Hypersensitivity of DJ-1-deficient mice to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrindine (MPTP) and oxidative stress.
ABSTRACT: Mutations of the DJ-1 (PARK7) gene are linked to familial Parkinson's disease. We used gene targeting to generate DJ-1-deficient mice that were viable, fertile, and showed no gross anatomical or neuronal abnormalities. Dopaminergic neuron numbers in the substantia nigra and fiber densities and dopamine levels in the striatum were normal. However, DJ-1-/- mice showed hypolocomotion when subjected to amphetamine challenge and increased striatal denervation and dopaminergic neuron loss induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrindine. DJ-1-/-embryonic cortical neurons showed increased sensitivity to oxidative, but not nonoxidative, insults. Restoration of DJ-1 expression to DJ-1-/- mice or cells via adenoviral vector delivery mitigated all phenotypes. WT mice that received adenoviral delivery of DJ-1 resisted 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrindine-induced striatal damage, and neurons overexpressing DJ-1 were protected from oxidative stress in vitro. Thus, DJ-1 protects against neuronal oxidative stress, and loss of DJ-1 may lead to Parkinson's disease by conferring hypersensitivity to dopaminergic insults.
Project description:It has been shown that molecular hydrogen (H(2)) acts as a therapeutic antioxidant and suppresses brain injury by buffering the effects of oxidative stress. Chronic oxidative stress causes neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we show that drinking H(2)-containing water significantly reduced the loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD model mice using both acute and chronic administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The concentration-dependency of H(2) showed that H(2) as low as 0.08 ppm had almost the same effect as saturated H(2) water (1.5 ppm). MPTP-induced accumulation of cellular 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a marker of DNA damage, and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a marker of lipid peroxidation were significantly decreased in the nigro-striatal dopaminergic pathway in mice drinking H(2)-containing water, whereas production of superoxide (O(2)*(-)) detected by intravascular injection of dihydroethidium (DHE) was not reduced significantly. Our results indicated that low concentration of H(2) in drinking water can reduce oxidative stress in the brain. Thus, drinking H(2)-containing water may be useful in daily life to prevent or minimize the risk of life style-related oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.
Project description:Monoamine oxidase (MAO) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of monoamines including dopamine (DA). MAO expression is elevated in Parkinson's disease (PD). An increase in MAO activity is closely related to age, and this may induce neuronal degeneration in the brain due to oxidative stress. MAO (and particularly monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B)) participates in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide that are toxic to dopaminergic cells and their surroundings. Although the polyphenol-rich aqueous walnut extract (JSE; an extract of Juglandis Semen) has been shown to have various beneficial bioactivities, no study has been dedicated to see if JSE is capable to protect dopaminergic neurons against neurotoxic insults in models of PD. In the present study we investigated the neuroprotective potential of JSE against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP?)- or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicities in primary mesencephalic cells and in a mouse model of PD. Here we show that JSE treatment suppressed ROS and nitric oxide productions triggered by MPP? in primary mesencephalic cells. JSE also inhibited depletion of striatal DA and its metabolites in vivo that resulted in significant improvement in PD-like movement impairment. Altogether our results indicate that JSE has neuroprotective effects in PD models and may have potential for the prevention or treatment of PD.
Project description:Complex interactions involving genetic susceptibility and environmental factors are thought to underlie the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the role of inflammatory processes in modulating risk for development of PD has yet to be fully understood, prospective studies suggest that chronic use of NSAIDs reduce the incidence of PD. Loss-of-function mutations in the DJ-1 gene cause a rare form of familial PD with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance; however, DJ-1-/- mice do not display nigrostriatal pathway degeneration, suggesting that additional factors such as inflammation may be needed to induce neurodegeneration on the background of DJ-1 gene mutations. Neuroinflammation causes oxidative stress and, based on evidence that DJ-1 plays a protective role against oxidative stress, we investigated whether DJ-1-/- mice display increased vulnerability to inflammation-induced nigral degeneration.We exposed adult wild-type and DJ-1-/- mice to repeated intranasal administration of soluble TNF (inTNF) or repeated intraperitoneal injections of low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline vehicle. We measured locomotor performance using a variety of behavior tasks, striatal dopamine (DA) content by HPLC, DA neuron (TH+ cells) and total neuron (NeuN+ cells) number in the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area by unbiased stereology, number of Iba1-positive microglia, and mRNA levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress genes by quantitative PCR in the midbrain, cortex and isolated peritoneal macrophages of DJ-1-/- and wild-type mice.We found that chronic LPS injections induced similar neuroinflammatory responses in the midbrains of DJ-1-/- mice and wild-type mice and neither group developed locomotor deficits or nigral degeneration. inTNF administration did not appear to induce neuroinflammatory responses in LPS-treated wild-type or DJ-1-/- mice. The lack of vulnerability to inflammation-induced nigral degeneration was not due to enhanced anti-oxidant gene responses in the midbrains of DJ-1-/- mice which, in fact, displayed a blunted response relative to that of wild-type mice. Peripheral macrophages from wild-type and DJ-1-/- mice displayed similar basal and LPS-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in vitro.Our studies indicate that DJ-1-/- mice do not display increased vulnerability to inflammation-related nigral degeneration in contrast to what has been reported for 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrindine. We conclude that either DJ-1 does not have a critical role in protecting DA neurons against inflammation-induced oxidative stress and/or there is compensatory gene expression in the midbrain of DJ-1-/- mice that renders them resistant to the cytotoxic effects triggered by chronic peripheral inflammation.
