Blood lead, cadmium and mercury in relation to homocysteine and C-reactive protein in women of reproductive age: a panel study.
ABSTRACT: To examine the relationship between cadmium, lead, and mercury concentrations with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and homocysteine in women.Metals were measured at enrollment in whole blood. Homocysteine and hs-CRP were measured in one (N = 9) or two (N = 250) menstrual cycles up to 3 and 8 times per cycle, respectively. Linear mixed models with inverse probability of exposure weights to account for time varying confounding were used and models were stratified by dietary and serum vitamin status (dietary: vitamin B6, B12, folate; serum: folate).Geometric mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) concentrations for cadmium, lead, and mercury were 0.29 (0.26-0.31) μg/L, 0.91 (0.86-0.96) μg/dL, and 1.05 (0.93-1.18) μg/L, respectively. Lead was associated with increased homocysteine (0.08; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.15) and this persisted among those in the lower three quartiles of consumption of vitamin B6, B12, folate, and serum folate but was not significant among those in the upper quartile. No associations were observed between metals and hs-CRP.Blood lead was associated with increased homocysteine in a cohort of healthy, premenopausal women but these associations did not persist among those consuming ≥75th percentile of essential micronutrients. Cadmium, lead, and mercury were not associated with hs-CRP concentrations.
Project description:Osteoporosis is a major health problem, and the economic burden is expected to rise due to an increase in life expectancy throughout the world. Current observational evidence suggests that an elevated homocysteine concentration and poor vitamin B12 and folate status are associated with an increased fracture risk. As vitamin B12 and folate intake and status play a large role in homocysteine metabolism, it is hypothesized that supplementation with these B-vitamins will reduce fracture incidence in elderly people with an elevated homocysteine concentration.The B-PROOF (B-Vitamins for the PRevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures) study is a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. The intervention comprises a period of two years, and includes 2919 subjects, aged 65 years and older, independently living or institutionalized, with an elevated homocysteine concentration (≥ 12 μmol/L). One group receives daily a tablet with 500 μg vitamin B12 and 400 μg folic acid and the other group receives a placebo tablet. In both tablets 15 μg (600 IU) vitamin D is included. The primary outcome of the study is osteoporotic fractures. Measurements are performed at baseline and after two years and cover bone health i.e. bone mineral density and bone turnover markers, physical performance and physical activity including falls, nutritional intake and status, cognitive function, depression, genetics and quality of life. This large multi-center project is carried out by a consortium from the Erasmus MC (Rotterdam, the Netherlands), VUmc (Amsterdam, the Netherlands) and Wageningen University, (Wageningen, the Netherlands), the latter acting as coordinator.To our best knowledge, the B-PROOF study is the first intervention study in which the effect of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on osteoporotic fractures is studied in a general elderly population. We expect the first longitudinal results of the B-PROOF intervention in the second semester of 2013. The results of this intervention will provide evidence on the efficacy of vitamin B12 and folate supplementation in the prevention of osteoporotic fractures.The B-PROOF study is registered with the Netherlands Trial (NTR NTR1333) and with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00696514).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diet may influence vascular function through elevated homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations. However the relationship between dietary patterns (DP), characterised by Hcy and its associated nutrients is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To identify a DP characterised by plasma Hcy, dietary folate and dietary vitamin B12, and examine its associations with two markers of vascular function: carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and pulse wave velocity (PWV). METHODS:1562 participants of the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD), a British birth cohort, with dietary data measured at least once between 36 and 60-64 years, and cIMT or PWV measured at 60-64 years were included. DPs were derived using reduced rank regression with three intermediate variables: 1) plasma Hcy (μmol/L) 2) folate intake (μg/1000 kcal) 3) vitamin B12 intake (μg/1000 kcal). Multiple regression models assessed associations between the derived DP z-scores and vascular function adjusting for dietary misreporting, socioeconomic position, BMI, smoking, physical activity and diabetes. RESULTS:A DP explaining the highest amount of shared variation (4.5%) in plasma Hcy, dietary folate and dietary vitamin B12 highly correlated with folate (r = 0.96), moderately correlated with vitamin B12 (r = 0.27), and weakly correlated with Hcy (r = 0.10). This "high B-vitamin" DP (including folate) was characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruit and low fibre breakfast cereal, and low intakes of processed meat, white bread, sugar and preserves. No associations were observed between DP z-scores and vascular function at any time point following adjustment for covariates. CONCLUSION:This study explored a specific hypothesised pathway linking diet to vascular function. Although we found no consistent evidence for an association between a high B-vitamin DP and vascular function, we did observe an association with CRP and triglycerides in secondary analyses. Further analyses using strongly correlated and biologically relevant intermediate variables are required to refine investigations into diet and CVD in longitudinal cohort data.
