Testing and comparing two self-care-related instruments among older Chinese adults.
ABSTRACT: The study aimed to test and compare the reliability and validity, including sensitivity and specificity of the two self-care-related instruments, the Self-care Ability Scale for the Elderly (SASE), and the Appraisal of Self-care Agency Scale-Revised (ASAS-R), among older adults in the Chinese context.A cross-sectional design was used to conduct this study. The sample consisted of 1152 older adults. Data were collected by a questionnaire including the Chinese version of SASE (SASE-CHI), the Chinese version of ASAS-R (ASAS-R-CHI) and the Exercise of Self-Care Agency scale (ESCA). Homogeneity and stability, content, construct and concurrent validity, and sensitivity and specificity were assessed.The Cronbach's alpha (α) of SASE-CHI was 0.89, the item-to-total correlations ranged from r = 0.15 to r = 0.81, and the test-retest correlation coefficient (intra-class correlation coefficient, ICC) was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.99-1.00; P<0.001). The Cronbach's α of ASAS-R-CHI was 0.78, the item-to-total correlations ranged from r = 0.20 to r = 0.65, and the test-retest ICC was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.92-0.96; P<0.001). The content validity index (CVI) of SASE-CHI and ASAS-R-CHI was 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. The findings of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) confirmed a good construct validity of SASE-CHI and ASAS-R-CHI. The Pearson's rank correlation coefficients, as a measure of concurrent validity, between total score of SASE-CHI and ESCA and ASAS-R-CHI and ESCA were assessed to 0.65 (P<0.001) and 0.62 (P<0.001), respectively. Regarding ESCA as the criterion, the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for the cut-point of SASE-CHI and ASAS-R-CHI were 0.93 (95% CI, 0.91-0.94) and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.80-0.86), respectively.There is no significant difference between the two instruments. Each has its own characteristics, but SASE-CHI is more suitable for older adults. The key point is that the users can choose the most appropriate scale according to the specific situation.
Project description:The core implication of nursing professionals' labor is promoting self-care and foster well-being among healthcare service users. The beginning of the healing process starts with the provider, and self-care habits are needed to positively impact on patients' care outcomes at different spheres. Overall, current literature supports the idea that nurses' personal self-care should be a necessary skill to be expected in their professional role. In this regard, the Appraisal of Self-care Agency Scale (ASAS) is a worldwide known instrument aimed at assessing the ability to engage in self-care. However, it has never been tested in the Spanish context before, and much less in nursing practitioners or apprentices. The aim of this study was to translate, adapt and validate the ASAS for Spanish nursing apprentices, assessing its dimensionality, psychometric properties and convergent validity by means of the Sense of Coherence (SOC-13) questionnaire.<h4>Methods</h4>Data were collected from a random sample of 921 Certificated Nursing Assistant (CNA) Spanish students and was analyzed trough confirmatory factor analyses via structural equation models. The core ASAS construct and its subscales were correlated with the SOC-13 scores.<h4>Results</h4>Fair psychometric properties for the questionnaire were set. Also, SEM models endorse the validity and reliability of the four-factor dimensionality of the Spanish adaptation of the ASAS, whose associations to SOC scores were coherent and significant.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study allowed to establish that the Spanish version of the ASAS might be a useful tool for addressing self-care-related issues among nursing apprentices, a key population for promoting both their own and patients' health and welfare through healthy and care-related behaviors.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To translate and adapt the Chelsea Critical Care Physical Assessment Tool (CPAx) into Chinese version ('CPAx-Chi'), test the reliability and validity of CPAx-Chi, and verify the cut-off point for the diagnosis of intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW).<h4>Study design</h4>Cross-sectional observational study.<h4>Methods</h4>Forward and back translation, cross-cultural adaptation and pretesting of CPAx into CPAx-Chi were based on the Brislin model. Participants were recruited from the general ICU of five third-grade class-A hospitals in western China. Two hundred critically ill adult patients (median age: 53 years; 64% men) with duration of ICU stay ≥48 hours and Glasgow Coma Scale ≥11 were included in this study. Two researchers simultaneously and independently assessed eligible patients using the Medical Research Council Muscle Score (MRC-Score) and CPAx-Chi.