Pharmacodynamics and Medicinal Chemistry of an External Chinese Herbal Formula for Mammary Precancerous Lesions.
ABSTRACT: Ruyan Neixiao Cream (RYNXC) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula for treating mammary precancerous disease. This study was carried out to investigate in vivo anticancer effect of RYNXC and multiple constituents. 32 virginal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into blank control group (BC), mammary precancer models group (MODEL), tamoxifen group (TAM), and Ruyan Neixiao Cream group (RYNXC). TAM was intervened by tamoxifen; RYNXC was intervened by Ruyan Neixiao Cream. The chromatographic separation was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). RYNXC showed significant improvement in erythrocyte aggregation index (EAI), hematocrit (HCT), fibrinogen (FIB), spleen coefficient, and uterus coefficient compared with MODEL. In RYNXC and TAM groups, atypical hyperplasia was observed in pathological mammary tissues; meanwhile in MODEL group, ductal carcinoma was observed in situ. Moreover, fifteen compounds were characterized according to HPLC-MS data, including organic acids, tannin, alkaloid, volatile oil, anthraquinones, and flavonoids. The study suggests that RYNXC was an effective Chinese herbal formula for mammary precancerous lesions and provides a scientific basis for the quality standard and the pharmacology of RYNXC. It will be beneficial to the future clinical application of RYNXC.
Project description:Ruyan Neixiao Cream (RYNXC), a patented Chinese herbal formula, was reported to have the effect of treating mammary precancerous disease. In this study, we predicted the potential targets, pathways, and diseases of the ingredients contained in each herbal of RYNXC and constructed an ingredients-targets-diseases network. Then, we analyzed molecular mechanisms of this Chinese herbal formula by MCF-10AT cells and model rats of breast precancerous lesions. BATMAN-TCM prediction showed that ESR1, PGR, PTGS2, EGFR, and Src were mRNA targets of RYNXC. Our results suggested that RYNXC transdermal fluid downregulated ESR1, PGR, PTGS2, EGFR, and Src expression at gene and protein level in MCF-10AT cells. In the rat breast precancerous lesions model, high and low dose RYNXC could also significantly reduce genes and proteins expression of ESR1, PGR, PTGS2, EGFR, and Src. Taken together these data indicate that RYNXC targets multiple molecules responsible for breast precancerous lesion and is an effective Chinese herbal formula. So RYNXC may be a promising external drug for breast precancerous lesions.
Project description:Resistance to endocrine therapy remains a clinical challenge in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. We investigated if adding a traditional Asian herbal mixture consisting of 12 herbs, called Jaeumkanghwa-tang (JEKHT), to tamoxifen (TAM) therapy might prevent resistance and recurrence in the ER+ breast cancer model of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-exposed Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were divided into four groups treated as follows: 15 mg/kg TAM administered via diet as TAM citrate (TAM only); 500 mg/kg JEKHT administered via drinking water (JEKHT only group); TAM + JEKHT and no treatment control group. The study was replicated using two different batches of JEKHT. In both studies, a significantly higher proportion of ER+ mammary tumors responded to TAM if animals also were treated with JEKHT (experiment 1: 47% vs 65%, P = 0.015; experiment 2: 43% vs 77%, P < 0.001). The risk of local recurrence also was reduced (31% vs 12%, P = 0.002). JEKHT alone was mostly ineffective. In addition, JEKHT prevented the development of premalignant endometrial lesions in TAM-treated rats (20% in TAM only vs 0% in TAM + JEKHT). Co-treatment of antiestrogen-resistant LCC9 human breast cancer cells with 1.6 mg/mL JEKHT reversed their TAM resistance in dose-response studies in vitro. Several traditional herbal medicine preparations can exhibit anti-inflammatory properties and may increase anti-tumor immune activities in the tumor microenvironment. In the tumors of rats treated with both JEKHT and TAM, expression of Il-6 (P = 0.03), Foxp3/T regulatory cell (Treg) marker (P = 0.033) and Tgf?1 that activates Tregs (P < 0.001) were significantly downregulated compared with TAM only group. These findings indicate that JEKHT may prevent TAM-induced evasion of tumor immune responses.
