As(V) Sorption/Desorption on Different Waste Materials and Soil Samples.
ABSTRACT: Aiming to investigate the efficacy of different materials as bio-sorbents for the purification of As-polluted waters, batch-type experiments were employed to study As(V) sorption and desorption on oak ash, pine bark, hemp waste, mussel shell, pyritic material, and soil samples, as a function of the As(V) concentration added. Pyritic material and oak ash showed high sorption (90% and >87%) and low desorption (<2% and <7%). Alternatively, hemp waste showed low retention (16% sorption and 100% desorption of the amount previously sorbed), fine shell and pine bark sorbed <3% and desorbed 100%, the vineyard soil sample sorbed 8% and released 85%, and the forest soil sample sorbed 32% and desorbed 38%. Sorption data fitted well to the Langmuir and Freundlich models in the case of both soil samples and the pyritic material, but only to the Freundlich equation in the case of the various by-products. These results indicate that the pyritic material and oak ash can be considered efficient As(V) sorbents (thus, useful in remediation of contaminated sites and removal of that pollutant), even when As(V) concentrations up to 6 mmol L-1 are added, while the other materials that were tested cannot retain or remove As(V) from polluted media.
Project description:The purpose of this work was to elucidate the repercussion of changing pH, incubation time and As(V) competition on fluoride (F-) sorption on forest and vineyard soil samples, pyritic, and granitic materials, as well as on the by-products pine sawdust, oak wood ash, mussel shell ash, fine and coarse mussel shell, and slate processing waste fines. To reach this end, the methodological approach was based on batch-type experiments. The results indicate that, for most materials, F- sorption was very high at the start, but was clearly diminished when the pH value increased. However, oak wood ash and shell ash showed high F- sorption even at alkaline pH, and pine sawdust showed low F- sorption for any pH value. Specifically, F- sorption was close to 100% for both ashes at pH < 6, and around 70% at pH 10, while for forest soil it was close to 90% at pH < 2, and around 60% at pH values near 8. Regarding the effect of incubation time on F- sorption, it was very low for both soils, pyritic material, granitic material, and both kinds of ashes, as all of them showed very rapid F- sorption from the start, with differences being lesser than 10% between sorption at 30 min and 1 month of incubation. However, sawdust and slate fines sorbed 20% of added F- in 30 min, remaining constant up to 12 h, and doubling after 30 days. And finally, mussel shell sorbed 20% at 30 min, increasing to close to 60% when incubation time was 30 days. This means that some of the materials showed a first sorption phase characterized by rapid F- sorption, and a slower sorption in a second phase. As regards the effect of the presence of As(V) on F- sorption, it was almost negligible, indicating the absence of competition for sorption sites. In view of that all, these results could aid to appropriately manage soils and by-products when focusing on F- removal, in circumstances where pH value changes, contact time vary from hours to days, and potential competition between F- and As(V) could take place.
Project description:Binary systems consisting of 1,2-dichlorobenzene (12DCB) + competitor were investigated over a range of concentrations of competitor in three natural sorbents with distinct characteristics. Two models, the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) and the potential theory (Polanyi-based multisolute model), widely used in the prediction of multisolute sorption equilibrium from single-solute data, were used to simulate competitive sorption in our systems. The goal was to determine which multisolute model best represented the experimentally obtained multisolute data in natural sorbents of varied properties. Results suggested that for the sorbents and sorbates studied, the IAST model provided much better results. On average, the IAST model provided lower errors (23%) than the potential model (45%). The effect of competitor structure on the degree of competition was also investigated to identify any relationships between competition and structure using molecular descriptors. The competitors chlorobenzene, naphthalene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene all showed very similar degrees of competition, while benzene, phenanthrene, and pyrene were the least effective competitors toward 12DCB across all sorbents. Different sorption sites or sorption mechanisms might be involved in the sorption of these molecules leading to a lack of competitive behavior. A significant relationship between competitor structure and the degree of competition was observed at environmentally relevant sorbed competitor concentrations for the soil containing the highest fraction of hard carbon (Forbes soil).
Project description:The distribution and speciation of Zn sorbed to biogenic Mn oxides forming in the hyporheic zone of Pinal Creek, AZ, was investigated using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and microfocused synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (?SXRF) mapping, and chemical extraction. ?SXRF and chemical extractions show that contaminant Zn co-varied with Mn in streambed sediment grain coatings. Bulk and microfocused EXAFS spectra of Zn in the biogenic Mn oxide coating are indicative of Zn forming triple-corner-sharing inner-sphere complexes over octahedral vacancies in the Mn oxide sheet structure. Zn desorbed in response to the decrease in pH in batch experiments and resulted in near-equal dissolved Zn at each pH over a 10-fold range in the solid/solution ratio. The geometry of sorbed Zn was unchanged after 50% desorption at pH 5, indicating that desorption is not controlled by dissolution of secondary Zn phases. In summary, these findings support the idea that Zn attenuation in Pinal Creek is largely controlled by sorption to microbial Mn oxides forming in the streambed during hyporheic exchange. Sorption to biogenic Mn oxides is likely an important process of Zn attenuation in circum-neutral pH reaches of many acid-mine drainage contaminated streams when dissolved Mn is present.
