Impact of chronic unpredicted mild stress-induced depression on repaglinide fate via glucocorticoid signaling pathway.
ABSTRACT: Chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression could alter the pharmacokinetics of many drugs in rats, however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. In this work we studied the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide, and explored the role of glucocorticoid and adrenergic signaling pathway in regulating drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) in GK rats and BRL 3A cells. The plasma cortisol and epinephrine levels were increased, meanwhile the pharmacokinetics of repaglinide were altered significantly in depression model rats. Forty-nine genes in liver of model rats displayed significant difference comparing to control rats. The differentially expressed genes enriched in the drug metabolism and steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway significantly, and Nr1i3 matched 335 connectivity genes. CAR and Ugt1a1 protein expression were enhanced significantly in liver of model rats. The mRNA expression of Ugt1a1 and Nr1i2 were increased 2 and 4 times respectively with dexamethasone (DEX) and 8-Br-cAMP co-treatment in BRL 3A cells. The protein expression of PXR was up-regulated, too. However, RU486 reversed the up-regulated effect. The adrenergic receptor agonists had little impact on the DMEs in BRL 3A. Our data suggested that CUMS-induced depression might up-regulate DMEs expression via glucocorticoid signaling pathway, and accelerate the fate of the repaglinide in spontaneous diabetes rats.
Project description:Background. This study was to explore the pharmacokinetics of saxagliptin (Sax) in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats complicated with depression induced by chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS). The comorbidity of diabetic patients with depression is becoming more and more epidemic. Whether depression mental disorder alters the pharmacokinetics of hypoglycemic drugs in diabetes patients is not clear. Methods. Five-week-old male GK rats were kept in the cage for 7 weeks in a specific pathogen free (SPF)-grade lab until the emergence of diabetes and were then divided into two groups: control group and depression model group. Rats in the CUMS-induced depression group were exposed to a series of stressors for 8 weeks. Plasma serotonin and dopamine levels and behavior of open-field test were used to confirm the establishment of the depression model. All rats were given 0.5 mg/kg Sax orally after 8 weeks and blood samples were collected at different time points. The Sax concentration was assayed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The CYP450 activity of the liver microsomes was determined by using cocktails of probe drugs in which the activities of CYP enzymes were assessed through the determination of the production of the probe drugs. Results. Statistically significant differences in Sax pharmacokinetics were observed for area under curve, clearance, peak concentration, peak time and mean residence time between the depression rats and the control rats, while no statistical differences were observed for half-time and distribution volume by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The CYP450 activity had different changes in the depression group. Conclusions. These results indicated that CUMS-induced depression alters the drug metabolic process of Sax and CYP450 activity of the liver microsomal enzymes in GK rats.
Project description:Many diabetic patients complicated with wild to severe depression. It is unclear in diabetic medication whether depression perturbs the drug metabolic process of the hypoglycemic agents or not. The present study was designed to investigate the impact of chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS) -induced depression on mitiglinide (MGN) pharmacokinetics in rats. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats in CUMS group were subjected to different types of stressors and the stress procedures lasted for 8 weeks. Control group without receiving stress had free access to food and water. Open-field test and 5-HT levels were assayed to evaluate the depression. After CUMS all rats were given 2.5 mg/kg of mitiglinide per os. The blood samples were collected at different time and mitiglinide plasma concentration was measured by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Non-compartmental statistical moment analysis was processed with DAS software. In CMUS-induced depression group, peak concentration (Cmax), peak time (Tmax), area under curve (AUC0 → ∞), mean residence time (MRT0 → ∞), and half-life (T1/2z) were reduced while total plasma clearance (CLz/F) was increased compared to control group. These preliminary results indicated that CUMS-induced depression alter the drug metabolic process of mitiglinide in rats. This finding will be significant in clinic.
Project description:To explored the mechanism of pharmacokinetic perturbation in chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS) resulting depression, CUMS-induced depression animal model with spontaneous diabetic GK rats were established. The expression profile in GK rats' livers were screened using Affymetrix Rat 230 2.0 Array. Overall design: Male GK rats emergenced of diabetes symptom, then were randomly divided into two groups: control group and CUMS group. Rats were sacrificed after 8 weeks' CUMS resulting in depression. Rat’s livers were selected for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Although the accumulation of homocysteine (Hcy) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression, whether Hcy is directly involved and acts as the primary cause of depressive symptoms remains unclear. The present study was designed to clarify whether increased Hcy plays an important role in stress-induced depression. RESULTS: We employed the chronic unpredictable mild stress model (CUMS) of depression for 8 weeks to observe changes in the plasma Hcy level in the development of depression. The results showed that Wistar rats exposed to a series of mild, unpredictable stressors for 4 weeks displayed depression-like symptoms such as anhedonia (decreased sucrose preferences) and a decreased 5-Hydroxy Tryptophan (5-HT) concentration in the hippocampus. At the end of 8 weeks, the plasma Hcy level increased in the CUMS rats. The anti-depressant sertraline could decrease the plasma Hcy level and improve the depression-like symptoms in the CUMS rats. RhBHMT, an Hcy metabolic enzyme, could decrease the plasma Hcy level significantly, although it could not improve the depressive symptoms in the CUMS rats. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained from the experiments did not support the hypothesis that the increased Hcy concentration mediated the provocation of depression in CUMS rats, and the findings suggested that the increased Hcy concentration in the plasma might be the result of stress-induced depression.