Project description:Obesity is associated with vitamin insufficiency and low grade inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss on folate, retinol, vitamin B12, D and E status and the degree of inflammation.Out of 110, 85 individuals (75% women) aged 39 ± 11 years with a mean ± SD BMI of 33 ± 4 kg/m2, completed an eight-week low energy diet (LED). Serum concentration of folate, retinol, B12, D and E and C-reactive protein and homocysteine (Hcy) were measured at baseline and at end of the LED.At baseline, 8% of the participants were deficient in folate, 13% in vitamin B12, 2% in retinol, 28% in vitamin D (72% were insufficient in vitamin D), and none were deficient in vitamin E. At baseline, BMI was inversely associated with retinol (P < 0.05) as was total and abdominal fat percentage with folate (P < 0.05); further BMI and measures of adiposity were positively associated with CRP (P < 0.01) and Hcy (P < 0.05). Homocysteine was inversely associated with all vitamins but retinol (P < 0.001). After the LED, the participants lost a mean [95% confidence intervals] of 12.3 [- 13.1,-11.6] kg. The serum concentration of folate, vitamin B12 and D were increased (P < 0.001) after the LED whereas the concentration of retinol and vitamin E were reduced (P < 0.001).Eight-weeks LED resulted in 13% weight loss and an increase in the serum concentrations of folate, vitamin B12 and D. Baseline adiposity was inversely associated with folate and retinol, and positively associated with markers of inflammation.Ethical Committee of Copenhagen as no. H-4-2013-135, NCT01561131.
Project description:Smoking exposure is associated with pregnancy complications, as are levels of folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine. In nonpregnant adults, smoking exposure is associated negatively with folate and vitamin B12 levels and positively with homocysteine levels. A complete overview of the literature on this topic in pregnant women is lacking. To evaluate evidence of associations of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy and levels of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 in pregnancy and in cord blood, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, and reference lists of relevant studies until August 2017. We selected studies in pregnant women describing the association of passive or active smoking and levels of folate, homocysteine, and/or vitamin B12. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers. We included 32 studies of 2,015 identified references with a total of 37,822 participants and more than 6,000 smokers. Twenty-eight studies measured folate, 14 measured vitamin B12, and 13 measured homocysteine. Nineteen out of 28 studies assessing folate reported significantly lower levels in pregnant women exposed to smoking compared with those unexposed. Vitamin B12 levels were lower in smoking mothers in eight out of 14 studies. Homocysteine levels tended to be higher in mothers exposed to smoking. Smoking exposure during pregnancy is generally associated with lower folate and vitamin B12 levels and higher homocysteine levels. This may help raise further awareness about the consequences of smoking and the need to encourage stopping smoking in all, especially in pregnant women.
