Grape seed proanthocyanidin supplementation reduces adipocyte size and increases adipocyte number in obese rats.
ABSTRACT: White adipose tissue (WAT) expands through hypertrophy (increased adipocyte size) and/or hyperplasia (increased adipocyte number). Hypertrophy has been associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia independently of body composition and fat distribution. In contrast, hyperplasia protects against metabolic alterations. Proanthocyanidins, which are the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet, improve metabolic disturbances associated with diet-induced obesity without reducing body weight or adiposity. The aim of this study was to determine whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) can modulate WAT expandability. Because GSPE also contains gallic acid, we also studied the capacity of gallic acid to remodel WAT.Male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet (n=6) or a cafeteria diet (CAF) for 11 weeks. After 8 weeks, the CAF-fed animals were supplemented with 25?mg GSPE/kg body weight (n=6), 7?mg gallic acid/kg body weight (n=6) or the vehicle (n=6) for 3 weeks. Histological analyses were performed in the retroperitoneal (rWAT) and inguinal (iWAT) WAT to determine adipocyte size and number. Specific markers for adipogenesis and WAT functionality were analysed in rWAT using quantitative RT-PCR.GSPE or gallic acid supplementation did not reduce weight gain or reverse and adiposity. However, GSPE reduced adipocyte size significantly in rWAT and moderately in iWAT and tripled the adipocyte number in rWAT. Gallic acid slightly reduced adipocyte size in rWAT and iWAT and doubled the adipocyte number in both WATs. In accordance with this adipogenic activity, Pref-1 and PPAR? tended to be overexpressed in rWAT of rats supplemented with GSPE. Moreover, GSPE supplementation increased Plin1 and Fabp4 expression and restored adiponectin expression completely, indicating a better functionality of visceral WAT.GSPE supplementation has anti-hypertrophic and hyperplasic activities in rats with established obesity, mainly in visceral WAT inducing a healthier expansion of WAT to match the surplus energy provided by the cafeteria diet.
Project description:The development of metabolic complications associated with obesity has been correlated with a failure of white adipose tissue (WAT) to expand. Our group has previously reported that a 12-week administration of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) together with an obesogenic diet mitigated the development of cardiometabolic complications in rats. Using the same cohort of animals, we aim to elucidate whether the prevention of cardiometabolic complications by proanthocyanidins is produced by a healthier expansion of visceral WAT and/or an induction of the browning of WAT. For this, adipocyte size and number in retroperitoneal WAT (rWAT) were determined by histological analyses, and the gene expression levels of markers of adipogenesis, browning, and WAT functionality were quantified by RT-qPCR. The long-term administration of GSPE together with an obesogenic diet expanded rWAT via an increase in the adipocyte number and a preventive decrease in the adipocyte size in a dose-dependent manner. At the molecular level, GSPE seems to induce WAT adipogenesis through the upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Pparγ) in a Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1)-dependent manner. In conclusion, the healthier visceral WAT expansion induced by proanthocyanidins supplementation may explain the improvement in the cardiometabolic risks associated with obesogenic diets.
Project description:Scientists are focusing on bioactive ingredients to counteract obesity. We evaluated whether a mix containing grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), anthocyanins, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and chicken feet hydrolysate (CFH) could reduce body fat mass and also determined which mechanisms in the white adipose tissue (WAT) and the brown adipose tissue (BAT) were affected by the treatment. The mix or vehicle (VH) were administered for three weeks to obese rats fed a cafeteria (CAF) diet. Biometric measures, indirect calorimetry, and gene expression in WAT and BAT were analyzed as was the histology of the inguinal WAT (IWAT). The individual compounds were also tested in the 3T3-L1 cell line. The mix treatment resulted in a significant 15% reduction in fat (25.01 ± 0.91 g) compared to VH treatment (21.19 ± 1.59 g), and the calorimetry results indicated a significant increase in energy expenditure and fat oxidation. We observed a significant downregulation of Fasn mRNA and an upregulation of Atgl and Hsl mRNA in adipose depots in the group treated with the mix. The IWAT showed a tendency of reduction in the number of adipocytes, although no differences in the total adipocyte area were found. GSPE and anthocyanins modulated the lipid content and downregulated the gene and protein levels of Fasn compared to the untreated group in 3T3-L1 cells. In conclusion, this mix is a promising treatment against obesity, reducing the WAT of obese rats fed a CAF diet, increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation, and modifying the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism of the adipose tissue.