Project description:Sorption and desorption determine the amount of an herbicide in soil solution. Therefore, knowledge of the sorption and desorption coefficients in different soils is an essential factor to estimate the potential for environmental contamination by herbicides. We evaluated the feasibility of multivariate and linear discriminant analyses to predict the sorption and desorption capacity of a soil for diuron, one of the most used herbicides on sugarcane plantations. The adsorptive capacity in twenty-seven Brazilian soil samples was estimated using the sorption constant (Kfs) and desorption constant (Kfd) obtained by the Freundlich isotherms. The regression model was created from the sorbed and nonsorbed concentrations of diuron in soils. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography was applied to quantify the diuron concentrations. The multivariate analysis separated the soils into four groups considering the similarity of the following attributes: pH, organic matter, clay, and base saturation. The groups showed a similar pattern of sorption and desorption for diuron: Lom-Lclay: low sorption (5.9 ± 1.2) and high desorption (10.9 ± 0.6); Lclay: low sorption (7.5 ± 1.1) and high desorption (11.4 ± 1.3); Hom-Hclay: high sorption (11.2 ± 1.2) and low desorption (13.8 ± 1.2); HpH-Hclay: high sorption (10.1 ± 1.1) and medium desorption (11.5 ± 1.4). Linear discriminant analysis of these soil attributes was used to classify other soils described in the literature with adsorption capacity. This analysis was able to identify soils with high and low sorption using the pH, organic matter, clay, and base saturation, demonstrating the enormous potential of the technique to group soils with different contamination risks for subterranean waters. Sugarcane crops in northeastern Brazil showed a higher pollution risk through the leaching of diuron. Multivariate analysis revealed significant diuron-related changes in the soil composition of different Brazilian regions; therefore, this statistical analysis can be used to improve understanding of herbicide behavior in soils.
Project description:Sorption of phenanthrene onto the natural sediment with low organic carbon content (OC%), organic-free sediment, and kaolinite was investigated through isotherm experiments. Effects of cosolutes (pyrene, 4-n-nonyphenol (NP), and humic acid (HA)) on phenanthrene sorption were also studied by comparing apparent solid-water distribution coefficients (K d (app)) of phenanthrene. Two addition sequences, including "cosolute added prior to phenanthrene" and "cosolute and phenanthrene added simultaneously," were adopted. The Freundlich model fits phenanthrene sorption on all 3 sorbents well. The sorption coefficients on these sorbents were similar, suggesting that mineral surface plays an important role in the sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants on low OC% sediments. Cosolutes could affect phenanthrene sorption on the sorbents, which depended on their properties, concentrations, and addition sequences. Pyrene inhibited phenanthrene sorption. Sorbed NP inhibited phenanthrene sorption at low levels and promoted sorption at high levels. Similar to NP, effect of HA on phenanthrene sorption onto the natural sediment depended on its concentrations, whereas, for the organic-free sediment and kaolinite, preloading of HA at high levels led to an enhancement in phenanthrene K d (app) while no obvious effect was observed at low HA levels; dissolved HA could inhibit phenanthrene sorption on the two sorbents.
Project description:Sorption and desorption experiments were performed by the batch method on the B horizons of five natural soils: Umbric Cambisol, Endoleptic Luvisol, Mollic Umbrisol, Dystric Umbrisol, and Dystric Fluvisol. Individual and competitive sorption and desorption capacity and hysteresis were determined. The results showed that Pb2+ was sorbed and retained in a greater quantity than Cd2+ and that the hysteresis of the first was greater than that of the second. The most influential characteristics of the sorption and retention of Pb2+ were pH, ECEC, Fe and Mn oxides and clay contents. For Cd2+ they were mainly pH and, to a lesser extent, Mn oxides and clay content. The combined use of TOF-SIMS, FE-SEM/EDS and sorption and desorption analyses was suitable for achieving a better understanding of the interaction between soil components and the two heavy metals. They show the preferential association of Pb2+ with vermiculite, chlorite, Fe and Mn oxides, and of Cd2+ with the same components, although to a much lesser extent and intensity. This was due to the latter's higher mobility as it competed unfavourably with the Pb2+ sorption sites. TOF-SIMS and FE-SEM/EDS techniques confirmed the results of the sorption experiments, and also provided valuable information on whether the soil components (individually or in association) retain Cd2+ and/or Pb2+; this could help to propose effective measures for the remediation of contaminated soils.