Project description:Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) promote de novo lipogenesis, which caused abnormal hepatic lipid accumulation, by the NF?B-Orai1 pathway. Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been recognized as key mechanisms in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis. Whether Orai1 facilitates ER stress by oxidative stress remains unknown. The rat model of NAFLD was constructed by feeding high-fat diet (HFD). BRL-3A cells were treated with NEFAs, Orai1inhibtor BTP2, NF?B inhibitor wogonin, or small interfering Orai (siOrai) 1, respectively. The content of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), indicating oxidative stress, was measured by a spectrophotometer. ER stress major proteins PERK, IRE1, ATF6, CHOP, and GRP78 were quantified using Western blot and qRT-PCR analyses. For the intracellular location of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Orai1 were measured by Western blot and immunofluorescence, and cytosolic Ca2+ was measured by flow cytometry. As we expected, the liver of rats with NAFLD showed lipid droplets in HE and Oil Red O. The decreased GSH and increased MDA were found in rats fed with HFD. ER stress major proteins PERK, IRE1, ATF6, GRP78, and CHOP were significantly increased in the HFD group. In BRL-3A cells, GSH content dramatically decreased from 1 h, MDA content dramatically increased from 3 h, and expression levels of ER stress significantly increased from 3 h by NEFA treatment. Furthermore, cytosolic Ca2+ increased from 0.5 h by NEFAs treated in BRL-3A cells. It indicated that NEFAs increased cytosolic Ca2+ to induce oxidative stress, thus ER stress. The content of oxidative stress and ER stress proteins showed the same trends by NEFAs treated in BRL-3A cells. These effects were reversed by the Orai1 inhibitor BTP2 and the NF?B inhibitor wogonin. Moreover, siOrai1 abrogated NEFAs' influence in BRL-3A cells. Last, ROS was found by NEFAs treated in BRL-3A cells, and NEFA treatment enhanced the nuclear localization of NF-?B p65 and ORAI1. It was considered that high NEFAs increased cytosolic Ca2+ and enhanced NF?B-dependent SOCE and its moiety protein Orai1 to decrease GSH and thus induced oxidative stress at earlier stages and furthermore tempted ER stress in the pathologic progress of NAFLD.
Project description:Depression is a complex disease characterized by a series of pathological changes. Research on depression is mainly focused on the changes in brain, but not on liver. Therefore, we initially explored the metabolic profiles of hepatic extracts from rats treated with chronic unpredictive mild stress (CUMS) by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. Using multivariate statistical analysis, a total of 26 altered metabolites distinguishing CUMS-induced depression from normal control were identified. Using two-stage receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, 18 metabolites were recognized as potential biomarkers related to CUMS-induced depression via 12 metabolic pathways. Subsequently, we detected the mRNA expressions levels of apoptosis-associated genes such as Bax and Bcl-2 and four key enzymes including Pla2g15, Pnpla6, Baat and Gad1 involved in phospholipid and primary bile acid biosynthesis in liver tissues of CUMS rats by real-time qRT-PCR assay. The expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, Pla2g15, Pnpla6 and Gad1 mRNA were 1.43,1.68, 1.74, 1.67 and 1.42-fold higher, and those of Baat, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio mRNA were 0.83, 0.85-fold lower in CUMS rats compared with normal control. Results of liver-targeted metabonomics and mRNA expression demonstrated that CUMS-induced depression leads to variations in hepatic metabolic profile and gene expression, and ultimately results in liver injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Depression is a serious and common psychiatric disorder generally affecting more women than men. A woman's risk of developing depression increases steadily with age, and higher incidence is associated with the onset of menopause. Here we evaluated the antidepressant properties of Asparagus cochinchinensis (AC) extract and investigated its underlying mechanisms in a rat menopausal depression model. METHODS:To model this menopausal depression, we induced a menopause-like state in rats via ovariectomy and exposed them to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for 6?weeks, which promotes the development of depression-like symptoms. During the final 4?weeks of CUMS, rats were treated with either AC extract (1000 or 2000?mg/kg, PO), which has been reported to provide antidepressant effects, or with the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (10?mg/kg, IP). RESULTS:We report that CUMS promotes depression-like behavior and significantly increases serum corticosterone and inflammatory cytokine levels in the serum of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. We also found that CUMS decreases the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its primary receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), in OVX rats, and treatment with AC extract rescues both BDNF and TrkB expression levels. CONCLUSION:These results suggest that AC extract exerts antidepressant effects, possibly via modulation of the