ABSTRACT: This document is an update to the 2011 Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guideline for CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes and warfarin dosing. Evidence from the published literature is presented for CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, and rs12777823 genotype-guided warfarin dosing to achieve a target international normalized ratio of 2-3 when clinical genotype results are available. In addition, this updated guideline incorporates recommendations for adult and pediatric patients that are specific to continental ancestry.
Project description:Warfarin dosing algorithms adjust for race, assigning a fixed effect size to each predictor, thereby attenuating the differential effect by race. Attenuation likely occurs in both race groups but may be more pronounced in the less-represented race group. Therefore, we evaluated whether the effect of clinical (age, body surface area [BSA], chronic kidney disease [CKD], and amiodarone use) and genetic factors (CYP2C9*2, *3, *5, *6, *11, rs12777823, VKORC1, and CYP4F2) on warfarin dose differs by race using regression analyses among 1357 patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study and compared predictive ability of race-combined vs race-stratified models. Differential effect of predictors by race was assessed using predictor-race interactions in race-combined analyses. Warfarin dose was influenced by age, BSA, CKD, amiodarone use, and CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1 variants in both races, by CYP2C9*2 and CYP4F2 variants in European Americans, and by rs12777823 in African Americans. CYP2C9*2 was associated with a lower dose only among European Americans (20.6% vs 3.0%, P < .001) and rs12777823 only among African Americans (12.3% vs 2.3%, P = .006). Although VKORC1 was associated with dose decrease in both races, the proportional decrease was higher among European Americans (28.9% vs 19.9%, P = .003) compared with African Americans. Race-stratified analysis improved dose prediction in both race groups compared with race-combined analysis. We demonstrate that the effect of predictors on warfarin dose differs by race, which may explain divergent findings reported by recent warfarin pharmacogenetic trials. We recommend that warfarin dosing algorithms should be stratified by race rather than adjusted for race.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIM:Warfarin is the most frequently prescribed anticoagulant worldwide. However, warfarin therapy is associated with a high risk of bleeding and thromboembolic events because of a large interindividual dose-response variability. We investigated the effect of genetic and non genetic factors on warfarin dosage in a South Italian population in the attempt to setup an algorithm easily applicable in the clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 266 patients from Southern Italy affected by cardiovascular diseases were enrolled and their clinical and anamnestic data recorded. All patients were genotyped for CYP2C9 2, 3, CYP4F2 3, VKORC1 -1639 G>A by the TaqMan assay and for variants VKORC1 1173 C>T and VKORC1 3730 G>A by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. The effect of genetic and not genetic factors on warfarin dose variability was tested by multiple linear regression analysis, and an algorithm based on our data was established and then validated by the Jackknife procedure. RESULTS:Warfarin dose variability was influenced, in decreasing order, by VKORC1-1639 G>A (29.7%), CYP2C9 3 (11.8%), age (8.5%), CYP2C9 2 (3.5%), gender (2.0%) and lastly CYP4F2 3 (1.7%); VKORC1 1173 C>T and VKORC1 3730 G>A exerted a slight effect (<1% each). Taken together, these factors accounted for 58.4% of the warfarin dose variability in our population. Data obtained with our algorithm significantly correlated with those predicted by the two online algorithms: Warfarin dosing and Pharmgkb (p<0.001; R(2)?=?0.805 and p<0.001; R(2)?=?0.773, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Our algorithm, which is based on six polymorphisms, age and gender, is user-friendly and its application in clinical practice could improve the personalized management of patients undergoing warfarin therapy.