Project description:Concerns about the sustainability of inorganic fertilizers necessitate the characterization of alternative P source materials for agronomic P-efficiencies and P losses via leaching. Firstly, this study examined nutrient compositions including P speciation of seven soil amendments: sewage sludge (SS), anaerobic digestate (AD), green compost (GC), food waste compost (FWC), chicken manure (CM), biochar, and seaweed. Secondly, soil P leaching and availability was studied on a subset of four materials (SS, AD, GC, and CM). Sorption of extracts onto columns of a test soil showed strong P retention for SS and compost, but weak P sorption for CM and especially AD, suggesting short-term leaching risks for soil applied AD. Limited P desorption with water or citrate indicated sorbed P was strongly fixed, potentially limiting crop availability. These data indicate that variation in P forms and environmental behavior should be understood to maximize P usage, but minimize leaching and soil P accumulation. Hence, different alternative P source materials need differing recommendations for their agronomic management.
Project description:Bioretention, also known as rain garden, allows stormwater to soak into the ground through a soil-based medium, leading to removal of particulate and dissolved pollutants and reduced peak flows. Although soil organic matter (SOM) is efficient at sorbing many pollutants, amending the bioretention medium with highly effective adsorbents has been proposed to optimize pollutant removal and extend bioretention lifetime. The aim of this research was to investigate whether soil amended with activated carbon produced from sewage sludge increases the efficiency to remove hydrophobic organic compounds frequently detected in stormwater, compared to non-amended soil. Three lab-scale columns (520 cm3) were packed with soil (bulk density 1.22 g/cm3); activated carbon (0.5% w/w) was added to two of the columns. During 28 days, synthetic stormwater-ultrapure water spiked with seven hydrophobic organic pollutants and dissolved organic matter in the form of humic acids-was passed through the column beds using upward flow (45 mm/h). Pollutant concentrations in effluent water (collected every 12 h) and polluted soils, as well as desorbed amounts of pollutants from soils were determined using GC-MS. Compared to SOM, the activated carbon exhibited a significantly higher adsorption capacity for tested pollutants. The amended soil was most efficient for removing moderately hydrophobic compounds (log K ow 4.0-4.4): as little as 0.5% (w/w), carbon addition may extend bioretention medium lifetime by approximately 10-20 years before saturation of these pollutants occurs. The column tests also indicated that released SOM sorb onto activated carbon, which may lead to early saturation of sorption sites on the carbon surface. The desorption test revealed that the pollutants are generally strongly sorbed to the soil particles, indicating low bioavailability and limited biodegradation.
Project description:A new magnetic functionalized derivative of chitosan is synthesized and characterized for the sorption of metal ions (environmental applications and metal valorization). The chemical modification of the glycine derivative of chitosan consists of: activation of the magnetic support with epichlorohydrin, followed by reaction with either glycine to produce the reference material (i.e., Gly sorbent) or glycine ester hydrochloride, followed by hydrazinolysis to synthesize the hydrazide functionalized sorbent (i.e., HGly sorbent). The materials are characterized by titration, elemental analysis, FTIR analysis (Fourrier-transform infrared spectrometry), TGA analysis (thermogravimetric analysis) and with SEM-EDX (scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray analysis). The sorption performances for U(VI), Cu(II), and Zn(II) are tested in batch systems. The sorption performances are compared for Gly and HGly taking into account the effect of pH, the uptake kinetics (fitted by the pseudo-second order rate equation), and the sorption isotherms (described by the Langmuir and the Sips equations). The sorption capacities of the modified sorbent reach up to 1.14 mmol U g<sup>-1</sup>, 1.69 mmol Cu g<sup>-1</sup>, and 0.85 mmol Zn g<sup>-1</sup>. In multi-metal solutions of equimolar concentration, the chemical modification changes the preferences for given metal ions. Metal ions are desorbed using 0.2 M HCl solutions and the sorbents are re-used for five cycles of sorption/desorption without significant loss in performances.
Project description:New activated sludge processes that utilize sorption as a major mechanism for organics removal are being developed to maximize energy recovery from wastewater organics, or as enhanced primary treatment technologies. To model and optimize sorption-based activated sludge processes, further knowledge about sorption of organics onto sludge is needed. This study compared primary-, anaerobic-, and aerobic activated sludge as sorbents, determined sorption capacity and kinetics, and investigated some characteristics of the organics being sorbed. Batch sorption assays were carried out without aeration at a mixing velocity of 200 rpm. Only aerobic activated sludge showed net sorption of organics. Sorption of dissolved organics occurred by a near-instantaneous sorption event followed by a slower process that obeyed 1st order kinetics. Sorption of particulates also followed 1st order kinetics but there was no instantaneous sorption event; instead there was a release of particles upon mixing. The 5-min sorption capacity of activated sludge was 6.5±10.8 mg total organic carbon (TOC) per g volatile suspend solids (VSS) for particulate organics and 5.0±4.7 mgTOC/gVSS for dissolved organics. The observed instantaneous sorption appeared to be mainly due to organics larger than 20 kDa in size being sorbed, although molecules with a size of about 200 Da with strong UV absorbance at 215-230 nm were also rapidly removed.