Effectiveness, safety and health-related quality of life of multiple sclerosis patients treated with fingolimod: results from a 12-month, real-world, observational PERFORMS study in the Middle East.
ABSTRACT: Evidence on the use of fingolimod in real-world clinical practice and data on patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in countries such as the Middle East are sparse. The Prospective Evaluation of Treatment with Fingolimod for Multiple Sclerosis (PERFORMS) study assessed HRQoL and effectiveness and safety of fingolimod in patients with relapsing-remitting multiples sclerosis (RRMS), primarily in Middle Eastern countries.This 12-month, observational, multicentre, prospective, real-world study was conducted in patients with RRMS who initiated fingolimod or another approved disease-modifying treatment (DMT) within 4 weeks before study entry. Patients were enrolled in a 2:1 ratio to obtain more data in fingolimod and parallel in other DMTs cohort by physicians during routine medical care. Key study outcomes included HRQoL assessed using MS International QoL (MusiQoL), MS relapses and disability. Safety was assessed throughout the study period. Due to the observational nature of the study, no neuroimaging assessments were mandated and central reading was not performed.Of 249 enrolled patients, 247 were included in the analysis (fingolimod cohort 172; other DMTs cohort 75). Overall, the mean age of patients was 36.5 years, 64.4% were women and ~90% were Caucasians. At baseline, mean MS duration since diagnosis was 7.2 years in the fingolimod and 4.8 years in the other DMTs cohorts. Overall, mean changes in MusiQoL index scores were -2.1 in the fingolimod cohort and -0.7 in the other DMTs cohort at Month 12, but improvement was not significant vs. baseline in both cohorts. Proportion of relapse-free patients increased significantly during the study vs. 0-12 months before the study in the fingolimod cohort (80.2% vs. 24.4%; p?
Project description:Importance:Comparative real-world effectiveness studies of initial disease-modifying treatment (DMT) choices for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) that include rituximab are lacking. Objective:To assess the effectiveness and drug discontinuation rates of rituximab among patients with newly diagnosed RRMS compared with injectable DMTs, dimethyl fumarate, fingolimod, or natalizumab. Design, Setting, and Patients:This retrospective cohort study used prospectively collected data to examine specialized care of 2 Swedish county-based community samples of patients with RRMS. Patients with RRMS who received diagnoses from January 1, 2012, to October 31, 2015, who resided in Stockholm or Västerbotten Counties were identified from a Swedish multiple sclerosis registry. Main Outcomes and Measures:All reasons for drug discontinuation of initial treatment choice (main outcome) and specific reasons for switching (secondary outcomes) were analyzed with multivariable Cox regression, including propensity scores. Results:Among 494 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 34.4 [27.4-43.4] years; 158 men [32.0%]), 215 received an injectable DMT (43.5%); 86 (17.4%), dimethyl fumarate; 17 (3.4%), fingolimod; 50 (10.1%), natalizumab; 120 (24.3%), rituximab; and 6 (1.2%), other DMT. Regional preferences were pronounced, with 42 of 52 (81%) and 78 of 442 (18%) receiving rituximab in Västerbotten and Stockholm, respectively. The annual discontinuation rate for rituximab, injectable DMTs, dimethyl fumarate, fingolimod, and natalizumab were 0.03, 0.53, 0.32, 0.38, and 0.29, respectively. Continued disease activity was the main reason for discontinuation of injectable DMTs, dimethyl fumarate, and fingolimod; positive John Cunningham virus serology results were the main reason for discontinuation of natalizumab. Rate of clinical relapses and/or neuroradiologic disease activity were significantly lower for rituximab compared with injectable DMTs and dimethyl fumarate, with a tendency for lower relapse rates also compared with natalizumab and fingolimod. The annual discontinuation rate of initial treatment choice was significantly lower in Västerbotten compared with Stockholm (0.09 and 0.37, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance:Rituximab was superior to all other DMT in terms of drug discontinuation and displayed better clinical efficacy compared with injectable DMTs and dimethyl fumarate with borderline significance compared with natalizumab and fingolimod. The county where rituximab constituted the main initial treatment choice displayed better outcomes in most measured variables. Collectively, our findings suggest that rituximab performs better than other commonly used DMTs in patients with newly diagnosed RRMS.