Project description:Enhancing energy expenditure (EE) is an attractive strategy to combat obesity and diabetes. Global deletion of Ip6k1 protects mice from diet-induced obesity (DIO) and insulin resistance, but the tissue-specific mechanism by which IP6K1 regulates body weight is unknown. Here, we have demonstrated that IP6K1 regulates fat accumulation by modulating AMPK-mediated adipocyte energy metabolism. Cold exposure led to downregulation of Ip6k1 in murine inguinal and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (IWAT and RWAT) depots. Adipocyte-specific deletion of Ip6k1 (AdKO) enhanced thermogenic EE, which protected mice from high-fat diet-induced weight gain at ambient temperature (23°C), but not at thermoneutral temperature (30°C). AdKO-induced increases in thermogenesis also protected mice from cold-induced decreases in body temperature. UCP1, PGC1?, and other markers of browning and thermogenesis were elevated in IWAT and RWAT of AdKO mice. Cold-induced activation of sympathetic signaling was unaltered, whereas AMPK was enhanced, in AdKO IWAT. Moreover, beige adipocytes from AdKO IWAT displayed enhanced browning, which was diminished by AMPK depletion. Furthermore, we determined that IP6 and IP6K1 differentially regulate upstream kinase-mediated AMPK stimulatory phosphorylation in vitro. Finally, treating mildly obese mice with the IP6K inhibitor TNP enhanced thermogenesis and inhibited progression of DIO. Thus, IP6K1 regulates energy metabolism via a mechanism that could potentially be targeted in obesity.
Project description:Retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (rWAT) and subcutaneous (inguinal) white adipose tissue (iWAT) are both innervated and regulated by sympathetic efferents, but the distribution and identity of the cells in the brain that regulate sympathetic outflow are poorly characterized. Our aim was to use two isogenic strains of a neurotropic virus (pseudorabies, Bartha) tagged with either green or red fluorescent reporters to identify cells in the brain that project to rWAT and/or iWAT. These viruses were injected into separate WAT depots in male and female Sprague Dawley rats. Retrogradely labeled neurons in the CNS were characterized by immunohistochemistry and PCR. For the latter, laser capture of individual virally labeled neurons was used. All virally labeled brain regions contained neurons projecting to either and both WAT depots. Neurons to abdominal fat were the most abundant in males, whereas females contained a greater proportion of neurons to subcutaneous via private lines and collateral branches. Retrogradely labeled neurons directed to WAT expressed estrogen receptor-? (ER?), and fewer neurons to subcutaneous WAT expressed ER? in males. Regardless of sex, projections from the arcuate nucleus were predominantly from pro-opiomelanocortin cells, with a notable lack of projections from agouti-related protein-expressing neurons. Within the lateral hypothalamus, neurons directed to rWAT and iWAT expressed orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), but male rats had a predominance of MCH directed to iWAT. In conclusion, the neurochemical substrates that project through polysynaptic pathways to iWAT and rWAT are different in male and female rats, suggesting that metabolic regulation of rWAT and iWAT is sexually dimorphic.
Project description:Objective: Procyanidins are polyphenolic bioactive compounds that exert beneficial effects against obesity and its related diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the supplementation with low doses of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) to dams during pre and postnatal periods has biological effects on their offspring at youth. Design: The metabolic imprinting effect of GSPE was evaluated in 30 days-old male offspring of four groups of rats that were fed either a standard diet (STD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) and supplemented with either GSPE at 25 mg per kg of body weight/day or vehicle during pregnancy and lactation. Results: A significant increase in the adiposity index and in the weight of all the white adipose tissue depots studied (retroperitoneal â??RWAT-, mesenteric â??MWAT-, epididymal â??EWAT- and inguinal â??IWAT-) was observed in offspring of dams fed with a HFD and treated with GSPE (HFT group), compared to the offspring of dams fed with the same diet and that do not received procyanidins (HF group). HFT animals also showed a higher number of cells in the EWAT, a sharply decrease of the circulating levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) as well as a moderate, but significant, decrease of plasma glycerol levels. The transcriptomic analysis performed in the EWAT showed 238 genes differentially expressed between HF and HFT animals, covering an entire range of processes related with the immune function and the inflammatory response (the metabolic pathway mainly reflected in the EWAT), adipose tissue remodeling and function, lipid and glucose homeostasis and metabolism of methyl groups. Conclusion: GSPE treatment to dams fed a HFD during pregnancy and lactation increases adiposity, decreases the circulating levels of MCP-1 and modulates the expression of key genes involved in the adipose tissue metabolism of their offspring. The microarray study was performed with the EWAT RNA samples of rats from the HF and the HFT groups (n=8 animals each).
