Pulmonary Intravascular Large B-cell Lymphoma (IVLBCL) Disguised as an Asthma Exacerbation in a Patient with Asthma.
ABSTRACT: A 62-year-old man with asthma presented with a 1-month history of wheezing and exertional dyspnea. Although the wheezing symptoms disappeared after systemic corticosteroid therapy, the exertional dyspnea and hypoxemia did not improve. A diagnosis of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) with pulmonary involvement was suspected because of the increased serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) level, increased alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (AaDO2), decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and scintigraphic, computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-CT findings. The patient was diagnosed as having IVLBCL with pulmonary involvement based on a pathological analysis of a random skin biopsy and a transbronchial lung biopsy. IVLBCL should be considered in patients with symptoms of asthma that are refractory to corticosteroid treatment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is defined as inappropriate movement of the vocal cords resulting in functional airway obstruction and symptoms including cough, wheezing, and dyspnea. VCD is often misdiagnosed with asthma but can also co-exist with asthma. The association of VCD with other serious pulmonary conditions has not been described to date.<h4>Case reports</h4>We describe the first case series of two adult patients evaluated at a university asthma clinic who in addition to having VCD also had significant pulmonary pathology other than asthma. Patient 1 had VCD and pulmonary veno-occulsive disease which necessitated a lung transplant. Patient 2 had VCD and a patent ductus arteriosis who necessitated surgical closure.<h4>Conclusion</h4>It is important to recognize that VCD can exist with pulmonary conditions other than asthma. Lack of improvement in respiratory symptoms after appropriate treatment for VCD should alert the clinician to evaluate for additional conditions.
Project description:The diagnostic criteria of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) advocated by the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA)/Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) are somewhat complicated, and limited data are available regarding how ACOS patients respond to current medications. We present a case of a 64-year-old man with ACOS. With features favoring asthma including childhood asthma history with intermittent episodes of dyspnea at night, elevated blood eosinophil count and total IgE, increased forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1) after bronchodilator (>200 mL and >12% from baseline), and positive skin prick tests, he also had features favoring COPD such as heavy smoker, persistent exertional dyspnea, and airflow limitation after inhaled therapy. Over 5-year follow up, our patient experienced a single episode of moderate exacerbation. However, post-bronchodilator FEV 1 decreased by 240 mL for 4 years (-60 mL/year) after 1.5 years of treatment, indicating rapid lung function decline. Longitudinal studies are necessary to assess optimal interventions and natural course of ACOS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>An inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) or leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) may prevent wheezing/asthma attacks in preschoolers with recurrent wheeze when added to short-acting ?-agonist (SABA).<h4>Objective</h4>The aim of this historical matched cohort study was to assess the effectiveness of these treatments for preventing wheezing/asthma attacks.<h4>Methods</h4>Electronic medical records from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database were used to characterize a UK preschool population (1-5 years old) with two or more episodes of wheezing during 1 baseline year before first prescription (index date) of ICS or LTRA, or repeat prescription of SABA. Children initiating ICS or LTRA on the index date were matched 1:4 to those prescribed only SABA for age, sex, year of index prescription, mean baseline SABA dose, baseline attacks, baseline antibiotic prescriptions, and eczema diagnosis. Wheezing/asthma attacks (defined as asthma-related emergency attendance, hospital admission, or acute oral corticosteroid prescription) during 1 outcome year were compared using conditional logistic regression.<h4>Results</h4>Matched ICS and SABA cohorts included 990 and 3,960 children, respectively (61% male; mean [SD] age 3.2 [1.3] years), and matched LTRA and SABA cohorts included 259 and 1,036 children, respectively (65% male; mean [SD] age 2.6 [1.2] years). We observed no significant difference between matched cohorts in the odds of a wheezing/asthma attack: ICS vs SABA, OR (95% CI) 1.01 (0.85-1.19) and LTRA vs SABA, OR (95% CI) 1.28 (0.96-1.72).<h4>Conclusion</h4>We found no evidence that initiation of ICS or LTRA therapy is associated with fewer attacks during 1 outcome year than SABA alone for a heterogeneous group of preschool children with recurrent wheeze in the real-life clinical setting.
