PSMA redirects cell survival signaling from the MAPK to the PI3K-AKT pathways to promote the progression of prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT: Increased abundance of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) on prostate epithelium is a hallmark of advanced metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) and correlates negatively with prognosis. However, direct evidence that PSMA functionally contributes to PCa progression remains elusive. We generated mice bearing PSMA-positive or PSMA-negative PCa by crossing PSMA-deficient mice with transgenic PCa (TRAMP) models, enabling direct assessment of PCa incidence and progression in the presence or absence of PSMA. Compared with PSMA-positive tumors, PSMA-negative tumors were smaller, lower-grade, and more apoptotic with fewer blood vessels, consistent with the recognized proangiogenic function of PSMA. Relative to PSMA-positive tumors, tumors lacking PSMA had less than half the abundance of type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R), less activity in the survival pathway mediated by PI3K-AKT signaling, and more activity in the proliferative pathway mediated by MAPK-ERK1/2 signaling. Biochemically, PSMA interacted with the scaffolding protein RACK1, disrupting signaling between the ?1 integrin and IGF-1R complex to the MAPK pathway, enabling activation of the AKT pathway instead. Manipulation of PSMA abundance in PCa cell lines recapitulated this signaling pathway switch. Analysis of published databases indicated that IGF-1R abundance, cell proliferation, and expression of transcripts for antiapoptotic markers positively correlated with PSMA abundance in patients, suggesting that this switch may be relevant to human PCa. Our findings suggest that increase in PSMA in prostate tumors contributes to progression by altering normal signal transduction pathways to drive PCa progression and that enhanced signaling through the IGF-1R/?1 integrin axis may occur in other tumors.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Treatment of metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) with single agents has shown only modest efficacy. We hypothesized dual inhibition of different pathways in PCa results in improved tumor inhibition. The Src family kinases (SFK) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling axes are aberrantly activated in both primary PCa and bone metastases and regulate distinct and overlapping functions in PCa progression. We examined the antitumor effects of combined inhibition of these pathways.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Src andIGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibition was achieved in vitro by short hairpin (sh)RNA and in vitro and in vivo by small molecule inhibitors (dasatinib and BMS-754807, against SFK and IGF-1R/Insulin Receptor(IR), respectively).<h4>Results</h4>In vitro, inhibition of IGF-1 signaling affected cell survival and proliferation. SFK blockade alone had modest effects on proliferation, but significantly enhanced the IGF-1R blockade. These findings correlated with a robust inhibition of IGF-1-induced Akt1 phophorylation by dasatinib, whereas Akt2 phosphorylation was SFK independent and only inhibited by BMS-754807. Thus, complete inhibition of both Akt genes, not seen by either drug alone, is likely a major mechanism for the decreased survival of PCa cells. Furthermore, dasatinib and BMS-754807 inhibited in vivo growth of the primary human xenograft MDA PCa 133, with corresponding inhibition of Akt in tumors. Also, both orthotopic and intratibial tumor growth of PC-3 cells were more potently inhibited by dual SFK and IGF-1R/IR blockade compared to either pathway alone, with a corresponding decrease in bone turnover markers.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Dual IGF-1R/IR and SFK inhibition may be a rational therapeutic approach in PCa by blocking both independent and complementary processes critical to tumor growth.
Project description:Crk (C10 regulator of kinase) adaptor proteins are highly expressed in many types of human cancers and often contribute to aggressive cancer phenotypes. Crk II, a member of CRK family, has been reported to regulate cell migration and metastasis in breast cancer cells. However, its role in other cancer types has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the molecular function of Crk II in prostate cancer (PCa) cells (CWR-22rv1) <i>in vitro and using a mouse tumor model</i>. Results showed that Crk II knockdown by shRNA-mediated silencing (Crk II-shRNA) in the PCa cells significantly inhibited both cancer cell migration and invasion in cell culture study. Crk II-shRNA cancer cells also significantly decreased colony formation <i>in vitro,</i> but had no significant reduction of tumor volume after 4 weeks of cancer cell xenografting <i>in vivo when compared to the scramble control</i>. Interestingly, Crk II-shRNA cancer cells showed a greatly reduced level of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and decreased signaling of the IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt axis upon IGF-1 ligand stimulation. A close interaction between Crk II and IGF-1R was demonstrated upon co-immunoprecipitation of IGF-1R with Crk II protein. Further, treatment of cells with either proteosomal degradation or protein synthesis inhibitor showed higher proportion of ubiquitin-associated IGF-1R and faster degradation of IGF-1R in Crk II-shRNA cells in comparison with that in the control cancer cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Crk II plays an important role in the regulation of IGF-1R protein stability and affects downstream of IGF-1R signaling pathways. Therefore, targeting Crk-II can block IGF-1R growth signaling and suppress cancer cell invasion and progression.
