Lipid peroxidation biomarkers in adolescents with or at high-risk for bipolar disorder.
ABSTRACT: Prior work suggests that adult bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation. This exploratory study examined markers of lipid and protein oxidation and inflammation in adolescents with and at varying risk for BD type I (BD-I).Blood was obtained from four groups of adolescents (9-20 years of age): (1) healthy comparison subjects with no personal or family history of psychiatric disorders (n=13), (2) subjects with no psychiatric diagnosis and at least one parent with BD-I ('high-risk', n=15), (3) subjects with at least one parent with BD-I and a diagnosis of depressive disorder not-otherwise-specified ('ultra-high-risk', n=20), and (4) first-episode patients exhibiting mixed or manic symptoms that received a diagnosis of BD-I (n=16). Plasma levels of lipid peroxidation (LPH, 4-HNE, 8-ISO), protein carbonyl, and inflammation (IL-1?-?, IL-6, IL-10, IFN?, TNF?) were assessed using analysis of variance and covariance models.LPH was lower in adolescents with fully syndromal BD than controls, while LPH levels in the at-risk groups were between healthy controls and fully syndromal BD. Post-hoc analysis showed a non-significant increase in the (4-HNE+8-ISO)/LPH ratio suggesting a potential conversion of LPH into late-stage markers of lipid peroxidation. There were no significant differences among protein carbonyl content and inflammatory markers.In adolescents, fully syndromal BD is associated with significant reductions in LPH levels, and LPH levels decrease along the spectrum of risk for BD-I. Quantifying lipid peroxidation in longitudinal studies may help clarify the role of LPH in BD risk progression.
Project description:Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies consistently reported abnormalities in fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD), measures of the integrity of white matter (WM), in bipolar disorder (BD), that may reflect underlying pathophysiologic processes. There is, however, a pressing need to identify peripheral measures that are related to these WM measures, to help identify easily obtainable peripheral biomarkers of BD. Given the high lipid content of axonal membranes and myelin sheaths, and that elevated serum levels of lipid peroxidation are reported in BD, these serum measures may be promising peripheral biomarkers of underlying WM abnormalities in BD. We used DTI and probabilistic tractography to compare FA and RD in ten prefrontal-centered WM tracts, 8 of which are consistently shown to have abnormal FA (and/or RD) in BD, and also examined serum lipid peroxidation (lipid hydroperoxides, LPH and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, 4-HNE), in 24 currently euthymic BD adults (BDE) and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy adults (CONT). There was a significant effect of group upon FA in these a priori WM tracts (BDE<CONT: F[1,41]=6.8; P=0.013) and RD (BDE>CONT: F[1,41]=10.3; P=0.003), and a significant between-group difference in LPH (BDE>CONT: t=2.4; P=0.022), but not in 4-HNE. Multivariate multiple regression analyses revealed that LPH variance explained, respectively, 59 and 51% of the variance of FA and RD across all study participants. This is the first study to examine relationships between measures of WM integrity and peripheral measures of lipid peroxidation. Our findings suggest that serum LPH may be useful in the development of a clinically relevant, yet easily obtainable and inexpensive, peripheral biomarkers of BD.
Project description:Objective:This study investigated whether pretreatment oxidative stress, measured by lipid hydroperoxides (LPH), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), 8-isoprostane (8-ISO), and malondialdehyde (MDA), was associated with improvement in immediate recall among n-3 PUFA-treated coronary artery disease patients. Methods:This was a secondary analysis of the CAROTID trial (NCT00981383). Composite immediate recall, measured using the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition, and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, was assessed. LPH, 4-HNE, 8-ISO, MDA, and n-3 PUFA concentrations were analysed from fasting blood. Patients then received either n-3 PUFA treatment or placebo for 12 weeks, after which composite immediate recall was reassessed. Linear regression was used to investigate relationships between lipid peroxidation markers and changes in composite immediate recall in each treatment group. Results:Eighty-five patients (age = 61.1 ± 8.5, 77% male, mean years of education = 15.3 ± 3.4) were included (n = 46 placebo, n = 39 n-3 PUFA). After adjusting for multiple comparisons and potential confounders, greater baseline concentrations of LPH (? = 0.45, p = .002) and 4-HNE (? = 0.38, p = .005) were associated with greater improvement in composite immediate recall among n-3 PUFA-treated patients. No other associations were observed. Conclusions:N-3 PUFA treatment may be more likely to improve immediate recall in patients with greater oxidative stress.
