The suitability of the WHOQOL-BREF for Canadian and Norwegian older adults.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF, a generic quality of life scale, among older people in Canada and Norway. Very similar data from the Canadian and Norwegian Field Trial data (Canada n = 192; Norway, n = 469) were analyzed and compared. Higher negatively skewed mean scores were found for all WHOQOL-BREF domains in Canada. For both study samples, missing values were highest for the sex item from the social domain. Ceiling effects were found (Canada n = 21; Norway n = 11) primarily among items in the physical and environmental domains. In both study samples, a multitrait multimethod procedure indicated items correlated most strongly with their parent domains; however, equally appreciable correlations were observed between physical, psychological, and environmental items (r = 0.33-0.64; p < 0.01). The social domain had the lowest internal consistency (α = 0.67 Canada, α = 0.55 Norway). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) yielded marginal goodness-of-fit between the hypothesized WHOQOL-BREF measurement model and the sample data as well as differing patterns of domain misspecification. Patterns of correlations (p < 0.01) of WHOQOL-BREF domains with WHOQOL-OLD facets, a global QOL item, the SF-12, and the geriatric depression scale provided evidence of convergent and divergent validity. Domain scores also significantly discriminated between health and unhealthy populations and presence of morbidity. Empirical support was found, in part, for the construct validity of the WHOQOL-BREF in older adults. Despite some different patterns found in the CFA, possibly due to cultural or sampling differences, it appears that the instrument is reliable, valid, and facilitates cross-cultural comparisons.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antiretroviral therapy has prolonged the lives of those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but the effects of chronic infection on their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) remain a concern. Numerous instruments have been developed to measure HRQoL, yet evidence of their cross-cultural equivalence and continued applicability is limited. We adapted the WHOQOL-HIV BREF to French and assessed its psychometric properties in a sample of community-dwelling adults living with HIV who were mostly virally suppressed. METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study within the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine cohort from July 2018 to May 2019. Five hundred eighty-six participants were consecutively enrolled at their HIV-consultations and completed either a web-based (n?=?406) or paper self-administered assessment (n?=?180). The means and standard deviations for items and domains were computed and the presence of floor and ceiling effects assessed. We evaluated internal consistency by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficients per domain. We assessed construct validity by performing a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Concurrent, convergent and discriminant validity were assessed with Pearson's correlations and known-group validity was assessed according to CD4 cell count, viral load, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical categories for HIV, and hospitalization of more than 48?h within 2 years of the most recent consultation using one-way analysis of variance and independent t-tests. RESULTS:Five hundred eighty-six PLWH were included in this analysis. Their median age was 55; 73% were male; 85% were of French descent; 99% were on ART and 93% were virally suppressed. We found floor effects for one and ceiling effects for 11 items. Four of the six domains showed good internal consistency (? range: 0.63-0.79). CFA showed that the WHOQOL-HIV BREF's six-domain structure produced an acceptable fit (SRMR?=?0.059; CFI?=?0.834; RMSEA?=?0.07; 90% CI: 0.06-0.08). It showed good concurrent, convergent and discriminant validity. There was some evidence of known-group validity. The personal beliefs domain had the highest score (15.04?±?3.35) and the psychological health domain had the lowest (13.70?±?2.78). CONCLUSIONS:The French WHOQOL-HIV BREF has acceptable measurement properties. Its broad conceptualisation of HRQoL, going beyond physical and mental health, may be of particular value in our older, treatment-experienced and virally suppressed population. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03296202 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6zgOBArps ).