BDNF-TrkB pathway, in a rat model of menopausal depression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Depression is characterized by significant and low mood. Classical antidepressants are still not adequate in treating depression because of undesirable side effects. Folic acid, a member of the vitamin B complex, in considered to be strongly associated with the function and development of the central nervous system. Thus, in this study, we established a model of depression through chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in rats and assessed the antidepressant effects and mechanisms of folic acid. METHODS:Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), CUMS treated with folic acid, and CUMS treated with citalopram. Rats were assessed in terms of weight change, open-field test and sucrose preference. Homocysteine, monoamine neurotransmitters, interleukin-6, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ?-endorphin levels in the serum and brains of rats were analysed. RESULTS:Folic acid exhibited antidepressant-like effects in open-field and sucrose preference tests. Folic acid treatment effectively increased the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters, BDNF and ?-endorphin, interleukin-6 and homocysteine levels were also significantly suppressed by folic acid administration. CONCLUSIONS:These findings serve as preclinical evidence that folic acid plays an antidepressant-like role in several pathways involving monoamine neurotransmitters. Thus, folic acid may be used as a potential antidepressant.
Project description:Depression is an inflammatory-related condition, with the progression in neuronal damage resulting in major depression disorder. Ginsenoside-Rg1, a sterol extract from the herb Panax ginseng, has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects upon neurodegeneration disorders. However, whether ginsenoside-Rg1 confers antidepressant-like effects on neuroinflammation as associated with depression, as well as the possible mechanism involved in these neuroprotective effects, is currently unclear. In the present report, we show that treatment with ginsenoside-Rg1 (40?mg/kg, i.p.) significantly ameliorated depressive-like behaviors as induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in a rat model of depression. Moreover, these CUMS rats treated with ginsenoside-Rg1 showed reductions in the levels of the oxidative stress products and the activity in the antioxidant stress kinase. Furthermore, CUMS rats treated with ginsenoside-Rg1 showed ameliorated neuroinflammation and associated neuronal apoptosis along with a reduction in dendritic spine atrophy and display of depressive behaviors. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that ginsenoside-Rg1 produces antidepressant-like effects in CUMS-exposed rats; and one of the mechanisms for these antidepressant-like effects of ginsenoside-Rg1 appears to involve protection against oxidative stress and thus the neuronal deterioration resulting from inflammatory responses. These findings provide evidence for the therapeutic potential of ginsenoside-Rg1 in the treatment of stress-related depression.
Project description:AIM/INTRODUCTION:Both glucocorticoids and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) have been shown to induce insulin resistance (IR) in hepatocytes and adipocytes. Here, we explore whether there is a correlation between them. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Except for the control group, male rats were exposed to dexamethasone treated with or without para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA), or carbidopa for 20 days. Except for the control group, buffalo rat liver 3A (BRL-3A) cells were exposed to dexamethasone for 24 h, treated with or without pCPA, carbidopa, or clorgiline for 48 h, or exposed to 5-HT treated with or without fluoxetine for 48 h. Whole-body IR was determined by both glucose tolerance test and measurement of fasting blood glucose and insulin, whereas hepatocytes or adipocytes IR was determined by examining either hepatic gluconeogenesis, steatosis and glucose transporter 2 expression or lipolysis. RESULTS:Dexamethasone-induced whole-body IR, liver and intraabdominal adipose IR were accompanied by upregulated expressions of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase with increased 5-HT level in both tissues, which were attenuated significantly by pCPA, inhibiting tryptophan hydroxylase-1, or carbidopa, inhibiting aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. [Correction added on 22 September 2015, after first online publication: 'inhibiting aromatic amino acid decarboxylase' was duplicated and has been replaced by 'tryptophan hydroxylase-1'.] In the BRL-3A cells, dexamethasone-induced IR was also accompanied by upregulated 5-HT synthesis in dose- and time-dependent manners, and was attenuated by pCPA or carbidopa, but exacerbated by clorgiline, inhibiting monoamine oxidase-A to further increase 5-HT level. Dexamethasone also enhanced 5-HT 2A and 2B receptor expressions in both tissues and BRL-3A cells. Additionally, blocking 5-HT transporter with fluoxetine significantly suppressed 5-HT-induced IR in BRL-3A cells. CONCLUSION:Enhancement of 5-HT synthesis in liver and intra-abdominal adipose is an important reason for glucocorticoids-induced IR.