Elder abuse and mortality: the role of psychological and social wellbeing.
ABSTRACT: Elder abuse is a pervasive human right and public health issue.We aimed to examine the mortality associated with elder abuse across levels of psychological and social factors.The Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP) is a prospective population-based cohort study that began in 1993. A subset of these participants enrolled between 1993 and 2005 had elder abuse reported to social services agencies (n = 113). Mortality was ascertained during follow-up and with the National Death Index. Psychosocial factors (depression, social network and social engagement) were assessed during the CHAP interview. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the mortality of elder abuse across levels of psychosocial factors using time-varying covariate analyses.The median follow-up time for the cohort (n = 7,841) was 7.6 years (interquartile range 3.8-12.4 years). In multivariate analyses, those with highest (hazard ratio (HR) 2.60, 95% CI 1.58-4.28) and middle levels (HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.19-3.99) of depressive symptoms had an increased mortality risk associated with elder abuse. For social network, those with lowest (HR 2.50, 95% CI 1.62-3.87) and middle levels (HR 2.65, 95% CI 1.52-4.60) of social network had increased mortality risk associated with elder abuse. For social engagement, those with lowest (HR 2.32, 95% CI 1.47-3.68) and middle levels (HR 2.59, 95% CI 1.65-5.45) of social engagement had increased mortality risk associated with elder abuse. Among those with lowest levels of depressive symptoms, highest levels of social network and social engagement, there was no significant effect of reported or confirmed elder abuse on mortality risk.Mortality risk associated with elder abuse was most prominent among those with higher levels of depressive symptoms and lower levels of social network and social engagement.
Project description:BACKGROUND:As Malaysia is fast becoming an ageing nation, the health, safety and welfare of elders are major societal concerns. Elder abuse is a phenomenon recognised abroad but less so locally. This paper presents the baseline findings from the Malaysian Elder Mistreatment Project (MAESTRO) study, the first community-based study on elder abuse in Malaysia. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study, analysing baseline findings of a cohort of older adults. SETTING:Kuala Pilah district, Negeri Sembilan state, Malaysia. OBJECTIVES:To determine the prevalence of elder abuse among community dwelling older adults and its associated factors. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 2112 community dwelling older adults aged 60 years and above were recruited employing a multistage sampling using the national census. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Elder abuse, measured using a validated instrument derived from previous literature and the modified Conflict Tactic Scales, similar to the Irish national prevalence survey on elder abuse with modification to local context. Factors associated with abuse and profiles of respondents were also examined. RESULTS:The prevalence of overall abuse was reported to be 4.5% in the past 12 months. Psychological abuse was most common, followed by financial, physical, neglect and sexual abuse. Two or more occurrences of abusive acts were common, while clustering of various types of abuse was experienced by one-third of abused elders. Being male (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.15, 95%?CI 1.23 to 3.78), being at risk of social isolation (aOR 1.96, 95%?CI 1.07 to 3.58), a prior history of abuse (aOR 3.28, 95%?CI 1.40 to 7.68) and depressive symptomatology (aOR 7.83, 95%?CI 2.88 to 21.27) were independently associated with overall abuse. CONCLUSION:Elder abuse occurred among one in every 20 elders. The findings on elder abuse indicate the need to enhance elder protection in Malaysia, with both screening of and interventions for elder abuse.
Project description:A framework of social inclusion can promote equity and aid in preventing and addressing the abuse of older adults. Our objective was to build a social inclusion framework for a comprehensive hospital-based elder abuse intervention being developed. Potential components of such a framework, namely, health determinants and guiding principles, were extracted from a systematic scoping review of existing responses (e.g., interventions, protocols) to elder abuse and collated. These were subsequently rated for their importance to the elder abuse intervention by a panel of violence experts and further evaluated by a panel of elder abuse experts. The final social inclusion framework comprised 12 health determinants each representing factors underpinning susceptibility for abuse in aging populations: history of trauma/abuse, communication needs, disability, health status, mental capacity, social support, culture, language, sexuality, religion, gender identity, and socioeconomic status. The framework also comprised 19 guiding principles each encompassing considerations for equitable engagement with older adults (e.g., All older adults have the right to self-determination, All older adults have the right to be safe, All older adults are assumed competent unless determined otherwise). Integrating this social inclusion framework into the design and delivery of an elder abuse intervention could empower older adults, while at the same time ensuring that practices and policies are tailored to meet their unique and varying needs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The concept of social capital has received increasing attention as a determinant of population survival, but its significance is uncertain. We examined the importance of social capital on survival in a population study while focusing on gender differences. METHODS: We used data from a Danish regional health survey with a five-year follow-up period, 2007-2012 (n = 9288, 53.5% men, 46.5% women). We investigated the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, performing separate analyses on a composite measure as well as four specific dimensions of social capital while controlling for covariates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models by which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health, and health behaviour (HR = 0.586, 95% CI = 0.421-0.816) while no such association was found for men (HR = 0.949, 95% CI = 0.816-1.104). Analysing the specific dimensions of social capital, higher levels of trust and social network were significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality in women (HR = 0.827, 95% CI = 0.750-0.913 and HR = 0.832, 95% CI = 0.729-0.949, respectively). For men, strong social networks were associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.132, 95% CI = 1.017-1.260). Civic engagement had a similar effect for both men (HR = 0.848, 95% CI = 0.722-0.997) and women (HR = 0.848, 95% CI = 0.630-1.140). CONCLUSIONS: We found differential effects of social capital in men compared to women. The predictive effects on all-cause mortality of four specific dimensions of social capital varied. Gender stratified analysis and the use of multiple indicators to measure social capital are thus warranted in future research.