Project description:Folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy are important factors for early development and may persistently influence kidney function in the offspring. We examined the associations of folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine concentrations during pregnancy with kidney outcomes in school-aged children.Population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onward.This study was performed among 4,226 pregnant women and their children.Folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine blood concentrations measured in early pregnancy (median gestational age, 13.2 [IQR, 12.2-14.8] weeks) and at birth (cord blood).At the median age of 6.0 (IQR, 5.9-6.3) years, we measured combined kidney volume with ultrasound, estimated glomerular filtration rate based on creatinine (eGFRcr) and cystatin C (eGFRcys) concentrations, and microalbuminuria.We observed that higher maternal folate concentrations were associated with larger childhood combined kidney volume, whereas higher maternal vitamin B12 concentrations were associated with higher childhood eGFRcys (P for both <0.05). These associations were independent of homocysteine concentrations. Higher maternal homocysteine concentrations were associated with smaller combined kidney volume and lower childhood eGFRcys (P for both < 0.05). The association of maternal homocysteine concentrations with childhood eGFRcys was largely explained by combined kidney volume. Higher cord blood homocysteine concentrations were associated with larger combined kidney volume and lower eGFRcys (P for both < 0.05). Folate, vitamin B12, or homocysteine concentrations were not associated with microalbuminuria.Observational study, so causality cannot be established.Our findings suggest that folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine concentrations during fetal life are associated with offspring kidney development. However, effect sizes are small. Further studies to replicate these findings and assess the causality and consequences for kidney health in later life are needed.
Project description:The primary objective of this clinical study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary multivitamin, multimineral and phytonutrient (VMP) supplement on blood nutrient status and biomarkers of heart health risk in a Russian population. One hundred twenty healthy adults (40-70 years) were recruited for a 56-day (eight-week) randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study with parallel design. Subjects were divided into two groups and received either a VMP or a placebo (PLA) supplement. Blood nutrient levels of ?-carotene, ?-tocopherol, vitamin C, B6, B12, red blood cell (RBC) folate, Zinc and Selenium were measured at baseline and on Days 28 and 56, and quercetin was measured at baseline and on Day 56. Blood biomarkers of heart health, i.e. homocysteine (Hcy), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), uric acid and blood lipid profile, were measured at baseline and Day 56. Dietary VMP supplementation for 56 days significantly increased circulating levels of quercetin, vitamin C, RBC folate and partially prevented the decline in vitamin B6 and B12 status. Both serum Hcy and GGT were significantly reduced (-3.97 ± 10.09 µmol/L; -1.68 ± 14.53 U/L, respectively) after VMP supplementation compared to baseline. Dietary VMP supplementation improved the nutrient status and reduced biomarkers of heart health risk in a Russian population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hyperhomocysteinemia may be a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction. Folate and vitamin B12 regulate the homocysteine metabolic process. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between subsequent events of adverse pregnancy outcome and early variables of homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 in pregnant women. METHODS:This multicenter, retrospective, case-control study involved 563 pregnant women with adverse pregnancy outcome and 600 controls. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included one or more of the following events: preeclampsia, preterm birth, low birth weight, and stillbirth. The associations between subsequent events of adverse pregnancy outcome and early variables of homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12; metabolic parameters; inflammatory markers; anthropometrics; and lifestyle habits at 11-12?weeks of gestation were analyzed using the logistic regression model. RESULTS:Compared to the lower quartile homocysteine concentrations, the upper quartile homocysteine concentrations were associated with preeclampsia, preterm birth and low birth weight. On the contrary, the lower quartile folate concentrations were associated with preeclampsia, preterm birth and low birth weight compared with the upper quartile folate concentrations. The incidence of adverse pregnancy outcome increased progressively from the first to fourth homocysteine quartiles but decreased progressively from the first to fourth folate quartiles. After adjusting for confounding factors, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that besides systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index and age, homocysteine (IV vs I quartile, aOR 5.89, 95% CI 4.08-8.51, P?<?0.001), folate (IV vs I quartile, aOR 0.35, 95% CI 0.25-0.50, P?<?0.001), folate supplementation (yes vs no, aOR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35-0.86, P?=?0.010) during early pregnancy were independently associated with subsequent events of adverse pregnancy outcome, and vitamin B12 was rejected. Of these, the homocysteine revealed the highest odds ratio in all risk variables, and folate showed the lowest odds ratio in all protective variables. CONCLUSIONS:Higher homocysteine concentration and lower folate level during early pregnancy were associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. However, no association was found between vitamin B12 and adverse pregnancy outcome. Supplementation with folate in early pregnancy may reduce adverse pregnancy outcome.