Project description:Time-restricted feeding (TRF) showed a potent effect in preventing obesity and improving metabolicoutcomes in several animal models of obesity. However, there is, as of yet, scarce evidence concerning its effectiveness against obesogenic challenges that more accurately mimic human Western diets, such as the cafeteria diet. Moreover, the mechanism for its efficacy is poorly understood. White adipose browning has been linked to body weight loss. Herein, we tested whether TRF has the potential to induce browning of inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and to attenuate obesity and associated dyslipidemia in a cafeteria-diet-induced obesity model. Male Wistar rats were fed normal laboratory chow (NC) or cafeteria diet (CAF) for 16 weeks and were subdivided into two groups that were subjected to either ad libitum (ad lib, A) or TRF (R) for 8 h per day. Rats under the TRF regimen had a lower body weight gain and adiposity than the diet-matchedad lib rats, despite equivalent levels of food intake and locomotor activity. In addition, TRF improved the deranged lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c)) and atherogenic indices (atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), atherogenic coefficient (AC), coronary risk index (CRI) in CAF-fed rats. Remarkably, TRF resulted in decreased size of adipocytes and induced emergence of multilocular brown-like adipocytes in iWAT of NC- and CAF-fed rats. Protein expression of browning markers, such as uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1?), were also up-regulated in the iWAToftime-restricted NC- or CAF-fed rats. These findings suggest that a TRF regimen is an effective strategy to improve CAF diet-induced obesity, probably via a mechanismthe involving WAT browning process.
Project description:The presence of leptin receptors in white adipose tissue (WAT) suggests a type of peripheral control during the development of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Both diet composition and exercise influence serum leptin; however, the effect of their combination on long-term WAT leptin metabolism is unknown. In this study, rats fed with standard or high-sugar diets (HSD) were simultaneously subjected to running training for 4- and 8-week periods, and the retroperitoneal WAT (rWAT) was evaluated for adipocyte cell size, lipid and catecholamine content, Lep, OB-Rb and Ucp2 mRNA transcription levels, and circulating leptin and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). The HSD groups displayed a higher adiposity index and rWAT weight, Lep mRNA and protein upregulation, and a period-dependent effect on OB-Rb mRNA expression. Exercise decreased serum leptin and upregulated the OB-Rb mRNA levels. However, in rats fed with an HSD, the increase in OB-Rb mRNA and reduction in catecholamine levels resulted in a high level of adiposity and hyperleptinemia. The combination of training and an HSD decreases the NEFA levels and upregulating the Ucp2 mRNA expression in the 4-week period, while downregulating the Ucp2 mRNA expression in the 8-week period without changing the NEFA levels. Our results suggest that an HSD induces an increase in leptin expression in rWAT, while reducing adipocytes via leptin-mediated lipolysis after an 8-week period. In exercised rats fed an HSD, TAG synthesis and storage overlaps with lipolysis, promoting fat store development and Lep mRNA and plasma protein upregulation in adult rats.