Project description:PURPOSE:The objective of this study was to characterize the demographic and clinical profile of RRMS patients receiving fingolimod in Spain, and to evaluate drug effectiveness and safety in clinical practice. METHODS:This observational, retrospective, multicentre, nationwide study was performed at 56 Spanish hospitals and involved 804 RRMS patients who received oral fingolimod (0.5 mg) since November 2011, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. RESULTS:The mean annualized relapse rate (ARR) in the year before fingolimod was 1.08 and the median EDSS was 3; patients were exposed to fingolimod for 2.2 years as average; regarding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity, more than half of the patients had >20 lesions at baseline. Patients were previously treated with first-line injectable DMTs (60.3%), or natalizumab (31.3%), and 8.3% were naïve patients. Overall, the ARR significantly decreased to 0.28, 0.22 and 0.17 (74.1%, 79.7% and 83.5% of relative reduction, respectively) after 12, 24 and 36 months of treatment, P<0.001. The ARR of patients who switched from natalizumab to fingolimod was stable over the study. Most of the patients (88.7%) were free from confirmed disability and MRI activity (67.3%) after 24 months. The persistence after 12 months on fingolimod was 93.9%. CONCLUSIONS:The subgroups of patients analysed showed differential baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. The analysis of patients who received fingolimod in routine clinical practice confirmed adequate efficacy and safety, even for long-term treatment. The present data also confirmed the positive benefit/risk balance with fingolimod in real-world clinical practice setting.
Project description:The mechanisms leading to disability and the long-term efficacy and safety of disease modifying drugs (DMDs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) are unclear. We aimed at building a prospective cohort of MS patients with standardized collection of demographic, clinical, MRI data and body fluids that can be used to develop prognostic indicators and biomarkers of disease evolution and therapeutic response. The Swiss MS Cohort (SMSC) is a prospective observational study performed across seven Swiss MS centers including patients with MS, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), radiologically isolated syndrome or neuromyelitis optica. Neurological and radiological assessments and biological samples are collected every 6-12 months. We recruited 872 patients (clinically isolated syndrome [CIS] 5.5%, relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS] 85.8%, primary progressive MS [PPMS] 3.5%, secondary progressive MS [SPMS] 5.2%) between June 2012 and July 2015. We performed 2,286 visits (median follow-up 398 days) and collected 2,274 serum, plasma and blood samples, 152 cerebrospinal fluid samples and 1,276 brain MRI scans. 158 relapses occurred and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores increased in PPMS, SPMS and RRMS patients experiencing relapses. Most RRMS patients were treated with fingolimod (33.4%), natalizumab (24.5%) or injectable DMDs (13.6%). The SMSC will provide relevant information regarding DMDs efficacy and safety and will serve as a comprehensive infrastructure available for nested research projects.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients treated in MS centres in Poland. METHODS:Demographic and clinical data of all Polish RRMS patients receiving DMTs were prospectively collected from 2014 to 2018 in electronic files using the Therapeutic Program Monitoring System (SMPT). RESULTS:The study included 10,764 RRMS patients treated with DMTs in first-line and 1,042 in second-line programmes. IFN? more effectively lengthened the times to the first relapse, disability progression, and brain MRI activity than GA. After 2 and 4 years of follow-up, more patients on IFN? showed no evidence of disease activity (NEDA-3) in comparison to GA (66.3% and 44.3% vs 55.2% and 33.2%, respectively; p<0.001). NAT more effectively reduced brain MRI activity than FTY (p = 0.001). More patients under NAT had NEDA-3 after 2 and 4 years of follow-up compared to FTY (66.2% and 42.1% vs 52.1% and 29.5%, respectively; p = 0.03). In adjusted analysis, a higher baseline Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS) was a predictor of relapse (p<0.001) and NEDA-3 failure (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION:IFN? compared to GA and NAT compared to FTY more effectively reduced disease activity in a Polish population of RRMS patients.