Project description:The onset of lipid peroxidation within cellular membranes is associated with changes in their physiochemical properties and enzymatic dysfunction of the membrane environment. There are increasing bodies of evidence indicating that aldehydic molecules generated endogenously during the process of lipid peroxidation are causally involved in most of the pathophysiological effects associated with oxidative stress in cells and tissues. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), among them, is believed to be largely responsible for cytopathological effects observed during oxidative stress in vivo and has achieved the status of one of the best recognized and most studied of the cytotoxic products of lipid peroxidation. Here, we reported that 4-HNE treatment may induce cell death in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells. The 4-HNE treatment could activate caspase-3 and alter the Bax/Bcl-2 apoptotic signaling. All these changes are due to the inhibition of AKT activity by 4-HNE treatment, and we also found that the p70S6K activity, downstream factors of AKT, was also blocked by 4-HNE. Our results revealed the molecular mechanism of how 4-HNE induces cell death in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells, which contributes to the clinical treatment of cancer therapy.
Project description:4-Hydroxy-2-(E)-nonenal (4-HNE) is one of the major lipid peroxidation product formed during oxidative stress. At high concentrations, 4-HNE is cytotoxic and exerts deleterious effects that are often associated with the pathology of oxidative stress-driven disease. Alternatively, at low concentrations it functions as a signaling molecule that can activate protective pathways including the antioxidant Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. Although these biphasic signaling properties have been enumerated in many diseases and pathways, it has yet to be addressed whether 4-HNE has the capacity to modulate oxidative stress-driven lipid peroxidation. Here we report an auto-regulatory mechanism of 4-HNE via modulation of the biological oxidant nitric oxide (NO). Utilizing LPS-activated macrophages to induce biological oxidant production, we demonstrate that 4-HNE modulates NO levels via inhibition of iNOS expression. We illustrate a proposed model of control of NO formation whereby at low concentrations of 4-HNE a negative feedback loop maintains a constant level of NO production with an observed inflection at approximately 1 µM, while at higher 4-HNE concentrations positive feedback is observed. Further, we demonstrate that this negative feedback loop of NO production control is dependent on the Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway. Taken together, the careful regulation of NO production by 4-HNE argues for a more fundamental role of this lipid peroxidation product in normal physiology.
Project description:The biomarker 8-iso-prostaglandin F2? (8-iso-PGF2?) is regarded as the gold standard for detection of excessive chemical lipid peroxidation in humans. However, biosynthesis of 8-iso-PGF2? via enzymatic lipid peroxidation by prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases (PGHSs), which are significantly induced in inflammation, could lead to incorrect biomarker interpretation. To resolve the ambiguity with this biomarker, the ratio of 8-iso-PGF2? to prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) is established as a quantitative measure to distinguish enzymatic from chemical lipid peroxidation in vitro, in animal models, and in humans. Using this method, we find that chemical lipid peroxidation contributes only 3% to the total 8-iso-PGF2? in the plasma of rats. In contrast, the 8-iso-PGF2? levels in plasma of human males are generated >99% by chemical lipid peroxidation. This establishes the potential for an alternate pathway of biomarker synthesis, and draws into question the source of increases in 8-iso-PGF2? seen in many human diseases. In conclusion, increases in 8-iso-PGF2? do not necessarily reflect increases in oxidative stress; therefore, past studies using 8-iso-PGF2? as a marker of oxidative stress may have been misinterpreted. The 8-iso-PGF2?/PGF2? ratio can be used to distinguish biomarker synthesis pathways and thus confirm the potential change in oxidative stress in the myriad of disease and chemical exposures known to induce 8-iso-PGF2?.