Project description:We have previously shown that a fish oil (FO)-rich diet increased the chemopreventive efficacy of tamoxifen (Tam) against N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis. Herein, we provide evidence that Tam treatment modifies gene expression of mammary tumors depending upon the type of dietary fat fed to the animals. Rats initiated with MNU and treated with Tam were fed a diet rich in corn oil or FO. After 8 wk, cribriform tumors were collected and gene expression analysis was performed. Increased RNA expression of genes such as SerpinB10, Wisp2, and Apod in tumors from FO-treated rats is indicative of highly differentiated tumors. Decreased expression of H19 and Igf2 mRNA in Tam-treated groups, and Gamma Synuclein mRNA in the FO + Tam group may be related to tumor growth impairment and lower metastatic capacity. Change in the expression of genes associated with immunity in animals in the FO + Tam group may suggest a shift in the immune response. These data show that, although Tam modulates the expression of genes leading to tumor growth impairment, further modulations of genes are influenced by FO. FO modulation of Tam changes in gene expression accounts for its enhancing chemopreventive effect against MNU-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Nutrition and Cancer to view the supplemental file.
Project description:Elevated levels of p130(Cas)/BCAR1 (Crk-associated substrate/breast cancer antiestrogen resistance 1) are found in aggressive breast tumors and are associated with tamoxifen resistance of mammary cancers. p130(Cas) promotes the integration of protein complexes involved in multiple signaling pathways frequently deregulated in breast cancer. To elucidate mechanisms leading to p130(Cas) up-regulation in mammary carcinomas and during acquired tamoxifen resistance, the regulation of p130(Cas)/BCAR1 was studied. Because multiple putative binding motifs for the inducible transcription factor EGR1 were identified in the 5' region of BCAR1, the p130(Cas)/BCAR1 regulation by EGR1 and its coregulator NAB2 was investigated. Overexpression or short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated down-regulation of EGR1 or NAB2, and chromatin immunoprecipitations indicated that EGR1 and NAB2 act in concert to positively regulate p130(Cas)/BCAR1 expression in breast cancer cells. p130(Cas) depletion using siRNA showed that, in tamoxifen-sensitive MCF-7 cells, p130(Cas) regulates EGR1 and NAB2 expression, whereas in the derivative tamoxifen-resistant TAM-R cells, only NAB2 levels were influenced. BCAR1 messenger RNA and p130(Cas) protein were upregulated by phorbol esters following the kinetics of late response genes in MCF-7 but not in TAM-R cells. Thus, in MCF-7 cells, we identified a positive feedback loop where p130(Cas) positively regulates EGR1 and NAB2, which in turn induce p130(Cas) expression. Importantly, compared with MCF-7, enhanced NAB2 expression and increased EGR1 binding to the BCAR1 5' region observed in TAM-R may lead to the constitutively increased p130(Cas)/BCAR1 levels in TAM-R cells. The uncovered differences in this EGR1/NAB2/p130(Cas) network in MCF-7 versus TAM-R cells may also contribute to p130(Cas) up-regulation during acquired tamoxifen resistance.
Project description:Nanomedicine is an emerging area in the medical field, particularly in the treatment of cancers. Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) was shown to be a good nanoparticulated carrier for the delivery of tamoxifen (TAM). In this study, the tamoxifen-loaded erythropoietin-coated nanostructured lipid carriers (EPO-TAMNLC) were developed to enhance the anti-cancer properties and targetability of TAM, using EPO as the homing ligand for EPO receptors (EpoRs) on breast cancer tissue cells. Tamoxifen-loaded NLC (TAMNLC) was used for comparison. The LA7 cells and LA7 cell-induced rat mammary gland tumor were used as models in the study. Immunocytochemistry staining showed that LA7 cells express estrogen receptors (ERs) and EpoRs. EPO-TAMNLC and TAMNLC significantly (p<0.05) inhibited proliferation of LA7 in dose- and time-dependent manner. EPO-TAMNLC induced apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest of LA7 cells. Both drug delivery systems showed anti-mammary gland tumor properties. At an intravenous dose of 5 mg kg-1 body weight, EPO-TAMNLC and TAMNLC were not toxic to rats, suggesting that both are safe therapeutic compounds. In conclusion, EPO-TAMNLC is not only a unique drug delivery system because of the dual drug-loading feature, but also potentially highly specific in the targeting of breast cancer tissues positive for ERs and EpoRs. The incorporation of TAM into NLC with and without EPO coat had significantly (p<0.05) improved specificity and safety of the drug carriers in the treatment of mammary gland tumors.