Project description:Background: In order to prevent age-related degenerative diseases in the aging population, their diets should be nutrient dense. For this purpose, the Elderly-Nutrient rich food (E-NRF7.3) score has been developed to assess nutrient density of diets by capturing dietary reference values for older adults. To demonstrate its practical importance such score should be validated against markers of nutritional status and health. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the association between the E-NRF7.3 score and markers of nutritional status and inflammation. Design: This study was carried out in a sample of the NU-AGE study including 242 Dutch and 210 Polish men and women, aged 65-79 years. Dietary intake was assessed by means of 7-day food records and structured questionnaires collected data on supplement use, lifestyle, and socio-economic information. Baseline measurements included anthropometrics, physical and cognitive function tests, and a fasting venipuncture. E-NRF7.3 scores were calculated to estimate nutrient density of foods and the diet. Associations between the E-NRF7.3 scores and micronutrient status of vitamin D, folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and c-reactive protein (CRP) were examined using linear regression analysis while adjusting for confounders. Results: Each one unit increase in E-NRF7.3 score was associated with a 2.2% increase in serum folate in Dutch and 1.6% increase in Polish participants in the fully adjusted models (both p < 0.01). Each one unit increase in E-NRF7.3 was significantly associated with a 1.5% decrease in homocysteine levels in Dutch participants (p < 0.01), whereas, a 0.9% increase in vitamin B12 levels was observed in Polish participants only (p < 0.01). Higher E-NRF7.3 scores were not associated with vitamin D or CRP levels. Adjustment for potential confounders did not substantially alter these results. Discussion: The E-NRF7.3 was developed to reflect dietary intake of relevant nutrients for older adults. Its association with markers of nutritional status could be confirmed for folate (both populations), vitamin B12 (Poland only), and homocysteine (the Netherlands only). There was no association with vitamin D and CRP. To further demonstrate its validity and practical implication, future studies should include a wider range of nutritional status makers, health outcomes, and inflammation markers.
Project description:AIM:To investigate the effect of vitamin supplements on homocysteine levels in patients with celiac disease. METHODS:Vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, and fasting plasma homocysteine levels were measured in 51 consecutive adults with celiac disease [median (range) age 56 (18-63) years; 40% men, 26 (51%) had villous atrophy, and 25 (49%) used B-vitamin supplements] and 50 healthy control individuals matched for age and sex. Finally, the C677T polymorphism of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) was evaluated in 46 patients with celiac disease and all control individuals. RESULTS:Patients with celiac disease and using vitamin supplements had higher serum vitamin B6 (P = 0.003), folate (P < 0.001), and vitamin B12 (P = 0.012) levels than patients who did not or healthy controls (P = 0.035, P < 0.001, P = 0.007, for vitamin B6, folate, and vitamin B12, respectively). Lower plasma homocysteine levels were found in patients using vitamin supplements than in patients who did not (P = 0.001) or healthy controls (P = 0.003). However, vitamin B6 and folate, not vitamin B12, were significantly and independently associated with homocysteine levels. Twenty-four (48%) of 50 controls and 23 (50%) of 46 patients with celiac disease carried the MTHFR thermolabile variant T-allele (P = 0.89). CONCLUSION:Homocysteine levels are dependent on Marsh classification and the regular use of B-vitamin supplements is effective in reduction of homocysteine levels in patients with celiac disease and should be considered in disease management.
Project description:Elevated homocysteine levels and low vitamin B12 and folate levels have been associated with deteriorated bone health. This systematic literature review with dose-response meta-analyses summarizes the available scientific evidence on associations of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine status with fractures and bone mineral density (BMD). Twenty-seven eligible cross-sectional (n = 14) and prospective (n = 13) observational studies and one RCT were identified. Meta-analysis on four prospective studies including 7475 people showed a modest decrease in fracture risk of 4% per 50?pmol/L increase in vitamin B12 levels, which was borderline significant (RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92 to 1.00). Meta-analysis of eight studies including 11511 people showed an increased fracture risk of 4% per ? mol/L increase in homocysteine concentration (RR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.07). We could not draw a conclusion regarding folate levels and fracture risk, as too few studies investigated this association. Meta-analyses regarding vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels, and BMD were possible in female populations only and showed no associations. Results from studies regarding BMD that could not be included in the meta-analyses were not univocal.