Project description:Free radical-mediated oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and DNA occurs in neurons during acute brain injuries and in neurodegenerative disorders. Membrane lipid peroxidation contributes to neuronal dysfunction and death, in part by disrupting neuronal ion homeostasis and cellular bioenergetics. Emerging findings suggest that 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), an aldehyde produced during lipid peroxidation, impairs the function of various proteins involved in neuronal homeostasis. Here we tested the hypothesis that HNE impairs the cellular system that removes damaged proteins and organelles, the autophagy-lysosome pathway in rat primary cortical neurons. We found that HNE, at a concentration that causes apoptosis over a 48-72 h period, increases protein levels of LC3 II and p62 and within 1 and 4 h of exposure, respectively; LC3 II and p62 immunoreactive puncta were observed in the cytoplasm of HNE-treated neurons at 6 h. The extent of up-regulation of p62 and LC3 II in response to HNE was not affected by co-treatment with the lysosome inhibitor bafilomycin A1, suggesting that the effects of HNE on autophagy were secondary to lysosome inhibition. Indeed, we found that neurons exposed to HNE exhibit elevated pH levels, and decreased protein substrate hydrolysis and cathepsin B activity. Neurons exposed to HNE also exhibited the accumulation of K63-linked polyubiquitinated proteins, which are substrates targeted for lysosomal degradation. Moreover, we found that the levels of LAMP2a and constitutively active heat-shock protein 70, and numbers of LAMP2a-positive lysosomes, are decreased in neurons exposed to HNE. Our findings demonstrate that the lipid peroxidation product HNE causes early impairment of lysosomes which may contribute to the accumulation of damaged and dysfunctional proteins and organelles and consequent neuronal death. Because impaired lysosome function is increasingly recognized as an early event in the neuronal death that occurs in neurodegenerative disorders, our findings suggest a role for HNE in such lysosomal dysfunction.
Project description:This chapter describes a mass spectrometry-based strategy that facilitates the unambiguous identification and characterization of proteins modified by lipid peroxidation-derived 2-alkenals. The approach employs a biotinylated hydroxyl amine derivative as an aldehyde/keto-reactive probe in conjunction with selective enrichment and tandem mass spectrometric analysis. Methodological details are given for model studies involving a distinct protein and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). The method was also evaluated for an exposure study of a cell culture system with HNE that yielded the major protein targets of HNE in human monocytic THP-1 cells. The application of the approach to complex biological systems is demonstrated for the identification and characterization of endogenous protein targets of aldehydic lipid peroxidation products present in cardiac mitochondria.
Project description:Modulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK-1/2), a signaling pathway directly associated with cell proliferation, survival, and homeostasis, has been implicated in several pathologies, including alcoholic liver disease. However, the underlying mechanism of ethanol-induced ERK-1/2 modulation remains unknown. This investigation explored the effects of ethanol-associated oxidative stress on constitutive hepatic ERK-1/2 activity and assessed the contribution of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) to the observations made in vivo. Constitutive ERK-1/2 phosphorylation was suppressed in hepatocytes isolated from rats chronically consuming ethanol for 45 days. This observation was associated with an increase in 4-HNE-ERK monomer adduct concentration and a hepatic cellular and lobular redistribution of ERK-1/2 that correlated with 4-HNE-protein adduct accumulation. Chronic ethanol consumption was also associated with a decrease in hepatocyte nuclear ELK-1 phosphorylation, independent of changes in total nuclear ELK-1 protein. Primary hepatocytes treated with concentrations of 4-HNE consistent with those occurring during oxidative stress displayed a concentration-dependent decrease in constitutive ERK-1/2 phosphorylation, activity, and nuclear localization that negatively correlated with 4-HNE-ERK-1/2 monomer adduct accumulation. These data paralleled the decreased phosphorylation of the downstream kinase ELK-1. Molar ratios of purified ERK-2 to 4-HNE consistent with pathologic ratios found in vivo resulted in protein monomer-adduct formation across a range of concentrations. Collectively, these data demonstrate a novel association between ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation and the inhibition of constitutive ERK-1/2, and suggest an inhibitory mechanism mediated by the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal.