<h4>Results</h4>The content validity index of items was 0.889. The content validity index of scale was 0.955. Taking the MRC-Score scale as standard, the criterion validity of CPAx-Chi was r=0.758 (p<0.001) for researcher A, and r=0.65 (p<0.001) for researcher B. Cronbach's α was 0.939. The inter-rater reliability was 0.902 (p<0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of CPAx-Chi for diagnosing ICU-AW based on MRC-Score ≤48 were 0.899 (95% CI 0.862 to 1.025) and 0.874 (95% CI 0.824 to 0.925) for researcher B. The best cut-off point for CPAx-Chi for the diagnosis of ICU-AW was 31.5. The sensitivity was 87% and specificity was 77% for researcher A, whereas it was 0.621, 31.5, 75% and 87% for researcher B, respectively. The consistency was high when taking CPAx-Chi ≤31 and MRC-Score ≤48 as the cut-off points for the diagnosis of ICU-AW. Cohen's kappa=0.845 (p=0.02) in researcher A and 0.839 (p=0.04) for researcher B.<h4>Conclusions</h4>CPAx-Chi demonstrated content validity, criterion-related validity and reliability. CPAx-Chi showed the best accuracy in assessment of patients at risk of ICU-AW with good sensitivity and specificity at a recommended cut-off of 31.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To develop the Psychiatric Nurse Self-Efficacy Scales, and to examine their reliability and validity.<h4>Design</h4>We developed the Improved Self-Efficacy Scale (ISES) and Decreased Self-Efficacy Scale (DSES) using existing evidence. Statistical analysis was conducted on the data to test reliability and validity.<h4>Setting</h4>The study's setting was psychiatric facilities in three prefectures in Japan.<h4>Participants</h4>Data from 514 valid responses were extracted of the 786 responses by psychiatric nurses.<h4>Outcome measures</h4>The study measured the reliability and validity of the scales.<h4>Results</h4>The ISES has two factors ('Positive changes in the patient' and 'Prospect of continuing in psychiatric nursing') and the DSES has three ('Devaluation of own role as a psychiatric nurse', 'Decrease in nursing ability due to overload' and 'Difficulty in seeing any results in psychiatric nursing'). With regard to scale reliability, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.634-0.845. With regard to scale validity, as the factorial validity of the ISES and DSES, for the ISES, χ<sup>2</sup>/df (110.625/37) ratio=2.990 (p<0.001), goodness-of-fit index (GFI)=0.962, adjusted GFI (AGFI)=0.932, comparative fit index (CFI)=0.967 and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA)=0.062; for the DSES, χ<sup>2</sup>/df (101.982/37) ratio=2.756 (p<0.001), GFI=0.966, AGFI=0.940, CFI=0.943, RMSEA=0.059 and Akaike Information Criterion=159.982. The concurrent validity of the General Self-Efficacy Scale was r=0.149-0.446 (p<0.01) for ISES and r=-0.154 to -0.462 (p<0.01) for DSES, and the concurrent validity of the Stress Reaction Scale was r=-0.128 to 0.168 for ISES, r=0.214-0.398 for DSES (p<0.01).Statistical analyses showed the scales to be reliable and valid measures.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The ISES and DSES can accurately assess psychiatric nurses' self-efficacy. Using these scales, it is possible to formulate programmes for improving psychiatric nurses' feelings of self-efficacy.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Self-efficacy has been found to have a direct relation with self-care in diabetes. Several tools have been developed and used for evaluating self-efficacy of diabetic patients, the most widely used being the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (DMSES). The aim of the present study was to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the Greek DMSES (GR-DMSES) in order for it to be used in the ATTICA pilot study of the SmartCare EU-funded project.<h4>Methods</h4>Using standard procedures, the original version of DMSES was translated and culturally adapted into Greek. Content validity was assessed by an expert panel with the calculation of a content validity index of the overall scale. Α convenient sample was recruited to complete the questionnaire. Psychometric testing of the produced instrument included internal consistency test (Cronbach's alpha), construct validity (factor analysis), and stability (intraclass correlation coefficient).<h4>Results</h4>One hundred and sixteen patients, aged 36-86 years, with type 2 diabetes (T2D) participated in the study. There were no items excluded from the original scale after the content validity procedure. The coefficient Cronbach's alpha for the internal consistency was 0.93 and the intraclass correlation coefficient for the stability with a 5-week time interval was 0.87 (P < 0.001). Factor analysis yielded four factors related to diet, medical therapy, medication and feet check, and physical activity.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The findings supported that the GR-DMSES was reliable and valid in measuring self-efficacy related to diabetes self-management, thus providing a quick and easy-to-use tool for health professionals dealing with Greek adults with T2D.