Project description:Activation of the RET (rearranged during transfection) receptor by glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been identified as an important differentiation and survival factor for dopaminergic neurons of the midbrain in preclinical experiments. These encouraging results have led to clinical trials of GDNF in patients with Parkinson's disease, which have resulted in conflicting findings. To investigate the potential benefit of Ret-dependent signaling on the challenged dopaminergic system, we tested the effect of tissue-selective ablation of the Ret gene on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) toxicity in mice, the most widely used animal model for Parkinson's disease. Ablation of Ret did not modify the MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the dopaminergic innervation of the striatum at 14 days. However, Ret ablation abolished the regeneration of dopaminergic fibers and terminals, as well as the partial recovery of striatal dopamine concentrations, that was observed in control mice between days 14 and 90 after MPTP treatment. We therefore conclude that RET signaling has no influence on the survival of dopaminergic neurons in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease but rather facilitates the regeneration of dopaminergic axon terminals.
Project description:GPR37 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor expressed in mammalian brain, and its insoluble aggregates are found in the brain samples of juvenile Parkinson's disease patients. We have produced a Gpr37 knock-out mouse strain and identified several phenotypic features that are similar to those reported for mutants of genes encoding components of synaptic dopamine vesicles. Our results reveal an unanticipated role of GPR37 in regulating substantia nigra-striatum dopaminergic signaling. Gpr37(-/-) mice are viable, with normal brain development and anatomy, but they exhibit reduced striatal dopamine content, enhanced amphetamine sensitivity, and specific deficits in motor behavior paradigms sensitive to nigrostriatal dysfunction. These functional alterations are not associated with any substantial loss of substantia nigra neurons or degeneration of striatal dopaminergic afferences, the main histological marks of Parkinson's disease. The inactivation of GPR37, in fact, has protective effects on substantia nigra neurons, causing resistance to treatment with the Parkinsonian neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine.
Project description:Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative movement disorder. Whereas the majority of PD cases are sporadic, rare genetic defects have been linked to this prevalent movement disorder. Mutations in DJ-1 are associated with autosomal recessive early-onset PD. The exact biochemical function of DJ-1 has remained elusive. Here we report the generation of DJ-1 knockout (KO) mice by targeted deletion of exon 2 and exon 3. There is no observable degeneration of the central dopaminergic pathways, and the mice are anatomically and behaviorally similar to WT mice. Fluorescent Amplex red measurements of H(2)O(2) indicate that isolated mitochondria from young and old DJ-1 KO mice have a 2-fold increase in H(2)O(2). DJ-1 KO mice of 2-3 months of age have a 60% reduction in mitochondrial aconitase activity without compromising other mitochondrial processes. At an early age there are no differences in antioxidant enzymes, but in older mice there is an up-regulation of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and a 2-fold increase in mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase activity. Mutational analysis and mass spectrometry reveal that DJ-1 is an atypical peroxiredoxin-like peroxidase that scavenges H(2)O(2) through oxidation of Cys-106. In vivo there is an increase of DJ-1 oxidized at Cys-106 after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine intoxication of WT mice. Taken together these data indicate that the DJ-1 KO mice have a deficit in scavenging mitochondrial H(2)O(2) due to the physiological function of DJ-1 as an atypical peroxiredoxin-like peroxidase.