Project description:The effects of genetic variants on warfarin dosing vary among different ethnic groups, especially in the Chinese population. The objective of this study was to recruit patients through a rigorous experimental design and to perform a comprehensive screen to identify gene polymorphisms that may influence warfarin dosing in northern Han Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement. Consenting patients (n?=?183) with a stable warfarin dose were included in this study. Ninety-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 30 genes involved in warfarin pharmacological pathways were genotyped using the Illumina SNP GoldenGate Assay, and their associations with warfarin dosing were assessed using univariate regression analysis with post hoc comparison using least significant difference analysis. Multiple linear regression was performed by incorporating patients' clinical and genetic data to create a new algorithm for warfarin dosing. From the 96 SNPs analyzed, VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP1A2 rs2069514, CYP3A4 rs28371759, and APOE rs7412 were associated with higher average warfarin maintenance doses, whereas CYP2C9 rs1057910, EPHX1 rs2260863, and CYP4F2 rs2189784 were associated with lower warfarin doses (P?<?0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis could estimate 44.4% of warfarin dose variability consisting of, in decreasing order, VKORC1 rs9923231 (14.2%), CYP2C9*3 (9.6%), body surface area (6.7%), CYP1A2 rs2069514 (3.7%), age (2.7%), CYP3A4 rs28371759 (2.5%), CYP4F2 rs2108622 (1.9%), APOE rs7412 (1.7%), and VKORC1 rs2884737 (1.4%). In the dosing algorithm we developed, we confirmed the strongest effects of VKORC1, CYP2C9 on warfarin dosing. In the limited sample set, we also found that novel genetic predictors (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, APOE, EPHX1, CYP4F2, and VKORC1 rs2884737) may be associated with warfarin dosing. Further validation is needed to assess our results in larger independent northern Chinese samples.
Project description:AIMS:CYP4F2*3 (p.V433M) has been associated with higher warfarin dose requirements; however, its frequency, like other CYP2C9 and VKORC1 variants, has not been systematically assessed in major racial/ethnic populations. Thus, we determined the individual and combined frequencies of important CYP2C9, VKORC1 and CYP4F2 variants in several racial/ethnic groups. MATERIALS & METHODS:Healthy African-American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) blood donors were genotyped for CYP2C9 (*2, *3, *4, *5, *6, *8, *11 and *13), VKORC1 (g.-1639G>A) and CYP4F2 (*3 [p.V433M] and rs2189784). RESULTS:The combined frequencies of variant CYP2C9 alleles were 0.133, 0.078, 0.212, 0.178 and 0.212 among African-American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and AJ individuals, respectively. CYP4F2*3 frequencies were prevalent (0.233-0.342) among Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and AJ individuals, while significantly less frequent among African-Americans (0.117; p < 0.0001). In addition, CYP4F2*3 was in linkage disequilibrium with rs2189784, an allele recently associated with time-to-therapeutic international normalized ratio, among all studied populations. Importantly, 87-95% of Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and AJ individuals had a variant CYP2C9, VKORC1 and/or CYP4F2*3 allele, compared with only 53% of African-Americans (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:Compared with other racial/ethnic populations studied, only approximately one in 80 African-Americans were CYP4F2*3 homozygous, indicating that this population would benefit less from dosing algorithms that include this variant. In addition, the unique allele frequency profiles identified among the different populations partly explain why genotype-guided warfarin dosing algorithms perform less well for African-Americans and suggest that other unidentified genetic and/or nongenetic factors that influence warfarin dosage may exist in this population.
Project description:Inconsistent associations with warfarin dose were observed in genetic variants except VKORC1 haplotype and CYP2C9*3 in Chinese people, and few studies on warfarin dose algorithm was performed in a large Chinese Han population lived in Northern China. Of 787 consenting patients with heart-valve replacements who were receiving long-term warfarin maintenance therapy, 20 related Single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped. Only VKORC1 and CYP2C9 SNPs were observed to be significantly associated with warfarin dose. In the derivation cohort (n?=?551), warfarin dose variability was influenced, in decreasing order, by VKORC1 rs7294 (27.3%), CYP2C9*3(7.0%), body surface area(4.2%), age(2.7%), target INR(1.4%), CYP4F2 rs2108622 (0.7%), amiodarone use(0.6%), diabetes mellitus(0.6%), and digoxin use(0.5%), which account for 45.1% of the warfarin dose variability. In the validation cohort (n?=?236), the actual maintenance dose was significantly correlated with predicted dose (r?