Project description:Diabetes Distress (DD)-an emotional or affective state arise from challenge of living with diabetes and the burden of self-care-negatively impact diabetes management and quality of life of T2DM patients. Early detection and management of DD is key to efficient T2DM management. The study aimed at developing a valid and reliable instrument for Bangladeshi patients as unavailability such a tool posing challenge in diabetes care. Linguistically adapted, widely used, 17-item Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS), developed through forward-backward translation from English to Bengali, was administered on 1184 T2DM patients, from four diabetes hospitals in Bangladesh. Psychometric assessment of the instrument included, construct validity using principal component factor analysis, internal consistency using Cronbach's α and discriminative validity through independent t-test and test-retest reliability using intraclass-correlation coefficient (ICC) and Kappa statistics. Factor analysis extracted 4 components similar to original DDS domains, confirms the construct validity. The scale demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency (α = 0.838), stability (test-retest ICC = 0.941) and good agreement across repeated measurements (Kappa = 0.584). Discriminative validity revealed that patients with complication (p < 0.001) and those are on insulin (p < 0.001) had significantly higher distress scores in all domains. Bengali version of DDS is a valid and reliable tool for assessing distress among Bangladeshi T2DM patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>"Third agers" are people over retirement age in relatively good health; third agers make up an increasing percentage of the global population as the world's longevity increases. Therefore, the challenge of prolonging a healthy third age and shortening the unhealthy period during the "fourth age" in the global health and social contexts is important in this process. However, no means to measure and support this has been developed as yet. We developed the Social Contact Self-Efficacy Scale for Third Agers (SET) and evaluated its reliability and validity.<h4>Methods</h4>We used a self-administered mail survey covering 2,600 randomly selected independent older adults living in Yokohama, Japan. The construct validity of the SET was determined using exploratory factor and confirmatory factor analyses. Its criterion-related validity was assessed using the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), the Japan Science and Technology Agency Index of Competence (JST-IC), and subjective health status.<h4>Results</h4>In total, 1,139 older adults provided responses. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified eight items within two factors: social space mobility and social support relationship. The final model had a Cronbach's alpha 0.834, goodness-of-fit index 0.976, adjusted goodness-of-fit index 0.955, comparative fit index 0.982, and root mean square error of approximation 0.050. There was good correlation between scale scores and the GSES (r = 0.552, p < 0.001), JST-IC (r = 0.495, p < 0.001) and subjective health status (r = 0.361, p < 0.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The SET showed sufficient reliability and validity to assess self-efficacy in promoting social contact among third agers. This scale may help third agers in gaining and expanding opportunities for social contact, which can improve their physical health and quality of life and contribute to care prevention and healthy longevity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Community integration is an essential right for people with schizophrenia that affects their well-being and quality of life, but no valid instrument exists to measure it in Japan. The aim of the present study is to develop and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Community Integration Measure (CIM) for people with schizophrenia. METHODS:The Japanese version of the CIM was developed as a self-administered questionnaire based on the original version of the CIM, which was developed by McColl et al. This study of the Japanese CIM had a cross-sectional design. Construct validity was determined using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and data from 291 community-dwelling people with schizophrenia in Japan. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach's alpha. The Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS-6), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and the UCLA Loneliness Scale, version 3 (UCLALS) were administered to assess the criterion-related validity of the Japanese version of the CIM. RESULTS:The participants were 263 people with schizophrenia who provided valid responses. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.87, and CFA identified one domain with ten items that demonstrated the following values: goodness of fit index = 0.924, adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.881, comparative fit index = 0.925, and root mean square error of approximation = 0.085. The correlation coefficients were 0.43 (p < 0.001) with the LSNS-6, 0.42 (p < 0.001) with the RSE, and -0.57 (p < 0.001) with the UCLALS. CONCLUSIONS:The Japanese version of the CIM demonstrated adequate reliability and validity for assessing community integration for people with schizophrenia in Japan.