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To estimate the proportion of visits to U.S. emergency departments (EDs) in which a diagnosis of elder abuse is reached using two nationally representative datasets. DESIGN:Retrospective cross-sectional analysis. SETTING:U.S. ED visits recorded in the 2012 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) or the 2011 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). PARTICIPANTS:All ED visits of individuals aged 60 and older. MEASUREMENTS:The primary outcome was elder abuse defined according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes. The proportion of visits with elder abuse was estimated using survey weights. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to identify demographic characteristics and common ED diagnoses associated with elder abuse. RESULTS:In 2012, NEDS contained information on 6,723,667 ED visits of older adults, representing an estimated 29,056,673 ED visits. Elder abuse was diagnosed in an estimated 3,846 visits, corresponding to a weighted diagnosis period prevalence of elder abuse in U.S. EDs of 0.013% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.012-0.015%). Neglect and physical abuse were the most common types diagnosed, accounting for 32.9% and 32.2% of cases, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed greater weighted odds of elder abuse diagnosis in women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.68-2.26) and individuals with contusions (OR = 2.91, 95% CI = 2.36-3.57), urinary tract infection (OR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.84-2.65), and septicemia (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.44-2.55). In the 2011 NHAMCS dataset, no cases of elder abuse were recorded for the 5,965 older adult ED visits. CONCLUSION:The proportion of U.S. ED visits by older adults receiving a diagnosis of elder abuse is at least two orders of magnitude lower than the estimated prevalence in the population. Efforts to improve the identification of elder abuse in EDs may be warranted.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Elder abuse is a serious public health issue worldwide, but large-scale epidemiologic studies remain sparse. Although social factors in human relations such as social support and social isolation have been proposed as the factors related to elder abuse, cognitive social capital has not been examined. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to clarify the prevalence of and the factors associated with elder abuse among independent older adults in Japan. METHODS:The study design is a retrospective observational study. The data were derived from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES). These self-report data were collected from 26,229 people aged 65 years or older living in 28 municipalities in 2013. The types of elder abuse and factors associated with them were examined using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:The prevalence of elder abuse among the sample was 12.3% (11.1% in males and 13.3 in females). In the entire sample, physical, psychological, and financial abuses were reported to be 1.26, 11.12, and 1.45%, respectively. Factors associated with increased odds of experiencing abuse were being a woman, living with family members, having poor self-rated health, and having mild or severe depression. By contrast, age ?85 years, being widowed, or unmarried, and having a positive view of community trust were associated with a lower risk of experiencing abuse. CONCLUSION:While particular demographic factors and health are associated with a greater risk of elder abuse, our findings that trust within the community lessens the risk indicates the importance of social capital. This should be taken into consideration when developing population-based strategies to prevent elder abuse.
Project description:This study analyses the multiple abuse against older adults reported to the elder abuse police units of three Brazilian cities from 2009 to 2013. This is a longitudinal and retrospective study carried out through the analysis of police reports (PRs) in the elder abuse police units of three Brazilian cities: Ribeirão Preto (SP), Teresina (PI), and João Pessoa (PB). Descriptive statistical analysis consisted of absolute and percentage frequencies. The chi-square test, Fisher's Exact test, and Relative Risk (RR) were used to analyze the data, with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) and a significance of 5%. A total of 2,313 reports of older adult abuse were analyzed, of which 245 (10.6%) were related to reports of multiple abuse, 49.4% in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, 22.9% in João Pessoa, Paraíba, and 27.8% in Teresina, Piauí. Most of the victims of recurrent older adult abuse are female and younger elderly. Psychological abuse was the most recurrent, followed by financial abuse, occurring in the victim's own home. In João Pessoa, older women and elderly living with their abusers were at a higher risk of report of multiple abuse acts. In Ribeirão Preto, living with the aggressor was a risk factor for multiple violent acts. In the total population of the study, living without companion and not living with the aggressor were identified as protective factors against recurrent violence. The need to implement social and legal actions to improve safety for the more vulnerable groups is emphasized.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The goal of this study was to analyze perioperative risk factors to predict one- year mortality after operation for acute type A aortic dissection (AAD). METHODS:A total of 121 consecutive patients undergoing Stanford type A AAD surgery in Beijing Anzhen Hospital were enrolled. Preoperative clinical and laboratory data from patients were collected. RESULTS:Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that significant factors associated with increased one-year mortality were elder age (year) (hazard ratio (HR) 1.0985; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0334-1.1677), intraoperative blood transfusion ?2000?mL (HR 8.8081; 95% CI 2.3319-33.2709), a higher level of serum creatinine (?mol/L) at postoperative one day (HR 1.0122; 95% CI 1.0035-1.0190) and oxygenation index (OI)?<?200 (mmHg) at the end of surgery (HR 5.7575; 95% CI 1.1695-28.3458). CONCLUSION:In this study, perioperative risk factors to predict one-year prognosis are age, intraoperative blood transfusion ?2000?mL, postoperative OI?<?200?mmHg and level of postoperative serum creatinine. The results aid in the comprehension of surgical outcomes and assist in the optimization of treatment strategies for those with perioperative risk factors to decrease one-year mortality.