Project description:Responsiveness, defined as the ability to detect a meaningful change, is a core psychometric property of an instrument measuring quality of life (QoL) rarely reported in multiple sclerosis (MS) studies.To assess the responsiveness of the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life (MusiQoL) questionnaire to change in disability over 24 months, defined by change in the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score.Patients with MS were enrolled into a multicenter, longitudinal observational study. QoL was assessed using both the MusiQoL and the 36-Item Short-Form (SF-36) instruments at baseline and every 6 months thereafter up to month 24; neurological assessments, including EDSS score, were performed at each evaluation.The 24-month EDSS was available for 524 patients. In the 107 worsened patients, two specific dimensions of MusiQoL, the sentimental and sexual life and the relationships with health care system dimensions, and 'physical' scores of SF-36 showed responsiveness.Whereas specific dimensions of MusiQoL identified EDSS changes, the MusiQoL index did not detect disability changes in worsened MS patients in a 24-month observational study. Future responsiveness validation studies should include longer follow-up and more representative samples.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) fingolimod prevents disease relapses and delays disability progression. First dose administration of fingolimod is associated with a transient, dose-dependent decrease in heart rate (HR) in the 6 hours after drug intake.The aim of the study is to to assess safety and tolerability of the first dose of fingolimod in a cohort of Italian patients with RRMS without alternative therapeutic options. METHODS: Open-label, single arm, multicentre study. After the first dose of fingolimod, patients were observed for 6 hours and had their vital signs monitored hourly. Extended on-site monitoring was provided when required. RESULTS: Of the 906 patients enrolled in the study, most (95.2%) did not experience any adverse event (AE) following fingolimod administration. Cardiovascular AEs occurred in 18 patients and included bradycardia (1.3%), first-and second-degree atrioventricular block (0.1% and 0.2%), palpitations (0.1%), sinus arrhythmia (0.1%) and ventricular premature beats (0.1%). All events were self-limiting and did not require any intervention. Extended monitoring was required in 34 patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results, in a population who better resembled real-world clinical practice in terms of concomitant diseases and medications, are consistent with previous clinical trials and confirmed that the first dose administration of fingolimod is generally safe and well tolerated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT 2011-000770-60.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Cladribine tablets were tested against placebo in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In this study, the effectiveness of cladribine vs other approved drugs in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) was compared by matching RCT to observational data. METHODS:Data from the pivotal trial assessing cladribine tablets vs placebo (CLARITY) were propensity score matched to data from the Italian multicenter database i-MuST. This database included 3,150 patients diagnosed between 2010 and 2018 at 24 Italian MS centers who started a disease-modifying drug. The annualized relapse rate (ARR) over 2 years from treatment start and the 24-week confirmed disability progression were compared between patients treated with cladribine and other approved drugs (interferon, glatiramer acetate, fingolimod, natalizumab, and dimethyl fumarate), with comparisons with placebo as a reference. Treatment effects were estimated by the inverse probability weighting negative binomial regression model for ARR and Cox model for disability progression. The treatment effect has also been evaluated according to baseline disease activity. RESULTS:All weighted baseline characteristics were well balanced between groups. All drugs tested had an effect vs placebo close to that detected in the RCT. Patients treated with cladribine had a significantly lower ARR compared with interferon (relapse ratio [RR] = 0.48; p < 0.001), glatiramer acetate (RR = 0.49; p < 0.001), and dimethyl fumarate (RR = 0.6; p = 0.001); a similar ARR to that with fingolimod (RR = 0.74; p = 0.24); and a significantly higher ARR than natalizumab (RR = 2.13; p = 0.014), confirming results obtained by indirect treatment comparisons from RCTs (network meta-analyses). The relative effect of cladribine tablets 10 mg (cumulative dose 3.5 mg/kg over 2 years) was higher in patients with high disease activity vs all treatments except fingolimod and natalizumab. Effects on disability progression were largely nonsignificant, probably due to lack of power for such analysis. CONCLUSION:In patients with RRMS, cladribine tablets showed lower ARR compared with matched patients who started interferon, glatiramer acetate, or dimethyl fumarate; was similar to fingolimod; and was higher than natalizumab. The beneficial effect of cladribine tablets was generally amplified in the subgroup of patients with high disease activity. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE:This study provides Class III evidence that for patients with RRMS, cladribine-treated patients had lower ARR compared with interferon, glatiramer acetate, or dimethyl fumarate; similar ARR compared with fingolimod; and higher ARR compared with natalizumab.