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and infectious disease hospitals in three Chinese provinces. PARTICIPANTS:Sample of 1100 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). INTERVENTIONS:We recruited 1100 PLWHA to evaluate their quality of life (QOL) using the WHOQOL-HIV BREF. Of these participants, 57 were randomly selected to repeat the QOL evaluation 2 weeks later. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The reliability of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF was assessed in terms of its internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The construct, concurrent, convergent, discriminant and known-group validity were also analysed. In addition, the factorial invariance across genders was assessed. RESULTS:Cronbach's ? coefficient for the overall scale was 0.93. Except for the spirituality domain, which had an ? below 0.70 (0.66), the other five domains showed adequate internal consistency. The test-retest reliability revealed a statistically significant intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.72-0.82 (p<0.001). Confirmatory factor analysis found that the six-domain structure produced an acceptable fit to the data. The instrument showed factorial invariance across gender groups. All domains were significantly correlated with the general items and the SF-36 (p<0.01). The correlation coefficients were >0.40 (r=0.40-0.67), except for the association between the spirituality domain and two general items (QOL: r=0.33; health status: r=0.36). Subjects with lower CD4 counts had lower scores for all domains (p<0.05). Symptomatic participants had significantly lower scores than asymptomatic participants on the physical, psychological and independence domains (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The WHOQOL-HIV BREF revealed good psychometric characteristics among Chinese PLWHA. These findings offer promising support for the use of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF as a measure of QOL among Chinese PLWHA and in cross-cultural comparative studies on QOL.
Project description:There is no disease-specific instrument to describe health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Indian patients with asthma. However, an abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref), a generic Hindi HRQoL measure, has been developed and validated in India.To evaluate the WHOQOL-Bref in adult patients with asthma and to test possible modifications to the instrument to improve its psychometric adequacy.Sixty-seven patients with asthma completed the WHOQOL-Bref. Rasch analysis was used to explore the psychometric performance of the four domains (physical, psychological, social relationships and environment) of the scale. Overall fit of data to model expectations, appropriate category ordering, presence of differential item functioning, individual item fit and targeting of item difficulty to patient ability were explored for each domain. Item deletion and rescoring were applied to misfitting items to improve overall performance.The overall fit of the WHOQOL-Bref data was adequate. Item 3 (pain prevents doing work) displayed a large positive fit residual value (indicating violation of unidimensionality), resulting in poor construct validity for the physical domain. No item exhibited differential item functioning. Ten items had disordered thresholds. The WHOQOL-Bref was modified by dropping item 3 and rescoring category structures of 16 items. The modified scale had good construct validity for all domains, ordered thresholds for all items and good targeting of items to persons.The WHOQOL-Bref performed inadequately in describing HRQoL in the asthma patients studied. However, when modified by Rasch analysis, the scale proved better than the original scale.
Project description:Quality of life (QOL) is an important outcome measure in the treatment of heroin addiction. The Taiwan version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL-BREF [TW]) has been developed and studied in various groups, but not specifically in a population of injection drug users. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-BREF (TW) in a sample of injection drug users undergoing methadone maintenance treatment.A total of 553 participants were interviewed and completed the instrument. Item-response distributions, internal consistency, corrected item-domain correlation, criterion-related validity, and construct validity through confirmatory factor analysis were evaluated.The frequency distribution of the 4 domains of the WHOQOL-BREF (TW) showed no floor or ceiling effects. The instrument demonstrated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficients were higher than 0.7 across the 4 domains) and all items had acceptable correlation with the corresponding domain scores (r?=?0.32-0.73). Correlations (p?<?0.01) of the 4 domains with the 2 benchmark items assessing overall QOL and general health were supportive of criterion-related validity. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded marginal goodness-of-fit between the 4-domain model and the sample data.The hypothesized WHOQOL-BREF measurement model was appropriate for the injection drug users after some adjustments. Despite different patterns found in the confirmatory factor analysis, the findings overall suggest that the WHOQOL-BREF (TW) is a reliable and valid measure of QOL among injection drug users and can be utilized in future treatment outcome studies. The factor structure provided by the study also helps to understand the QOL characteristics of the injection drug users in Taiwan. However, more research is needed to examine its test-retest reliability and sensitivity to changes due to treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study aimed to validate the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire for use in a rural district of Bangladesh. METHODS:This cross-sectional study recruited a multi-stage cluster random sample of 2425 participants from the rural district Narail of Bangladesh in May-July 2017. Rasch analysis was carried out using the sampled participants, as well as multiple validation random sub-samples of 300 participants, to validate four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire: physical, psychological, social and environmental. RESULTS:The original WHOQOL-BREF appeared to be a poor fit for both sampled and sub-sampled group of participants in Narail district in all underlying domains: physical, psychological, social and environmental. Two items (sleep and work capacity) from the physical domain, two items (personal belief and negative feelings) from the psychological domain and three items (home environment, health care and transport) from the environment domain were excluded for goodness of fit of the Rasch model. The social domain exhibited reasonably reliable fitness while fulfilling all the assumptions of the Rasch model. A modified version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire using five-items for the physical ([Formula: see text] = 36.47, p = 0.013, Person Separation Index (PSI) = 0.773), four-items for the psychological ([Formula: see text] = 28.30, p = 0.029, PSI = 0.708) and five-items for the environmental ([Formula: see text] = 36.97, p = 0.011, PSI = 0.804) domain was applied, which showed adequate internal consistency, reliability, unidimensionality, and similar functioning for different age-sex distributions. CONCLUSIONS:The modified WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire translated into Bengali language appeared to be a valid tool for measuring quality of life in a typical rural district in Bangladesh. Despite some limitations of the modified WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, further application of Rasch analysis using this version or an improved one in other representative rural areas of Bangladesh is recommended to assess the external validity of the outcomes of this study and to determine the efficacy of this tool to measure the quality of life at the national rural level.
Project description:The World Health Organisation Quality of Life (WHOQOL) questionnaires are widely used around the world and can claim strong cross-cultural validity due to their development in collaboration with international field centres. To enhance conceptual equivalence of quality of life across cultures, optional national items are often developed for use alongside the core instrument. The present study outlines the development of national items for the New Zealand WHOQOL-BREF. Focus groups with members of the community as well as health experts discussed what constitutes quality of life in their opinion. Based on themes extracted of aspects not contained in the existing WHOQOL instrument, 46 candidate items were generated and subsequently rated for their importance by a random sample of 585 individuals from the general population. Applying importance criteria reduced these items to 24, which were then sent to another large random sample (n = 808) to be rated alongside the existing WHOQOL-BREF. A final set of five items met the criteria for national items. Confirmatory factor analysis identified four national items as belonging to the psychological domain of quality of life, and one item to the social domain. Rasch analysis validated these results and generated ordinal-to-interval conversion algorithms to allow use of parametric statistics for domain scores with and without national items.
Project description:The World Health Organization has developed a brief generic questionnaire to assess quality of life, the WHOQOL-BREF. It has been studied in diverse groups, but not specifically in older people. The purpose of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the French version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire in healthy older people and to compare the mean profiles of participants with the mean profile obtained in the international validation study of the WHOQOL-BREF. Of the total sample of 262 Swiss French speaking older participants, 122 completed a retest after 2 weeks. The WHOQOL-BREF items demonstrated high test-retest reliability and validity. The WHOQOL-BREF items were differentially related to physical and mental health measures (SF-12 components, morbidity, and depression), thereby demonstrating convergent and discriminant validity. Compared to the international validation sample of the WHOQOL-BREF, participants of the present study reported higher QOL on 22 of the 26 items. A comparison of item profiles between male and female participants revealed gender differences for two items only (social support and negative feelings). We conclude that the psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-BREF items in older adults are good. To consider the 24 specific facets that are assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF appropriately, we recommend using item profiles on the individual and the sample level.
