Click and Fluoresce: A Bioorthogonally Activated Smart Probe for Wash-Free Fluorescent Labeling of Biomolecules.
ABSTRACT: Bioorthogonally activated smart probes greatly facilitate the selective labeling of biomolecules in living system. Herein, we described a novel type of smart probes with tunable reaction rates, high fluorescence turn-on ratio, and easy access. The practicality of such probes was demonstrated by selective labeling of lipid and hCAII in Hela cells.
Project description:Herein, we present the synthesis and application of a fluorogenic, large Stokes-shift (>100 nm), bioorthogonally conjugatable, membrane-permeable tetrazine probe, which can be excited at common laser line 488 nm and detected at around 600 nm. The applied design enabled improved fluorogenicity in the orange/red emission range, thus efficient suppression of background and autofluorescence upon imaging biological samples. Moreover, unlike our previous advanced probes, it does not require the presence of special target platforms or microenvironments to achieve similar fluorogenicity and can be generally applied, e.g., on translationally bioorthogonalized proteins. Live-cell labeling schemes revealed that the fluorogenic probe is suitable for specific labeling of intracellular proteins, site-specifically modified with a cyclooctynylated, non-canonical amino acid, even under no-wash conditions. Furthermore, the probe was found to be applicable in stimulated emission depletion (STED) super-resolution microscopy imaging using a 660 nm depletion laser. Probably the most salient feature of this new probe is that the large Stokes-shift allows dual-color labeling schemes of cellular structures using distinct excitation and the same detection wavelengths for the combined probes, which circumvents chromatic aberration related problems.
Project description:A bioorthogonal organometallic reaction is a biocompatible transformation undergone by a synthetic material exclusively through the mediation of a non-biotic metal source; a selective process used to label biomolecules and activate probes in biological environs. Here we report the in vitro bioorthogonal generation of 5-fluorouracil from a biologically inert precursor by heterogeneous Pd(0) catalysis. Although independently harmless, combined treatment of 5-fluoro-1-propargyl-uracil and Pd(0)-functionalized resins exhibits comparable antiproliferative properties to the unmodified drug in colorectal and pancreatic cancer cells. Live-cell imaging and immunoassay studies demonstrate that the cytotoxic activity of the prodrug/Pd(0)-resin combination is due to the in situ generation of 5-fluorouracil. Pd(0)-resins can be carefully implanted in the yolk sac of zebrafish embryos and display excellent biocompatibility and local catalytic activity. The in vitro efficacy shown by this masking/activation strategy underlines its potential to develop a bioorthogonally activated prodrug approach and supports further in vivo investigations.
Project description:EM has long been the main technique for imaging cell structures with nanometer resolution but has lagged behind light microscopy in the crucial ability to make specific molecules stand out. Here we introduce click-EM, a labeling technique for correlative light microscopy and EM imaging of nonprotein biomolecules. In this approach, metabolic labeling substrates containing bioorthogonal functional groups are provided to cells for incorporation into biopolymers by endogenous biosynthetic machinery. The unique chemical functionality of these analogs is exploited for selective attachment of singlet oxygen-generating fluorescent dyes via bioorthogonal 'click chemistry' ligations. Illumination of dye-labeled structures generates singlet oxygen to locally catalyze the polymerization of diaminobenzidine into an osmiophilic reaction product that is readily imaged by EM. We describe the application of click-EM in imaging metabolically tagged DNA, RNA and lipids in cultured cells and neurons and highlight its use in tracking peptidoglycan synthesis in the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes.
Project description:Bioorthogonal chemistry has enabled the selective labeling and detection of biomolecules in living systems. Bioorthogonal smart probes, which become fluorescent or deliver imaging or therapeutic agents upon reaction, allow for the visualization of biomolecules or targeted delivery even in the presence of excess unreacted probe. This review discusses the strategies used in the development of bioorthogonal smart probes and highlights the potential of these probes to further our understanding of biology.
Project description:The azide-alkyne cycloaddition provides a powerful tool for bio-orthogonal labeling of proteins, nucleic acids, glycans, and lipids. In some labeling experiments, e.g., in proteomic studies involving affinity purification and mass spectrometry, it is convenient to use cleavable probes that allow release of labeled biomolecules under mild conditions. Five cleavable biotin probes are described for use in labeling of proteins and other biomolecules via azide-alkyne cycloaddition. Subsequent to conjugation with metabolically labeled protein, these probes are subject to cleavage with either 50 mM Na(2)S(2)O(4), 2% HOCH(2)CH(2)SH, 10% HCO(2)H, 95% CF(3)CO(2)H, or irradiation at 365 nm. Most strikingly, a probe constructed around a dialkoxydiphenylsilane (DADPS) linker was found to be cleaved efficiently when treated with 10% HCO(2)H for 0.5 h. A model green fluorescent protein was used to demonstrate that the DADPS probe undergoes highly selective conjugation and leaves a small (143 Da) mass tag on the labeled protein after cleavage. These features make the DADPS probe especially attractive for use in biomolecular labeling and proteomic studies.