Project description:4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a major racemic product of lipid peroxidation, preferentially reacts with cysteine residues to form a stable HNE-cysteine Michael addition adduct possessing three chiral centers. Here, to gain more insight into sulfhydryl modification by HNE, we characterized the stereochemical configuration of the HNE-cysteine adducts and investigated their stereoselective formation in redox-regulated proteins. To characterize the HNE-cysteine adducts by NMR, the authentic (R)-HNE- and (S)-HNE-cysteine adducts were prepared by incubating N-acetylcysteine with each HNE enantiomer, both of which provided two peaks in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The NMR analysis revealed that each peak was a mixture of anomeric isomers. In addition, mutarotation at the anomeric center was also observed in the analysis of the nuclear Overhauser effect. To analyze these adducts in proteins, we adapted a pyridylamination-based approach, using 2-aminopyridine in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride, which enabled analyzing the individual (R)-HNE- and (S)-HNE-cysteine adducts by reversed-phase HPLC following acid hydrolysis. Using the pyridylamination method along with mass spectrometry, we characterized the stereoselective formation of the HNE-cysteine adducts in human thioredoxin and found that HNE preferentially modifies Cys(73) and, to the lesser extent, the active site Cys(32). More interestingly, the (R)-HNE- and (S)-HNE-cysteine adducts were almost equally formed at Cys(73), whereas Cys(32) exhibited a remarkable preference for the adduct formation with (R)-HNE. Finally, the utility of the method for the determination of the HNE-cysteine adducts was confirmed by an in vitro study using HeLa cells. The present results not only offer structural insight into sulfhydryl modification by lipid peroxidation products but also provide a platform for the chemical analysis of protein S-associated aldehydes in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are elevated in the heart in response to hemodynamic and metabolic stress and promote hypertrophic signaling. ROS also mediate the formation of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes that may promote myocardial hypertrophy. One lipid peroxidation by-product, 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE), is a reactive aldehyde that covalently modifies proteins thereby altering their function. HNE adducts directly inhibit the activity of LKB1, a serine/threonine kinase involved in regulating cellular growth in part through its interaction with the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), but whether this drives myocardial growth is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that HNE promotes myocardial protein synthesis and if this effect is associated with impaired LKB1-AMPK signaling. In adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes, exposure to HNE (10 ?M for 1h) caused HNE-LKB1 adduct formation and inhibited LKB1 activity. HNE inhibited the downstream kinase AMPK, increased hypertrophic mTOR-p70S6K-RPS6 signaling, and stimulated protein synthesis by 27.1 ± 3.5%. HNE also stimulated Erk1/2 signaling, which contributed to RPS6 activation but was not required for HNE-stimulated protein synthesis. HNE-stimulated RPS6 phosphorylation was completely blocked using the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. To evaluate if LKB1 inhibition by itself could promote the hypertrophic signaling changes observed with HNE, LKB1 was depleted in adult rat ventricular myocytes using siRNA. LKB1 knockdown did not replicate the effect of HNE on hypertrophic signaling or affect HNE-stimulated RPS6 phosphorylation. Thus, in adult cardiac myocytes HNE stimulates protein synthesis by activation of mTORC1-p70S6K-RPS6 signaling most likely mediated by direct inhibition of AMPK. Because HNE in the myocardium is commonly increased by stimuli that cause pathologic hypertrophy, these findings suggest that therapies that prevent activation of mTORC1-p70S6K-RPS6 signaling may be of therapeutic value.