surgical resections in different clinical situations for a better understanding of the meaning of surgery in the treatment of neuroblastoma (NB). Data Sources:The online database ScienceDirect (201-2018) was utilized. The search was conducted using the keywords "neuroblastoma," "neuroblastoma resection," "neuroblastoma surgery," and "high-risk neuroblastoma." Study Selection:We retrospectively analyzed of patients who underwent surgical resections in different clinical situations. The article included findings from selected relevant randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses or good-quality observational studies. Abstracts only, letters, and editorial notes were excluded. Full-text articles and abstracts were extracted and reviewed to identify key articles discussing surgery management of NB, which were then selected for critical analysis. Results:A total of 7800 English language articles were found containing references to NB (201-2018). The 163 articles were searched which were related to the surgical treatment of NB (201-2018). Through the analysis of these important articles, we found that the treatments of NB at low- and intermediate-risk groups were basically the same. High-risk patients remained controversial. Conclusions:NB prognosis varies tremendously based on the stage and biologic features of the tumor. After reviewing the relevant literature, patients with low-risk disease are often managed with surgical resection or observation alone with tumors likely to spontaneously regress that are not causing symptoms. Intermediate patients are treated with chemotherapy with the number of cycles depending on their response as well as surgical resection of the primary tumor. High-risk patients remain controversial. Multidisciplinary intensive treatment is essential, especially for patients who received subtotal tumor resection. Minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of NBs without image-defined risk factors in low- to high-risk patients is safe and feasible and does not compromise the treatment outcome. We conclude that ?90% resection of the primary tumor is both feasible and safe in most patients with high-risk NB. New targeted therapies are crucial to improve survival.
Project description:Children's Oncology Group study AHOD03P1 was designed to determine whether excellent outcomes can be maintained for patients with low-risk, pediatric lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (LPHL) with a strategy of resection alone or minimal chemotherapy.Patients with stage IA LPHL in a single node that was completely resected were observed without further therapy; recurrences were treated with three cycles of doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone/cyclophosphamide (AV-PC). Patients with unresected stage IA or stage IIA LPHL were treated with three cycles of AV-PC. Patients with less than a complete response (CR) to AV-PC received 21-Gy involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT).A total of 183 eligible patients were enrolled; 178 were evaluable. Of these, 52 patients underwent complete resection of a single node. There were 13 relapses at a median of 11.5 months; 5-year event-free survival (EFS) was 77% (range, 62% to 87%). A total of 135 patients received AV-PC; 126 were treated at diagnosis and nine at relapse after surgery alone. Eleven patients receiving AV-PC had less than CR and received IFRT. Fourteen first events occurred among 135 patients (12 relapses and two second malignancies). Two relapses occurred in patients who had received IFRT. Five-year EFS was 88.8% (95% CI, 81.8% to 93.2%). Five-year EFS for the entire cohort was 85.5% (95% CI, 79.2% to 90.1%); overall survival was 100%.Some 75% of highly selected pediatric patients with LPHL may be spared chemotherapy after surgical resection alone. Pediatric LPHL has excellent EFS with chemotherapy that is less intensive than standard regimens; > 90% of patients can avoid radiation therapy. The salvage rate for the few relapses is high, with 100% survival overall.
Project description:Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer of the sympathetic nervous system and many patients present with high-risk disease. Risk stratification, based on pathology and tumor-derived biomarkers, has improved prediction of clinical outcomes, but overall survival (OS) rates remain unfavorable and new therapeutic targets are needed. Some studies suggest a link between interleukin (IL)-6 and more aggressive behavior in neuroblastoma tumor cells. Therefore, we examined the impact of two IL-6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on neuroblastoma disease progression.DNA samples from 96 high-risk neuroblastoma patients were screened for two SNP that are known to regulate the serum levels of IL-6 and the soluble IL-6 receptor, rs1800795 and rs8192284, respectively. The genotype for each SNP was determined in a blinded fashion and independent statistical analysis was done to determine SNP-related event-free survival (EFS) and OS rates.The rs1800795 IL-6 promoter SNP is an independent prognostic factor for EFS and OS in high-risk neuroblastoma patients. In contrast, the rs8192284 IL-6 receptor SNP revealed no prognostic value.The rs1800795 SNP [-174 IL-6 (G > C)] represents a novel and independent prognostic marker for both EFS and OS in high-risk neuroblastoma. Because the rs1800795 SNP [-174 IL-6 (G > C)] has been shown to correlate with production of IL-6, this cytokine may represent a target for development of new therapies in neuroblastoma.