Project description:Objective: Procyanidins are polyphenolic bioactive compounds that exert beneficial effects against obesity and its related diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the supplementation with low doses of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) to dams during pre and postnatal periods has biological effects on their offspring at youth. Design: The metabolic imprinting effect of GSPE was evaluated in 30 days-old male offspring of four groups of rats that were fed either a standard diet (STD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) and supplemented with either GSPE at 25 mg per kg of body weight/day or vehicle during pregnancy and lactation. Results: A significant increase in the adiposity index and in the weight of all the white adipose tissue depots studied (retroperitoneal –RWAT-, mesenteric –MWAT-, epididymal –EWAT- and inguinal –IWAT-) was observed in offspring of dams fed with a HFD and treated with GSPE (HFT group), compared to the offspring of dams fed with the same diet and that do not received procyanidins (HF group). HFT animals also showed a higher number of cells in the EWAT, a sharply decrease of the circulating levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) as well as a moderate, but significant, decrease of plasma glycerol levels. The transcriptomic analysis performed in the EWAT showed 238 genes differentially expressed between HF and HFT animals, covering an entire range of processes related with the immune function and the inflammatory response (the metabolic pathway mainly reflected in the EWAT), adipose tissue remodeling and function, lipid and glucose homeostasis and metabolism of methyl groups. Conclusion: GSPE treatment to dams fed a HFD during pregnancy and lactation increases adiposity, decreases the circulating levels of MCP-1 and modulates the expression of key genes involved in the adipose tissue metabolism of their offspring. The microarray study was performed with the EWAT RNA samples of rats from the HF and the HFT groups (n=8 animals each).
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Cold and ?3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists activate beige adipocyte biogenesis in white adipose tissue (WAT). The two stimuli also induce expression of inflammatory cytokines in WAT. The low-grade inflammation may further promote WAT browning. However, the mechanisms to reconcile these two biological processes remain to be elucidated. In this study, we aim to investigate the roles of the rate-limiting polyamine catabolic enzyme spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1) in regulating beige adipocyte biogenesis and inflammation. METHODS:Adipose-specific SAT1 knockout mice (SAT1-aKO) were generated by crossing adiponectin-cre to SAT1-lox/lox mice. Metabolic phenotype was investigated. Primary pre-adipocytes were isolated from inguinal WAT (iWAT) and differentiated to adipocytes for studying beige adipocyte biogenesis. RESULT:The expression and enzymatic activity of SAT1 were up-regulated in iWAT upon cold and ?3-AR stimulation. SAT1-aKO mice developed late-onset obesity on a high-fat diet with impaired cold-induced beige adipocyte biogenesis and energy expenditure. RNA-seq analysis of iWAT from cold-challenged SAT1-aKO mice revealed that, in addition to beige adipocyte biogenesis signatures, the immune response markers were highly enriched among reduced genes. In cultured adipocytes, SAT1 overexpression or pharmacological activation with N1, N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSpm) elevated oxygen consumption and increased the expression of beige adipocyte marker UCP1 and PGC-1?. DENSpm treatment of adipocytes also increased the expression of inflammatory genes. SAT1 activation enhanced hydrogen peroxide production in adipocytes. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine abrogated the elevated UCP1 expression and reversed some inflammatory genes induced by SAT1 activation. CONCLUSIONS:SAT1 activation plays a key role in cold and ?3-AR agonist-induced beige adipocyte biogenesis and low-grade inflammation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Development of brown-like/beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) helps to reduce obesity. Thus we investigated the effects of resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol capable of preventing obesity and related complications in humans and animal models, on brown-like adipocyte formation in inguinal WAT (iWAT). METHODS:CD1 female mice (5-month old) were fed a high-fat diet with/without 0.1% resveratrol. In addition, primary stromal vascular cells separated from iWAT were subjected to resveratrol treatment. Markers of brown-like (beige) adipogenesis were measured and the involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) ?1 was assessed using conditional knockout. RESULTS:Resveratrol significantly increased mRNA and/or protein expression of brown adipocyte markers, including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), PR domain-containing 16, cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector A, elongation of very long-chain fatty acids protein 3, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1?, cytochrome c and pyruvate dehydrogenase, in differentiated iWAT stromal vascular cells (SVCs), suggesting that resveratrol induced brown-like adipocyte formation in vitro. Concomitantly, resveratrol markedly enhanced AMPK?1 phosphorylation and differentiated SVC oxygen consumption. Such changes were absent in cells lacking AMPK?1, showing that AMPK?1 is a critical mediator of resveratrol action. Resveratrol also induced beige adipogenesis in vivo along with the appearance of multiocular adipocytes, increased UCP1 expression and enhanced fatty acid oxidation. CONCLUSIONS:Resveratrol induces brown-like adipocyte formation in iWAT via AMPK?1 activation and suggest that its beneficial antiobesity effects may be partly due to the browning of WAT and, as a consequence, increased oxygen consumption.