Project description:A human tamoxifen-resistant mammary carcinoma, MaCa 3366/TAM, originating from a sensitive parental xenograft 3366 was successfully established by treatment of tumour-bearing nude mice with 1-50 mg kg(-1) tamoxifen for 3 years during routine passaging. Both tumours did not differ significantly in OR- and PR-positivity, however, when compared with the sensitive tumour line, the mean OR content of the TAM-resistant subline is slightly lower. An OR-upregulation following withdrawal of oestradiol treatment was observed in the parental tumours but not in the resistant xenografts. Following long-term treatment with tamoxifen, the histological pattern of the breast carcinoma changed. The more differentiated structures being apparent after treatment with 17beta-oestradiol in the original 3366 tumour were not induced in the resistant line. Tamoxifen failed to induce a tumour growth inhibition in comparison to the tamoxifen-sensitive line. The pure anti-oestrogen, ICI 182 780, revealed cross-resistance. Sequence analysis of the hormone-binding domain of the OR of both lines showed no differences, suggesting that either mutations in other regions of the OR are involved in the TAM-resistance phenotype or that mechanisms outside of this protein induced this phenotype. Oestrogen and anti-oestrogen regulate pS2 and cathepsin D expression in 3366 tumours as in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The resistant 3366/TAM tumours have lost this regulation. The established breast cancer xenografts 3366 and 3366/TAM offer the possibility of investigating mechanisms of anti-oestrogen resistance in an in vivo situation. They can be used to test novel approaches to prevent, or to overcome, this resistance in a clinically related manner.
Project description:Purpose:To assess the efficacy, safety, and quality-of-life impact of switching adjuvant treatment in hormone receptor-positive primary breast cancer patients who are still premenopausal after 2-3 years of tamoxifen therapy to anastrozole plus goserelin as compared with continuing tamoxifen over a total period of 5 years. Patients and methods:Hormone receptor-positive, premenopausal, lymph node-positive, or tumor size ≥4 cm breast cancer patients who had received tamoxifen for 2-3 years were randomly assigned to continue tamoxifen treatment (TAM group) or switch to adjuvant anastrozole plus goserelin (ADD group) and continue treatment for another 2-3 years (total treatment duration 5 years). Endpoints evaluated were adverse events (AEs), changes in bone mineral density, quality of life, and disease-free survival-related events. Results:A total of 62 patients (33 in the ADD group and 29 in the TAM group) were evaluated. Grade 3-4 drug-related AEs occurred in five patients (15.2%) in the ADD group vs none in the TAM group. In the ADD group, arthralgias were the most common AEs (5/33 patients; 15.2%), and three patients in this group were discontinued because of AEs. Treatment was temporarily suspended due to AEs in three patients (9.1%) in the ADD group and one patient (3.4%) in the TAM group. Compared with continuing TAM therapy, switching to anastrozole plus goserelin did not result in any worsening of bone mineral density or quality of life. During a median follow-up of 34 months, five patients (15.2%) in the ADD group had disease-free survival events vs four patients (13.8%) in the TAM group. Conclusion:For early-stage breast cancer patients who remain premenopausal following 2-3 years of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy, switching to anastrozole plus goserelin therapy was safe with tolerable adverse effects. However, it did not show superior efficacy compared to remaining on tamoxifen treatment. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier NCT01352091).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adjuvant tamoxifen therapy approximately halves the risk of recurrence in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer patients, but many women respond insufficiently to therapy. Expression of multi-drug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) in breast cancer may potentiate tamoxifen resistance. Thus, we investigated the expression of MRP2 in breast cancer as a predictor of tamoxifen therapy effectiveness. MATERIAL AND METHODS:We conducted a case-control study nested in the Danish Breast Cancer Group clinical database. The study included women aged 35-69 years diagnosed with stage l-lll breast cancer during 1985-2001, in Jutland, Denmark. We identified 541 recurrent breast cancers (cases) among women with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) disease treated with tamoxifen for at least 1 year (ER+/TAM+) and 300 cases among women with estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) disease, never treated with tamoxifen (ER-/TAM-). We matched one recurrence-free control to each recurrent case. We retrieved paraffin-embedded primary tumor tissue for all patients, and all available recurrent tumor tissue from pathology archives. MRP2 expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) associating MRP2 expression (positive vs. none) with breast cancer recurrence in conditional logistic regression models. We compared MRP2 expression in paired primary- and recurrent tumors. RESULTS:MRP2 expression was more prevalent in the ER+/TAM?