Project description:Many studies have shown that children of alcohol abusing parents have a higher risk for mental and behavioural disorders compared to other children. Using a retrospective population-based cohort study, based on health care and social welfare registers that include children born in Finland in 1997 and their biological parents, we evaluated whether the severity of parental alcohol abuse is related to these disorders in children. We examined (1) differences in the incidence of mental and behavioural disorders over time among the children of parents with no alcohol problems, parents with less severe alcohol problems and parents with severe alcohol problems, and (2) associations between mother's and father's alcohol abuse and children's risk of disorders. Children were followed up until the age of 15. A diagnosis of mental or behavioural disorders during the follow-up was received by 15.4% of the boys and 9.0% of the girls. Both less severe alcohol abuse (HR?=?1.36, 95% CI 1.14-1.61) and severe alcohol abuse (HR?=?1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.49) in mothers increased the risk of these disorders in their offspring. The corresponding figures among fathers were HR?=?1.19, 95% CI 0.92-1.54 and HR?=?1.16, 95% CI 1.02-1.32. Our results indicate that both maternal alcohol abuse and paternal alcohol abuse, regardless of severity, are associated with an increased risk of mental and behavioural disorders in children. It is crucial for professionals working with children to pay attention to all children whose parents have any alcohol abuse problems.
Project description:we evaluated mortality risk in relation to social vulnerability across levels of frailty among a cohort of older Japanese-American men.in secondary analysis of the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS), participants (n = 3,271) were aged 72-93 years at baseline. A frailty index (FI) created using 58 potential health deficits to quantify participants' frailty level at baseline, with four frailty strata: 0.0 < FI ? 0.1 (n = 1,074); 0.1 < FI ? 0.20 (n = 1,549); 0.2 < FI ? 0.30 (n = 472); FI > 0.3 (n = 176). Similarly, a social vulnerability index was created using 19 self-reported social deficits. Cox proportional hazard modelling was employed to estimate the impact of social vulnerability across the four levels of frailty, accounting for age, smoking, alcohol use and variation in health deficits within each frailty level.for the fittest participants, social vulnerability was associated with mortality (hazards ratio (HR) = 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.07; P value = 0.008). Similarly, for those considered at risk for frailty, each social deficit was associated with a 5% increased risk of mortality. For frail individuals, the Cox regression analyses indicated that social vulnerability was not significantly associated with mortality (0.2 < FI ? 0.3: HR = 1.016, 95% CI = 0.98, 1.06; P value = 0.442; FI > 0.3: HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.93, 1.04).for the fittest and at-risk HAAS participants, the accumulation of social deficits was associated with significant increases in mortality risk. For frail individuals (FI > 0.20), the estimation of mortality risk may depend more so on intrinsic factors related to their health.
Project description:Background: Elder abuse is a common phenomenon with important effects on the health and well-being of older adults. There are important gaps in elder abuse measurement, as it is usually reported as the absence or presence of elder abuse, disregarding its severity and frequency. Objectives: Identify different ways of measuring severity and frequency of elder abuse and assess whether different experiences of severity and frequency suggest syndemic relationships. Methods: Through a sample of 534 non-institutionalized Mexican older women, we assessed how severity (i.e., number of abusive experiences and number of types of abuses) and frequency (i.e., if abusive experiences had happened few or many times) correlate among them. For each of these measures we estimated a multinomial model to examine associations with social support, functional impairments, socioeconomic status, food insecurity, depression, and comorbidities, while controlling for key socio-demographic variables. Results: 30.5% of the older women reported psychological abuse, 8.2% financial exploitation, 5.1% caregiver neglect, 3.5% physical abuse, and 1.2% sexual abuse. In terms of frequency, 77.8% of the women self-reported having never been abused or only once in the last 12 months, whereas 13.1% reported abusive experiences repeating few times, and 9.9% repeating many times. In terms of severity, 66.7% of the older women had not been abused, 22.3% had suffered one type of abuse, and 11.1% two or more. Similarly, 15.0% reported one abusive experience, 8.1% two, and 10.3% three or more abusive events during the last 12 months. Severity measures showed similar associations: social support and high socioeconomic level as protective factors among those with less severe abuse, whereas increased depression, food insecurity and functional impairments were associated with more severe experiences of elder abuse. Frequency followed a different pattern, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with those with few experiences (compared to those with none or once), while functional impairments were associated with many experiences of elder abuse. Conclusions: It is relevant to assess elder abuse through its severity and frequency as inter-individual variability and the complexity of the experience shows different determinants suggesting a syndemic approach. This has important clinical and policy implications.