Project description:Metformin has received considerable attention as a potential anti-cancer agent. Animal and in-vitro prostate cancer (PCa) models have demonstrated decreased tumor growth with metformin, however the precise mechanisms are unknown. We examine the effects of metformin on PCa biochemical recurrence (BCR) in a large clinical database followed by evaluating metabolic signaling changes in a cohort of men undergoing prostate needle biopsy (PNB).Men treated for localized PCa were identified in a comprehensive clinical database between 2001 and 2010. Cox regression was performed to determine association with BCR relative to metformin use. We next identified a separate case-control cohort of men undergoing prostate needle biopsy (PNB) stratified by metformin use. Differences in mean IHC scores were compared with linear regression for phosphorylated IR, IGF-IR, AKT, and AMPK.One thousand seven hundred and thirty four men were evaluated for BCR with mean follow up of 41 months (range 1-121 months). "Ever" metformin use was not associated with BCR (HR 1.12, 0.77-1.65), however men reporting both pre/post-treatment metformin use had a 45% reduction in BCR (HR?=?0.55 (0.31-0.96)). For the tissue-based study, 48 metformin users and 42 controls underwent PNB. Significantly greater staining in phosphorylated nuclear (p-IR, p-AKT) and cytoplasmic (p-IR, p-IGF-1R) insulin signaling proteins were seen in patients with PCa detected compared to those with negative PNB (P-values all <0.006). When stratified by metformin use, IGF-1R remained significantly elevated (P?=?0.01) in men with PCa detected whereas p-AMPK (P?=?0.05) was elevated only in those without PCa.Metformin use is associated with reduced BCR after treatment of localized PCa when considering pre-diagnostic and cumulative dosing. In men with cancer detected on PNB, insulin signaling markers were significantly elevated compared to negative PNB patients. The finding of IGF-1R elevation in positive PNBs versus p-AMPK elevation in negative PNBs suggests altered metabolic pathway activation precipitated by metformin use.
Project description:Inhibition of the mitogenic insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) signaling axis is a compelling treatment strategy for prostate cancer. Combining the IGF-1R inhibitor ganitumab (formerly AMG 479) with standard of care androgen-deprivation therapy greatly delays prostate cancer recurrence in xenograft models; however, a significant proportion of these tumors ultimately acquire resistance to ganitumab. Here we describe the development of a stable and reproducible ganitumab-resistant VCaP human prostate cancer cell derivative termed VCaP/GanR to investigate the mechanism of acquired resistance to IGF-1R inhibition. Unlike parental VCaP, VCaP/GanR did not undergo apoptosis following ganitumab treatment. VCaP/GanR did not express increased levels of IGF-1R, insulin receptor, or phospho-AKT compared to parental VCaP. VCaP/GanR exhibited increased levels of phospho-S6 indicative of increased mTOR activity. However, acquired resistance to ganitumab was not dependent on increased mTOR activity in VCaP/GanR. Phospho-proteomic arrays revealed alterations in several calcium-regulated signaling components in VCaP/GanR compared to VCaP. Reduction of intracellular calcium using cell-permeable calcium-specific chelators restored ganitumab sensitivity to VCaP/GanR through inhibition of cell-cycle progression. These data suggest a new mechanism of resistance to IGF-1R inhibition involving calcium-mediated proliferation effects. Such pathways should be considered in future clinical studies of IGF-1R inhibitors in prostate cancer.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Prostate cancer (PCa) is characterized by clinical and biological heterogeneity and has differential outcomes and mortality rates. Therefore, it is necessary to identify molecular alterations to define new therapeutic strategies based on the risk of progression. In this study, the prognostic relevance of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system was examined in molecular subtypes defined by TMPRSS2-ERG (T2E) gene fusion within a series of patients with primary localized PCa.