+?group, than in the ER-/TAM?-?group. No predictive utility of MRP2 for breast cancer recurrence was found in the ER+/TAM?+?group (ORadj = 0.96, 95% CI 0.70, 1.33). Further, no prognostic utility was found in the ER-/TAM?-?group (ORadj = 0.81, 95% CI 0.53, 1.23). MRP2 expression was not increased in recurrent versus primary tumors. CONCLUSIONS:MRP2 expression is neither a predictive marker of tamoxifen effectiveness nor a prognostic marker in breast cancer.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori infection promotes male predominant gastric adenocarcinoma in humans. Estrogens reduce gastric cancer risk and previous studies showed that prophylactic 17?-estradiol (E2) in INS-GAS mice decreases H. pylori-induced carcinogenesis. We examined the effect of E2 and tamoxifen (TAM) on H. pylori-induced gastric cancer in male and female INS-GAS mice. After confirming robust gastric pathology at 16 weeks postinfection (WPI), mice were implanted with E2, TAM, both E2 and TAM, or placebo pellets for 12 weeks. At 28 WPI, gastric histopathology, gene expression, and immune cell infiltration were evaluated and serum inflammatory cytokines measured. After treatment, no gastric cancer was observed in H. pylori-infected males receiving E2 and/or TAM, whereas 40% of infected untreated males developed gastric cancer. E2, TAM, and their combination significantly reduced gastric precancerous lesions in infected males compared with infected untreated males (P < 0.001, 0.01, and 0.01, respectively). However, TAM did not alter female pathology regardless of infection status. Differentially expressed genes from males treated with E2 or TAM (n = 363 and n = 144, Q < 0.05) associated highly with cancer and cellular movement, indicating overlapping pathways in the reduction of gastric lesions. E2 or TAM deregulated genes associated with metastasis (PLAUR and MMP10) and Wnt inhibition (FZD6 and SFRP2). Compared with controls, E2 decreased gastric mRNA (Q < 0.05) and serum levels (P < 0.05) of CXCL1, a neutrophil chemokine, leading to decreased neutrophil infiltration (P < 0.01). Prevention of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer by E2 and TAM may be mediated by estrogen signaling and is associated with decreased CXCL1, decreased neutrophil counts, and downregulation of oncogenic pathways.
Project description:Tamoxifen is oxidized by cytochrome-P450 enzymes (e.g., CYP2D6) to two active metabolites, which are eliminated via glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyl transferases (UGT). We measured the association between functional polymorphisms in key UGTs (UGT2B15*2, UGT2B7*2, and UGT1A8*3) and the recurrence rate among breast cancer survivors.We used the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group registry to identify 541 cases of recurrent breast cancer among women with estrogen receptor-positive tumors treated with tamoxifen for at least 1 year (ER(+)/TAM(+)), and 300 cases of recurrent breast cancer among women with estrogen receptor-negative tumors who were not treated with tamoxifen (ER(-)/TAM(-)). We matched one control to each case on ER status, menopausal status, stage, calendar period, and county. UGT polymorphisms were genotyped from archived primary tumors. We estimated the recurrence OR for the UGT polymorphisms by using logistic regression models, with and without stratification on CYP2D6*4 genotype.No UGT polymorphism was associated with breast cancer recurrence in either the ER(+)/TAM(+) or ER(-)/TAM(-) groups [in the ER(+)/TAM(+) group, compared with two normal alleles: adjusted OR for two UGT2B15*2 variant alleles = 1.0 (95% CI, 0.70-1.5); adjusted OR for two UGT2B7*2 variant alleles = 0.96 (95% CI, 0.65-1.4); adjusted OR for one or two UGT1A8*3 variant alleles = 0.95 (0.49-1.9)]. Associations were similar within strata of CYP2D6*4 genotype.Functional polymorphisms in key tamoxifen-metabolizing enzymes were not associated with breast cancer recurrence risk.Our results do not support the genotyping of key metabolic enzyme polymorphisms to predict response to tamoxifen therapy.