Project description:We report a new methodology for direct visualization of superoxide production in the dopaminergic area of the brain in Parkinson's disease, based on the redox cycle of mito-TEMPO, a blood-brain barrier-, cell-, and mitochondria-penetrating nitroxide derivative with superoxide scavenging properties and T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast. The experiments were conducted on healthy and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice. In healthy mice, the nitroxide-enhanced MRI signal was weak and short-lived (half-life ∼ 40 s; duration ∼ 80 s). The profile of the histograms indicated a high reducing activity of normal brain tissues against mito-TEMPO. In MPTP-treated mice, the nitroxide-enhanced MRI signal was strong and long-lived (half-life > 20 min; duration > 20 min), especially in the dopaminergic area of the brain. The histograms indicated a high oxidative activity in dopaminergic tissues of MPTP-treated mice. The results show directly, on intact mammals, that superoxide is a major inducer and/or mediator of neurodegenerative damage in Parkinson's disease. The high oxidative status of brain tissue in Parkinson's disease was also confirmed on isolated tissue specimens, using total reducing capacity assay and ROS/RNS assay.
Project description:Cumulative damage to cellular macromolecules via oxidative stress is a hallmark of aging and neurodegenerative disease. Whether such damage is a cause or a subsequent effect of neurodegeneration is still unknown. This paper describes the development of an age-associated mild parkinsonian model in mice that lack the DNA repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (Ogg1). Aged OGG1 knock-out (OGG1 KO) mice show a decreased spontaneous locomotor behavior and evidence a decrease in striatal dopamine levels, a loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), and an increase in ubiquitin-positive inclusions in their remaining SN neurons. In addition, young OGG1 KO mice are more susceptible to the dopaminergic toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) than their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Age-associated increases in 7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanine (oxo(8)dG) have been reported in brain regions and neuronal populations affected in Parkinson's disease (PD), toxin-induced parkinsonian models, and mice harboring genetic abnormalities associated with PD. Because of these increased oxo(8)dG levels, the OGG1 KO mouse strain could shed light on molecular events leading to neuronal loss as a consequence of cumulative oxidative damage to DNA during aging and after toxicological challenge.
Project description:The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) packages neurotransmitters for release during neurotransmission and sequesters toxicants into vesicles to prevent neuronal damage. In mice, low VMAT2 levels causes catecholaminergic cell loss and behaviors resembling Parkinson's disease, while high levels of VMAT2 increase dopamine release and protect against dopaminergic toxicants. However, comparisons across these VMAT2 mouse genotypes were impossible due to the differing genetic background strains of the animals. Following back-crossing to a C57BL/6?line, we confirmed that mice with approximately 95% lower VMAT2 levels compared with wild-type (VMAT2-LO) display significantly reduced vesicular uptake, progressive dopaminergic terminal loss with aging, and exacerbated 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) toxicity. Conversely, VMAT2-overexpressing mice (VMAT2-HI) are protected from the loss of striatal terminals following MPTP treatment. We also provide evidence that enhanced vesicular filling in the VMAT2-HI mice modifies the handling of newly synthesized dopamine, indicated by changes in indirect measures of extracellular dopamine clearance. These results confirm the role of VMAT2 in the protection of vulnerable nigrostriatal dopamine neurons and may also provide new insight into the side effects of L-DOPA treatments in Parkinson's disease.
Project description:Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized primarily by loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, there is a concomitant loss of norepinephrine (NE) neurons in the locus coeruleus. Dopaminergic lesions induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) are commonly used to model PD, and although MPTP effectively mimics the dopaminergic neuropathology of PD in mice, it fails to produce PD-like motor deficits. We hypothesized that MPTP is unable to recapitulate the motor abnormalities of PD either because the behavioral paradigms used to measure coordinated behavior in mice are not sensitive enough or because MPTP in the absence of NE loss is insufficient to impair motor control. We tested both possibilities by developing a battery of coordinated movement tests and examining motor deficits in dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh-/-) mice that lack NE altogether. We detected no motor abnormalities in MPTP-treated control mice, despite an 80% loss of striatal dopamine (DA) terminals. Dbh-/- mice, on the other hand, were impaired in most tests and also displayed spontaneous dyskinesias, despite their normal striatal DA content. A subset of these impairments was recapitulated in control mice with 80% NE lesions and reversed in Dbh-/- mice, either by restoration of NE or treatment with a DA agonist. MPTP did not exacerbate baseline motor deficits in Dbh-/- mice. Finally, striatal levels of phospho-ERK-1/2 and DeltaFosB/FosB, proteins which are associated with PD and dyskinesias, were elevated in Dbh-/- mice. These results suggest that loss of locus coeruleus neurons contributes to motor dysfunction in PD.