=?0.609, P<0.001). Our algorithm could improve the personalized management of warfarin use in Northern Chinese patients.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate whether the VKORC1*3 (rs7294/9041 G?>?A), VKORC1*4 (rs17708472/6009 C?>?T), and CYP4F2 (rs2108622/1347 C?>?T) polymorphisms were associated with elevated warfarin maintenance dose requirements in patients with myocardial infarction (n = 105) from the Warfarin Aspirin Reinfarction Study (WARIS-II). We found significant associations between elevated warfarin dose requirements and VKORC1*3 and VKORC1*4 polymorphisms (P = .001 and P = .004, resp.), whereas CYP4F2 (1347 C?>?T) showed a weak association on higher warfarin dose requirements (P = .09). However, analysing these variant alleles in a regression analysis together with our previously reported data on VKORC1*2, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms, gave no significant associations for neither VKORC1*3, VKORC1*4 nor CYP4F2 (1347 C?>?T). In conclusion, in patients with myocardial infarction, the individual contribution to warfarin dose requirements from VKORC1*3, VKORC1*4, and CYP4F2 (1347 C?>?T) polymorphisms was negligible. Our results indicate that pharmacogenetic testing for VKORC1*2, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 is more informative regarding warfarin dose requirements than testing for VKORC1*3, VKORC1*4, and CYP4F2 (1347 C?>?T) polymorphisms.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:As the most frequently prescribed anticoagulant, warfarin has large inter-individual variability in dosage. Genetic polymorphisms could largely explain the differences in dosage requirement. rs9923231 (VKORC1), rs7294 (VKORC1), rs1057910 (CYP2C9), rs2108622 (CYP4F2), and rs699664 (GGCX) involved in the warfarin action mechanism and the circulatory vitamin K were selected to investigate their polymorphism characteristics and their effects on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of warfarin in Chinese population. METHODS:220 patients with cardiac valve replacement were recruited. International normalized ratio and plasma warfarin concentrations were determined. The five genetic polymorphisms were genotyping by pyro-sequencing. The relationships of maintenance dose, plasma warfarin concentration and INR were assessed among groups categorized by genotypes. RESULTS:rs9923231 and rs7294 in VKORC1 had the analogous genotype frequencies (D': 0.969). 158 of 220 recruited individuals had the target INR (1.5-2.5). Patients with AA of rs9923231 and CC of rs7294 required a significantly lower maintenance dose and plasma concentration than those with AG and TC, respectively. The mean weekly maintenance dose was also significantly lower in CYP2C9 rs1057910 mutated heterozygote than in patients with the wild homozygote. Eliminating the influence from environment factors (age, body weight and gender), rs9923231 and rs1057910 could explain about 32.0% of the variability in warfarin maintenance dose; rs7294 could explain 26.7% of the variability in plasma concentration. For patients with allele G of rs9923231 and allele T of rs7294, higher plasma concentration was needed to achieve the similar goal INR. CONCLUSIONS:A better understanding of the genetic variants in individuals can be the foundation of warfarin dosing algorithm and facilitate the reasonable and effective use of warfarin in Chinese.
Project description:Recent clinical trial data cast doubt on the utility of genotype-guided warfarin dosing, specifically showing worse dosing with a pharmacogenetic versus clinical dosing algorithm in African Americans. However, many genotypes important in African Americans were not accounted for. We aimed to determine whether omission of the CYP2C9*5, CYP2C9*6, CYP2C9*8, CYP2C9*11 alleles and rs12777823 G > A genotype affects performance of dosing algorithms in African Americans.In a cohort of 274 warfarin-treated African Americans, we examined the association between the CYP2C9*5, CYP2C9*6, CYP2C9*8, CYP2C9*11 alleles and rs12777823 G > A genotype and warfarin dose prediction error with pharmacogenetic algorithms used in clinical trials.The http://www.warfarindosing.org algorithm overestimated doses by a median (interquartile range) of 1.2 (0.02-2.6) mg/day in rs12777823 heterozygotes (P<0.001 for predicted vs. observed dose), 2.0 (0.6-2.8) mg/day in rs12777823 variant homozygotes (P = 0.004), and 2.2 (0.5-2.9) mg/day in carriers of a CYP2C9 variant (P < 0.001). The International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) algorithm underdosed warfarin by 0.8 (-2.3 to 0.4) mg/day for patients with the rs12777823 GG genotype (P < 0.001) and overdosed warfarin by 0.7 (-0.4 to 1.9) mg/day in carriers of a variant CYP2C9 allele (P = 0.04). Modifying the http://www.warfarindosing.org algorithm to adjust for variants important in African Americans led to better dose prediction than either the original http://www.warfarindosing.org (P < 0.01) or IWPC (P < 0.01) algorithm.These data suggest that, when providing genotype-guided warfarin dosing, failure to account for variants important in African Americans leads to significant dosing error in this population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>VKORC1 and CYP2C9 are important contributors to warfarin dose variability, but explain less variability for individuals of African descent than for those of European or Asian descent. We aimed to identify additional variants contributing to warfarin dose requirements in African Americans.