Project description:Asthma-like symptoms like wheezing and dyspnea affect 1 in every 3 preschool children. An easily available biomarker that predicts later asthma or unfavorable lung growth in these children may be helpful in targeting the right child with the right drugs and avoiding exposure to potentially harmful drugs in others. The fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has been suggested as a marker of eosinophilic inflammation. FeNO can be measured in a standardized way from the age of 4 but several methods have been developed to measure FeNO also in younger children. Several studies have assessed the predictive value of FeNO in preschool wheezing children for asthma later in life. These studies have shown that FeNO may be helpful in defining different preschool wheezing phenotypes, and in assessing the risk of later asthma or impaired lung growth. However, data are conflicting on the added value over clinical parameters. In two studies in school children, high FeNO was predictive for asthma development during follow up and also predicted lower lung function growth. In school children with respiratory symptoms suggestive of asthma, particularly in atopic children, FeNO has diagnostic value for an asthma diagnosis, mostly for ruling in asthma. There are not enough data to assess if FeNO has a predictive value for lung development in school children.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous findings show that corticosteroid treatment during the first acute wheezing episode may reduce recurrent wheezing in children with high rhinovirus genome load at 12-month follow-up. Longer-term effects have not been investigated prospectively. METHODS:After PCR confirmation of rhinovirus from nasopharyngeal aspirate, 79 children with the first acute wheezing episode were randomized to receive orally prednisolone or placebo for 3 days. The initiation of asthma control medication before the age of 5 years was confirmed from medical record and/or from parental interview. The outcome was the time to initiation of regular asthma control medication. Interaction analysis examined rhinovirus genome load. RESULTS:Fifty-nine (75%) children completed the follow-up. Asthma control medication was initiated in 40 (68%) children at the median age of 20 months. Overall, prednisolone did not affect the time to initiation of asthma control medication when compared to placebo (P=.99). Rhinovirus load modified the effect of prednisolone regarding the time to initiation of asthma control medication (P-value for interaction=.04). In children with high rhinovirus load (>7000 copies/mL; n=23), the risk for initiation of medication was lower in the prednisolone group compared to the placebo group (P=.05). In the placebo group, asthma medication was initiated to all children with high rhinovirus load (n=9) during the 14 months after the first wheezing episode. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, prednisolone did not affect the time to initiation of asthma control medication when compared to placebo. However, prednisolone may be beneficial in first-time wheezing children whose episode was severe and associated with high rhinovirus load. (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00731575).
Project description:Childhood wheezing and asthma vary greatly in clinical presentation and time course. The extent to which phenotypic variation reflects heterogeneity in disease pathways is unclear.We sought to assess the extent to which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with childhood asthma in a genome-wide association study are predictive of asthma-related phenotypes.In 8365 children from a population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, allelic scores were derived based on between 10 and 215,443 SNPs ranked according to the inverse of the P value for their association with physician-diagnosed asthma in an independent genome-wide association study (6176 cases and 7111 control subjects). We assessed the predictive value of allelic scores for asthma-related outcomes at age 7 to 9 years (physician's diagnosis, longitudinal wheezing phenotypes, and measurements of pulmonary function, bronchial responsiveness, and atopy).Scores based on the 46 highest-ranked SNPs were associated with the symptom-based phenotypes early onset persistent wheeze (P< 10(-11); area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.59) and intermediate-onset wheeze (P< 10(-3); AUC, 0.58). Among lower-ranked SNPs (ranks, 21,545-46,416), there was evidence for associations with diagnosed asthma (P< 10(-4); AUC, 0.54) and atopy (P< 10(-5); AUC, 0.55). We found little evidence of associations with transient early wheezing, reduced pulmonary function, or nonasthma phenotypes.The genetic origins of asthma are diverse, and some pathways are specific to wheezing syndromes, whereas others are shared with atopy and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Our study also provides evidence of etiologic differences among wheezing syndromes.