<h4>Methods</h4>A cohort of 270 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) primary PCa samples from patients with more than 5 years' follow-up was collected. IGF-1R, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and INSR expression was analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. The T2E status and immunohistochemical ERG findings were considered in the analyses. The association with both biochemical and clinical progression-free survival (BPFS and PFS, respectively) was evaluated for the different molecular subtypes using the Kaplan-Meier proportional risk log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazards model.<h4>Results</h4>An association between IGF-1R overexpression and better BPFS was found in T2E-negative patients (35.3% BPFS, p-value = 0.016). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that IGF-1R expression constitutes an independent variable in T2E-negative patients [HR: 0.41. CI 95% (0.2-0.82), p = 0.013]. These data were confirmed using immunohistochemistry of ERG as subrogate of T2E. High IGF-1 expression correlated with prolonged BPFS and PFS independent of the T2E status.<h4>Conclusions</h4>IGF-1R, a reported target of T2E, constitutes an independent factor for good prognosis in T2E-negative PCa. Quantitative evaluation of IGF-1/IGF-1R expression combined with molecular assessment of T2E status or ERG protein expression represents a useful marker for tumor progression in localized PCa.
Project description:The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) tyrosine kinase is an important mediator of the protumorigenic effects of IGF-I/II, and inhibitors of IGF-1R signaling are currently being tested in clinical cancer trials aiming to assess the utility of this receptor as a therapeutic target. Despite mounting evidence that the highly homologous insulin receptor (IR) can also convey protumorigenic signals, its direct role in cancer progression has not been genetically defined in vivo, and it remains unclear whether such a role for IR signaling could compromise the efficacy of selective IGF-1R targeting strategies. A transgenic mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinogenesis engages the IGF signaling pathway, as revealed by its dependence on IGF-II and by accelerated malignant progression upon IGF-1R overexpression. Surprisingly, preclinical trials with an inhibitory monoclonal antibody to IGF-1R did not significantly impact tumor growth, prompting us to investigate the involvement of IR. The levels of IR were found to be significantly up-regulated during multistep progression from hyperplastic lesions to islet tumors. Its functional involvement was revealed by genetic disruption of the IR gene in the oncogene-expressing pancreatic beta cells, which resulted in reduced tumor burden accompanied by increased apoptosis. Notably, the IR knockout tumors now exhibited sensitivity to anti-IGF-1R therapy; similarly, high IR to IGF-1R ratios demonstrably conveyed resistance to IGF-1R inhibition in human breast cancer cells. The results predict that elevated IR signaling before and after treatment will respectively manifest intrinsic and adaptive resistance to anti-IGF-1R therapies.
Project description:The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system plays a crucial role in human cancer and the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is an attractive drug target against which a variety of novel anti-tumor agents are being developed. Deregulation of the IGF signaling pathway frequently occurs in human cancer and involves the establishment of autocrine loops comprising IGF-1 or IGF-2 and/or IGF-1R over-expression. Epidemiologic studies have documented a link between elevated IGF levels and the development of solid tumors, such as breast, colon, and prostate cancer. Anti-cancer strategies targeting the IGF signaling system involve two main approaches, namely neutralizing antibodies and small molecule inhibitors of the IGF-1R kinase activity. There are numerous reports describing anti-tumor activity of these agents in pre-clinical models of major human cancers. In addition, multiple clinical trials have started to evaluate the safety and efficacy of selected IGF-1R inhibitors, in combination with standard chemotherapeutic regimens or other targeted agents in cancer patients. In this mini review, I will discuss the role of the IGF signaling system in human cancer and the main strategies which have been so far evaluated to target the IGF-1R.