<h4>Methods</h4>We did a genome-wide association study of discovery and replication cohorts. Samples from African-American adults (aged ?18 years) who were taking a stable maintenance dose of warfarin were obtained at International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) sites and the University of Alabama at Birmingham (Birmingham, AL, USA). Patients enrolled at IWPC sites but who were not used for discovery made up the independent replication cohort. All participants were genotyped. We did a stepwise conditional analysis, conditioning first for VKORC1 -1639G?A, followed by the composite genotype of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. We prespecified a genome-wide significance threshold of p<5×10(-8) in the discovery cohort and p<0·0038 in the replication cohort.<h4>Findings</h4>The discovery cohort contained 533 participants and the replication cohort 432 participants. After the prespecified conditioning in the discovery cohort, we identified an association between a novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the CYP2C cluster on chromosome 10 (rs12777823) and warfarin dose requirement that reached genome-wide significance (p=1·51×10(-8)). This association was confirmed in the replication cohort (p=5·04×10(-5)); analysis of the two cohorts together produced a p value of 4·5×10(-12). Individuals heterozygous for the rs12777823 A allele need a dose reduction of 6·92 mg/week and those homozygous 9·34 mg/week. Regression analysis showed that the inclusion of rs12777823 significantly improves warfarin dose variability explained by the IWPC dosing algorithm (21% relative improvement).<h4>Interpretation</h4>A novel CYP2C single nucleotide polymorphism exerts a clinically relevant effect on warfarin dose in African Americans, independent of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. Incorporation of this variant into pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms could improve warfarin dose prediction in this population.<h4>Funding</h4>National Institutes of Health, American Heart Association, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Wisconsin Network for Health Research, and the Wellcome Trust.
Project description:WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT * Genetic polymorphisms of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 are known to influence warfarin dosage. * Recent studies among Caucasians showed that polymorphisms of CYP4F2 also play a role in warfarin pharmacogenetics. * The contribution of CYP4F2 variants to the variability inwarfarin dose requirement in Chinese subjects remains to be investigated. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS * This research was to study the effect of CYP4F2 variants on warfarin requirements in the Han Chinese population. * This study developed a multiple regression model including CYP2C9, VKORC1 3673G>A, CYP4F2 genotypes and age, weight, combination use of amiodarone which could explain 56.1% of the individual variability in warfarin dose CYP4F2 could explain 4% of the variance in warfarin dose. * We found that one novel genotypic polymorphism 5417G>T for Asp36Tyr, which was identified as an important marker of warfarin resistance, was absent in the Han Chinese population in our study. AIMS The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the CYP4F2 on the daily stable warfarin dose requirement in Han Chinese patients with mechanical heart valve replacement (MHVR). METHODS From March 2007 to November 2008, 222 Han Chinese MHVR patients were recruited in our study. VKORC1 3673G>A, 5417G>T, CYP2C9*3 and CYP4F2 rs2108622 were genotyped by using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). Polymorphisms of VKORC1 9041G>A were detected by direct sequencing. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate the contribution of CYP4F2. RESULTS The CYP4F2 rs2108622 CT/TT group took a significantly higher stable warfarin dose (3.2 mg day(-1)) than the CC group (2.9 mg day(-1), 95% CI 0.2, 1.0, P= 0.033). The multiple linear regression model included VKORC1 3673G>A, CYP2C9, CYP4F2 genotypes and clinical characteristics. The model could explain 56.1% of the variance in stable warfarin dose in Han Chinese patients with MHVR. CYP4F2 contributed about 4% to the variance in the warfarin dose. There was no variation in the SNPs of VKORC1 5417G>T. CONCLUSION CYP4F2 is a minor significant factor of individual variability in the stable warfarin dose in Han Chinese patients with MHVR. The effect of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes on variability in the stable warfarin dose had also been confirmed.