Project description:There are multiple causes of dyspnea upon exertion in young, healthy patients to primarily include asthma and exercise-induced bronchospasm. Excessive dynamic airway collapse (EDAC) describes focal collapse of the trachea or main bronchi with maintained structural integrity of the cartilaginous rings. It is commonly associated with pulmonary disorders like bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. It is believed to result secondary to airway obstruction in these conditions. While uncommon in young, healthy adults, it has recently been found as a cause of dyspnea in this population. Inducible laryngeal obstruction (ILO) is an umbrella term that describes an induced, intermittent upper airway impediment. While ILO is found in 10% of young patients with exertional dyspnea, it is primarily inspiratory in nature due to paradoxical closure of the glottis or supraglottis. This report highlights the presentation of a United States Army soldier who after a deployment was given a diagnosis of asthma, later found to have ILO and was subsequently diagnosed with concurrent EDAC. We follow up with a literature review and discussion of symptomatology, diagnosis, exercise bronchoscopy, and treatment modalities for both EDAC and ILO.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Reduced exercise capacity severely impacts quality of life in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Ascertaining mechanisms that impair exercise capacity is necessary to identify targets for symptomatic treatments. METHODS:Dyspnea, pulmonary function tests and cardiopulmonary exercise test were analysed in 62 study participants. Data were compared between subjects with impaired and normal aerobic capacity (V'O2 peak less than 84% versus 84% predicted or more). Data were reduced using a principal component analysis. Multivariate analysis included V'O2 peak as the dependent variable and principal components as covariates. RESULTS:V'O2 peak was reduced in 44 subjects (71%). Subjects with impaired aerobic capacity presented: (i) decreased FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, DLCO and DLCO/VA and increased AaDO2, (ii) increased ventilatory equivalents at ventilatory threshold, VD/VT peak, AaDO2 peak and PaCO2 peak and decreased ventilatory reserve and PaO2 peak. There was no difference between groups in dyspnea scores. Principal component analysis extracted 4 principal components interpreted as follows: PC1: gas exchange; PC2: "pseudorestriction"; PC3: exercise-induced hyperpnea; PC4: air trapping. Multivariate analysis explained 65% of V'O2 peak. The 4 principal components were independently associated with V'O2 peak (?coefficients: PC1: 9.3 [4.6; 14], PC2: 7.5 [3; 11.9], PC3: -5.3 [-9.6;-1.], PC4: -9.8 [-14,9;-4.7]). CONCLUSION:Impaired exercise capacity is frequent in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is mainly caused by pulmonary changes but is not associated with increased dyspnea intensity. Therefore, treating the lung represents a relevant approach for improving exercise capacity, even in patients experiencing mild dyspnea.
Project description:The diagnosis of asthma is made on the basis of variable respiratory symptoms and supported by objective evidence of variable airflow limitation. However, spirometry and bronchoprovocation tests may not be routinely available in resource-scarce settings or in the context of large-scale epidemiological studies. There is a gap in knowledge about the predictive value of respiratory symptoms for the diagnosis of pollen-induced asthma.The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of self-reported respiratory symptoms for diagnosing pollen-induced asthma.We recruited 1,161 patients with respiratory symptoms who presented to the respiratory medicine outpatient clinic of two central hospitals in Inner Mongolia during the pollen season of July-September 2015. All patients were interviewed by a respiratory physician and completed a questionnaire survey, lung function tests and skin prick tests for common inhaled allergens.A total of 392 patients (33.8%) were diagnosed with asthma and 292 (25.2%, 160 adults, 132 children) with pollen-induced asthma. Respiratory symptoms of cough, wheezing, dyspnea, chest pain and nocturnal awakenings due to breathlessness were all associated with increased odds of being diagnosed with pollen-induced asthma, with cough being the most common symptom in both adults and children, giving a sensitivity of 90.6% in adults and 88.6% in children. Wheezing was the most specific symptom (78% and 89.5% in adults and children, respectively) compared to other symptoms. Overall, the positive predictive value of respiratory symptoms was poor for diagnosing pollen-induced asthma, with the exception of wheezing in children which had a high positive predictive value of 72.7%.Cough was the predominant symptom in adults and children with pollen-induced asthma. Wheezing was a reliable predictor of pollen-induced asthma in children. In adults, respiratory symptoms were not sufficiently reliable for diagnosing pollen-induced asthma.
Project description:The Asthma Predictive Index (API) and persistent wheezing phenotypes are associated with childhood asthma, but previous studies have not assessed their ability to predict objectively confirmed asthma.To determine whether the University of Cincinnati API Index (ucAPI) and/or persistent wheezing at age 3 can accurately predict objectively confirmed asthma at age 7.Data from the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study, a high-risk prospective birth cohort, was used. Asthma was defined as parent-reported or physician-diagnosed asthma objectively confirmed by a change in FEV1 of ?12% after bronchodilator or a positive methacholine challenge (PC20 ? 4 mg/mL); or as prior treatment with daily asthma controller medication(s). Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between confirmed asthma at age 7 and a positive ucAPI (adapted and modified from prior published API definitions) and persistent wheezing at age 3.At age 7, 103 of 589 children (17.5%) satisfied the criteria for asthma. Confirmed asthma at age 7 was significantly associated with a positive ucAPI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 13.3 [95% CI, 7.0-25.2]; P < .01) and the persistent wheezing phenotype (aOR 9.8 [95% CI, 4.9-19.5]; P < .01) at age 3. Allergic persistent wheezing was associated with a significantly higher risk of asthma (aOR 10.4 [95% CI, 4.1-26.0]; P < .01) than nonallergic persistent wheezing (aOR 5.4 [95% CI, 2.04-14.06]; P < .01).Both a positive ucAPI and persistent wheeze at age 3 were associated with objectively confirmed asthma at age 7; however, the highest risk was associated with ucAPI. These results demonstrate the ucAPI as a clinically useful tool for predicting future asthma in school-age children.