Project description:Background: Aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C family member 3 (AKR1C3), one of four identified human AKR enzymes, catalyzes steroid, prostaglandin, and xenobiotic metabolism. In the prostate, AKR1C3 is up-regulated in localized and advanced prostate adenocarcinoma, and is associated with prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness. Here we provide initial evidence for potential roles of AKR1C3 in PCa progression. Methods: Spatial distribution of AKR1C3 was analyzed using immunohistochemical staining in prostate adenocarcinoma tissue array. Human PCa PC-3 cells were stably transfected with AKR1C3 cDNA to establish PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants. Microarray and bioinformatics analyses were performed to identify pathways that are activated by elevated AKR1C3 expression in PCa cells. Functional confirmation of microarray and bioinformatics results was performed by immunoblot analysis and an in vitro Matrigel angiogenesis assay. Results: Elevated AKR1C3 expression was specifically limited to human prostate adenocarcinoma. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis suggested that elevated AKR1C3 expression in PC-3 cells modulates estradiol and androgen metabolism and activates insulin growth factor (IGF)-1 and Akt signaling pathways. Immunoblots confirmed that phosphorylated levels of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and Akt are significantly up-regulated in PC3-AKR1C3 as compared to mock transfectants. PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants promoted endothelial cell tube formation in Matrigel as compared to parental PC-3 cells and mock transfectants. Conclusion: Microarray and bioinformatics data followed by biological analyses suggest that elevated AKR1C3 expression in PC-3 cells promotes PCa angiogenesis and aggressiveness. These results suggest AKR1C3 can promote the aggressiveness of PCa through modulating estrogen and androgen metabolism with subsequent activation of growth factor IGF-1 and cytoplasmic Akt signaling pathways. Total RNA from mock- and ACR1C3 transfected PC-3 cells was isolated, with 2 or 3 biological replicates each. Gene expression data from AKR1C3 transfected PC-3 cells were compared with mock-transfected data.
Project description:An abnormality in hedgehog (Hh) signaling has been implicated in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) to a more aggressive and therapy-resistant disease. Our assessments of human PCa tissues have shown an overexpression of the Hh pathway molecules, glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI-1), and sonic hedgehog (SHH). The effect of the natural compound thymoquinone (TQ) in controlling the expression of Hh signaling molecules in PCa was investigated in this study. We generated planetary ball-milled nanoparticles (PBM-NPs) made with a natural polysaccharide, containing TQ, and coated with an RNA aptamer, A10, which binds to prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). We prepared docetaxel-resistant C4-2B-R and LNCaP-R cells with a high expression of Hh, showing the integration of drug resistance and Hh signaling. Compared to free TQ, A10-TQ-PBM-NPs were more effective in controlling the Hh pathway. Our findings reveal an effective treatment strategy to inhibit the Hh signaling pathway, thereby suppressing PCa progression.
Project description:Identifying patients who may benefit from targeted therapy is an urgent clinical issue in prostate cancer (PCa). We investigated the molecular relationship between TMPRSS2-ERG (T2E) fusion gene and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) to optimize the use of IGF-1R inhibitors.IGF-1R was analyzed in cell lines and in radical prostatectomy specimens in relation to T2E status. ERG binding to IGF-1R promoter was evaluated by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Sensitivity to anti-IGF-1R agents was evaluated alone or in combination with anti-androgen abiraterone acetate in vitro at basal levels or upon ERG modulation.IGF-1R analysis performed in PCa cells or clinical samples showed that T2E expression correlated with higher IGF-1R expression at mRNA and protein levels. Genetic modulation of ERG directly affected IGF-1R protein levels in vitro. ChIP analysis showed that ERG binds IGF-1R promoter and that promoter occupancy is higher in T2E-positive cells. IGF-1R inhibition was more effective in cell lines expressing the fusion gene and combination of IGF-1R inhibitors with abiraterone acetate produced synergistic effects in T2E-expressing cells.Here, we provide the rationale for use of T2E fusion gene to select PCa patients for anti-IGF-1R treatments. The combination of anti-IGF-1R-HAbs with an anti-androgen therapy is strongly advocated for patients expressing T2E.