Project description:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) leads to cancer remission via the production of cytotoxic species under photosensitizer (PS) irradiation. However, concomitant damage and dark toxicity can both hinder its use. With this in mind, we have implemented a versatile peptide-based platform of bioorthogonally activatable BODIPY-tetrazine PSs. Confocal microscopy and phototoxicity studies demonstrated that the incorporation of the PS, as a bifunctional module, into a peptide enabled spatial and conditional control of singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) generation. Comparing subcellular distribution, PS confined in the cytoplasmic membrane achieved the highest toxicities (IC50 =0.096±0.003??m) after activation and without apparent dark toxicity. Our tunable approach will inspire novel probes towards smart PDT.
Project description:Genetic code expansion enables the incorporation of non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into expressed proteins. ncAAs are usually encoded by a stop codon that is decoded by an exogenous orthogonal aminoacyl tRNA synthetase and its cognate suppressor tRNA, such as the pyrrolysine [Formula: see text] pair. In such systems, stop codon suppression is dependent on the intracellular levels of the exogenous tRNA. Therefore, multiple copies of the tRNAPyl gene (PylT) are encoded to improve ncAA incorporation. However, certain applications in mammalian cells, such as live-cell imaging applications, where labelled tRNAs contribute to background fluorescence, can benefit from the use of less invasive minimal expression systems. Accordingly, we studied the effect of tRNAPyl on live-cell fluorescence imaging of bioorthogonally-labelled intracellular proteins. We found that in COS7 cells, a decrease in PylT copy numbers had no measurable effect on protein expression levels. Importantly, reducing PylT copy numbers improved the quality of live-cell images by enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio and reducing an immobile tRNAPyl population. This enabled us to improve live cell imaging of bioorthogonally labelled intracellular proteins, and to simultaneously label two different proteins in a cell. Our results indicate that the number of introduced PylT genes can be minimized according to the transfected cell line, incorporated ncAA, and application.
Project description:Chemical reactions that enable selective biomolecule labeling in living organisms offer a means to probe biological processes in vivo. Very few reactions possess the requisite bioorthogonality, and, among these, only the Staudinger ligation between azides and triarylphosphines has been employed for direct covalent modification of biomolecules with probes in the mouse, an important model organism for studies of human disease. Here we explore an alternative bioorthogonal reaction, the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azides and cyclooctynes, also known as "Cu-free click chemistry," for labeling biomolecules in live mice. Mice were administered peracetylated N-azidoacetylmannosamine (Ac(4)ManNAz) to metabolically label cell-surface sialic acids with azides. After subsequent injection with cyclooctyne reagents, glycoconjugate labeling was observed on isolated splenocytes and in a variety of tissues including the intestines, heart, and liver, with no apparent toxicity. The cyclooctynes tested displayed various labeling efficiencies that likely reflect the combined influence of intrinsic reactivity and bioavailability. These studies establish Cu-free click chemistry as a bioorthogonal reaction that can be executed in the physiologically relevant context of a mouse.
Project description:Fluorogenic labeling enables imaging cellular molecules of interest with minimal background. This process is accompanied with the notable increase of the quantum yield of fluorophore, thus minimizing the background signals from unactivated profluorophores. Herein, the development of a highly efficient and bioorthogonal nitroso-based Diels-Alder fluorogenic reaction is presented and its usefulness is validated as effective and controllable in fluorescent probes and live-cell labeling strategies for dynamic cellular imaging. It is demonstrated that nitroso-based cycloaddition is an efficient fluorogenic labeling tool through experiments of further UV-activatable fluorescent labeling on proteins and live cells. The ability of tuning the fluorescence of labeled proteins by UV-irradiation enables selective activation of proteins of interest in a particular cell compartment at a given time point, while leaving the remaining labeled molecules untouched.
Project description:Investigating the many roles RNA plays in cellular regulation and function has increased demand for tools to explore RNA tracking and localization within cells. Our recently reported RNA-TAG (transglycosylation at guanine) approach uses an RNA-modifying enzyme, tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (TGT), to accomplish covalent labeling of an RNA of interest with fluorescent tracking agents in a highly selective and efficient manner. Unfortunately, labeling by this method currently suffers from a high nonspecific fluorescent background and is currently unsuitable for imaging RNA within complex cellular environments. Herein we report the design and synthesis of novel fluorogenic thiazole orange probes that significantly lower nonspecific binding and background fluorescence and, as a result, provide up to a 100-fold fluorescence intensity increase after labeling. Using these fluorogenic labeling agents, we were able to image mRNA expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells in a wash-free manner.