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Advance care planning (ACP) enables people to define, discuss, and record preferences for treatment and care. Measures of ACP behavior are lacking in the Netherlands. We aimed to translate, culturally adapt and validate the 34-item ACP Engagement Survey into Dutch.<h4>Methods</h4>Following validation guidelines, we tested content validity, internal consistency, reproducibility, construct validity, interpretability and criterion validity among persons with and without chronic disease.<h4>Results</h4>Forward-backward translation indicated the need of only minor adaptations. Two hundred thirty-two persons completed baseline and retest surveys; 121 were aged ≥60 years. Persons with chronic disease (n = 151) considered the survey more valuable than those without (66 vs. 59, p < 0.001, scale of 20-100), indicating good content validity. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.97) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation: 0.88) were good. Total ACP Engagement was higher among persons with chronic disease than those without (2.9 vs. 2.4, p < 0.01, scale of 1 to 5), indicating good psychometric support for construct validity and interpretability. Positive correlations of the ACP Engagement Survey and the General Self-Efficacy survey indicated good criterion validity (p < 0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study provided good psychometric support for the validity and reliability of the Dutch 34-item ACP Engagement Survey. This instrument can be used to assess involvement in ACP in adults with and without chronic disease.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>School nurses perform vital student emergency services at school, and assessing their emergency nursing care competency is critical to the safety and quality of care students receive. The purpose of the study was to develop a scale for measuring school nurses' competency.<h4>Methods</h4>This was an instrument development and validation study. It was conducted according to the revised DeVellis scale development process coupled with the application of the International Council of Nurses' Nursing Care Continuum Competencies Framework. Eight experts specializing in school health and emergency care evaluated the content validity, while 386 school nurses evaluated the scale. The validity evaluation comprised factor analysis, discriminative validity analysis according to differences in school nurse experience, and criterion validity analysis. Scale internal consistency was analyzed using Cronbach's α value.<h4>Results</h4>The final scale comprises a self-reported 5-point Likert scale with 30 items based on three factors and three sub-factors. Both the convergent validity of the items by factor and the discriminative validity were both confirmed. The criterion validity was also found to be positively correlated with the Triage Competency Scale.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The scale may be used to identify factors influencing school nurses' competency in emergency nursing care and contribute to research in competency-based education programs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Physicians' interpersonal performance is critical in medical practice, especially primary care practice. The General Practice Assessment Questionnaire (GPAQ) was developed in the United Kingdom to evaluate the quality of primary care from the viewpoint of patients. This questionnaire highlights the evaluation of interpersonal skills and interactions between physicians and patients. Though several other tools also exist to evaluate primary care quality, the GPAQ has several distinctive evaluation items, covering receptionists, access to primary care, and enablement (patients' understanding of self-care and of their own health after consultation). Our purpose was to develop and validate a Japanese version of the GPAQ. METHODS:This cross-sectional study tested the validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the questionnaire. We translated the original GPAQ into Japanese and assessed its reliability and validity among patients aged ?20?years at five rural primary care centres located in Shimane and Okayama prefectures, Japan. We also examined its internal reliability using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and construct validity-including item-scale correlations, item-other scale correlations, and inter-scale correlations. Moreover, we examined correlations between each score and overall satisfaction using Spearman's correlation coefficient for criterion-related validity. RESULTS:The translated version of the GPAQ was administered, and we received 252 responses (mean age: 68?±?12.3?years, male: 42.9%); all data were analysed. The translated questionnaire showed good reliability and validity, with Cronbach's alphas ranging from 0.79-0.92 for all scales, and satisfactory item-scale, item-other scale, and inter-scale correlations. Correlations with overall satisfaction were strong (Spearman's correlation coefficients: 0.31-0.38) for all scales except 'continuity of care'. CONCLUSIONS:The Japanese version of the GPAQ was acceptable, reliable, and valid. This could be a useful instrument to evaluate key areas of primary care performance in Japan, particularly physicians' communication skills. Further work is required to evaluate its utility in urban areas.