Project description:To compare natalizumab and fingolimod on both clinical and MRI outcomes in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) from 27 multiple sclerosis centers participating in the French follow-up cohort Observatoire of Multiple Sclerosis.Patients with RRMS included in the study were aged from 18 to 65 years with an Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 0-5.5 and an available brain MRI performed within the year before treatment initiation. The data were collected for 326 patients treated with natalizumab and 303 with fingolimod. The statistical analysis was performed using 2 different methods: logistic regression and propensity scores (inverse probability treatment weighting).The confounder-adjusted proportion of patients with at least one relapse within the first and second year of treatment was lower in natalizumab-treated patients compared to the fingolimod group (21.1% vs 30.4% at first year, p = 0.0092; and 30.9% vs 41.7% at second year, p = 0.0059) and supported the trend observed in nonadjusted analysis (21.2% vs 27.1% at 1 year, p = 0.0775). Such statistically significant associations were also observed for gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing lesions and new T2 lesions at both 1 year (Gd-enhancing lesions: 9.3% vs 29.8%, p < 0.0001; new T2 lesions: 10.6% vs 29.6%, p < 0.0001) and 2 years (Gd-enhancing lesions: 9.1% vs 22.1%, p = 0.0025; new T2 lesions: 16.9% vs 34.1%, p = 0.0010) post treatment initiation.Taken together, these results suggest the superiority of natalizumab over fingolimod to prevent relapses and new T2 and Gd-enhancing lesions at 1 and 2 years.This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with RRMS, natalizumab decreases the proportion of patients with at least one relapse within the first year of treatment compared to fingolimod.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess long-term safety and efficacy of fingolimod in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS:Patients completing FTY720 Research Evaluating Effects of Daily Oral Therapy in MS (FREEDOMS) were eligible for this dose-blinded, parallel-group extension study, continuing fingolimod 0.5 mg/day or 1.25 mg/day, or switching from placebo to either dose, randomized 1:1. Efficacy variables included annualized relapse rate (ARR), brain volume loss (BVL), and confirmed disability progression (CDP). Between-group analyses were conducted in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population from FREEDOMS baseline to end of study. Within-group analyses compared years 0-2 (FREEDOMS) and years 2-4 (extension) in the extension ITT population. RESULTS:Of 1,272 patients (FREEDOMS ITT population), 1,033 were eligible, and 920 enrolled in the extension study (continuous-fingolimod: 0.5 mg [n = 331], 1.25 mg [n = 289]; placebo-fingolimod: 0.5 mg [n = 155], 1.25 mg [n = 145]); 916 formed the extension ITT population (n = 330; n = 287; n = 154; n = 145) and 773 (84%) completed. In the continuous-fingolimod groups, ARR was lower (p < 0.0001), BVL was reduced (p < 0.05), and proportionately more patients were free from 3-month CDP (p < 0.05) than in a group comprising all placebo-fingolimod patients. Within each placebo-fingolimod group, ARR was lower (p < 0.001, both) and BVL was reduced after switching (p < 0.01, placebo-fingolimod 0.5 mg). Rates and types of adverse events were similar across groups; no new safety issues were reported. CONCLUSION:Efficacy benefits of fingolimod during FREEDOMS were sustained during the extension; ARR and BVL were reduced after switching. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE:This study provides Class IV evidence that long-term fingolimod treatment is well-tolerated and reduces relapse rates, disability progression, and MRI effects in patients with RRMS.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To compare the efficacies, frequencies and reasons for treatment interruption of fingolimod (FTY), dimethyl fumarate (DMF) or teriflunomide (TERI) in a nationwide observational cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Two cohorts of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) having started treatment with FTY, DMF or TERI documented in the Austrian MS Treatment Registry (AMSTR) since 2014 and either staying on therapy for at least 24 months (24 m cohort) or with at least one follow-up visit after start of treatment (total cohort). The 24 m cohort included 629 RRMS patients: 295 in the FTY, 227 in the DMF and 107 in the TERI group. We used multinomial propensity scores for inverse probability weighting in generalized linear and Cox proportional hazards models to correct for the bias of this non-randomised registry study. RESULTS:Estimated mean annualized relapse rates (ARR) over 24 months were 0.13 for FTY, 0.09 for DMF and 0.11 for TERI treatment. For TERI in comparison with DMF, we observed higher probability for treatment interruption (p?=?0.023) and reduced sustained EDSS regression for 12 (p?=?0.016) and 24 weeks (p?=?0.031) and, for the comparison of DMF versus FTY, a reduced sustained EDSS progression for 12 weeks (p?=?0.02). CONCLUSIONS:Relapse rates with treatment with FTY, DMF and TERI were similar. Patients treated with DMF showed less sustained disability progression for 12 weeks than FTY-treated patients. However, FTY and DMF treatment was associated with more likely EDSS regression for 12 and 24 weeks and a lower probability for treatment interruption as compared to TERI-treated patients.