Project description:Psychometric evidence is necessary to establish scientific integrity and clinical usefulness of translations and cultural adaptations of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SS-QoL) scale. However, the limited evidence on psychometrics of Yoruba version of SS-QoL 2.0 (SS-QoL(Y)) is a significant shortcoming. This study assessed the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, convergent, divergent, discriminant and known-group validity of the SS-QoL(Y).Yoruba version of the WHOQoL-BREF was used to test the convergent and divergent validity of the SS-QoL(Y) among 100 consenting stroke survivors. The WHOQoL-BREF and SS-QoL(Y) was administered randomly in order to eliminate bias. The test-retest reliability of the SS-QoL(Y) was carried out among 68 of the respondents within an interval of 7 days. All respondents were purposively recruited from selected secondary and tertiary health facilities in South-west Nigeria. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation, and inferential statistics of Spearman correlation, Cronbach's alpha, Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC), Independent t-test and One-way ANOVA. Alpha level was set at p < 0.05.The physical health, psychological health, social relationship and environment domains on WHOQoL-BREF with correlation coefficient that ranged from 0.214 to 0.360 showed significant correlation with similar domains on SS-QoL(Y). Dissimilar domains between the two scales had r values from 0.035 to 0.366. Discriminant validity of SS-QoL(Y) showed that items' r value ranged from 0.711 to 0.920 with their hypothesized domains. The scale demonstrated moderate to strong test-retest reliability with Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for the domains and overall scores (r = 0.47 to 0.81) and moderate to high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha =0.61 to 0.82) for domains scores. These correlations were also significant for the domains and overall scores (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences across different age groups or gender for the domains or overall scores of SS-QoL(Y).Discriminant and known-group validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Yoruba version of the Stroke Specific Quality of Life 2.0 are adequate while the convergent and divergent validity are low but acceptable. The SS-QoL(Y) is recommended for assessing health-related quality of life among Yoruba stroke survivors.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To examine the preliminary psychometric properties of the Chinese health-promoting lifestyle profile II (HPLP II) among Taiwanese women.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from 137 middle-aged women in southern Taiwan. HPLP II reliability was estimated with Cronbach's ? coefficient, and concurrent validity was estimated with Pearson's correlation between the HPLP II, the World Health Organization's abbreviated Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL-BREF), perceived health, and demographic variables. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) evaluated construct validity.<h4>Results</h4>Initial CFA using a six-factor measurement model aligned with the original HPLP II, excepting the factor loading of one subsequently excluded item. CFA of the revised 51-item HPLP II yielded a good estimate of fit. Correlations between the revised instrument and the six subscales were acceptable >0.7. The Cronbach's ? coefficient surpassed 0.7 for the revised instrument and six subscales ranged from 0.71 to 0.91. The relationships between the 51-item instrument, perceived health, WHOQOL-BREF domain scores, and demographic variables were also significantly positive.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The revised HPLP II scale is appropriate to measure the health-promoting lifestyles of Taiwanese women.
Project description:Quality of life measurement is a useful addition to measurement of health outcomes in evaluation of the benefits of many health and welfare interventions. The WHOQOL-BREF measures quality of life from a broad multi-dimensional perspective but was not used in Malawi. The objective of this study was to translate the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire into the main local language of Malawi: Chichewa; and to validate it quantitatively with respect to internal consistency, domain structure, and discriminant validity for this context.WHO-mandated guidelines were followed for translation, adaptation, pre-testing (focus groups), piloting (patient interviews) and data coding. Analyses using descriptive statistics, correlation and regression were undertaken to investigate the validity of the WHOQOL-BREF in the ways described above. Additional regression analyses examined the impact of socio-demographic variables on the domain scores.309 respondents completed the questionnaire (with >98% response rates for all questions except Q21 (sex life)). 259 were sick with a variety of health problems, and 50 were considered healthy. All domains showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha?>?=0.7) with all item scores also most highly correlated with the scores of their assigned domain. All domain scores varied by health problem, and more depressed respondents had significantly lower scores in all domains than those less depressed. Domain scores and their associations with socio-demographic variables are presented and discussed.This study demonstrates that the new Chichewa WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire is acceptable and comprehensible to respondents in Malawi. The questionnaire also passed a number of tests of the validity of its psychometric properties. In the pilot population we found that older age was associated with lower Physical domain scores. Conversely, higher levels of educational attainment were found to be associated with higher quality of life in all domains except for Social Relationships. Respondents living as married or single were found to have higher quality of life in the Physical, Psychological and Social domains, and those who were widowed lower Physical quality of life.