Land Use and Land Cover Change in the Qinghai Lake Region of the Tibetan Plateau and Its Impact on Ecosystem Services.
ABSTRACT: Exploration of land use and land cover change (LULCC) and its impacts on ecosystem services in Tibetan plateau is valuable for landscape and environmental conservation. In this study, we conduct spatial analysis on empirical land use and land cover data in the Qinghai Lake region for 1990, 2000, and 2010 and simulate land cover patterns for 2020. We then evaluate the impacts of LULCC on ecosystem service value (ESV), and analyze the sensitivity of ESV to LULCC to identify the ecologically sensitive area. Our results indicate that, from 1990 to 2010, the area of forest and grassland increased while the area of unused land decreased. Simulation results suggest that the area of grassland and forest will continue to increase and the area of cropland and unused land will decrease for 2010-2020. The ESV in the study area increased from 694.50 billion Yuan in 1990 to 714.28 billion Yuan in 2000, and to 696.72 billion Yuan in 2020. Hydrology regulation and waste treatment are the top two ecosystem services in this region. The towns surrounding the Qinghai Lake have high ESVs, especially in the north of the Qinghai Lake. The towns with high ESV sensitivity to LULCC are located in the northwest, while the towns in the north of the Qinghai Lake experienced substantial increase in sensitivity index from 2000-2010 to 2010-2020, especially for three regulation services and aesthetic landscape provision services.
Project description:Rapid agricultural land expansion and urbanization have accelerated land use and land cover changes (LUCC) in the Northern Tianshan Mountain Economic Zone and have significantly impacted on the ecosystem services (ESs). However, the spatiotemporal variations of ecosystem service value (ESV) to LUCC are not well understood. Based on the land use and land cover (LULC) data from 1980 to 2019, we used a CA-Markov model to predict LUCC in 2020 and 2030, assess the spatial-temporal changes of ESV and LULC during 1980-2030, and explore the elastic response of ESV to LUCC. We found that cropland and built-up land expanded rapidly by 34.38% and 196.66%, respectively between 1980 and 2030, while grassland and unutilized land decreased significantly by 11.45% and 10.26%, respectively. The ESV of water body, cropland, grassland and forestland accounts for more than 90% of the total ESV. Our research shows that the ESV of cropland increased 32 million yuan from 1980 to 2030, mainly due to the expansion of cropland area. However, the loss caused by the reduction of grassland area was 45 million yuan. Water conservation, waste treatment, soil formation and retention, and biodiversity conservation are the primary ecosystem service function, accounting for 71.82% of the total ESV. Despite notable increases in the ESV from 1980 to 2010, grassland degradation still remains a main ecological and environmental issue from 2010 to 2030. The results suggest that effective land use policies should be developed to control the expansion of croplands and protect water body, grassland and forestland to maintain more sustainable ESs.
Project description:The regional policy in China is shifting from solely gross domestic product (GDP) orientation to development that is more balanced between economic growth and ecological protection, as well as achieving equality among regions. Using land use maps and the adjusted value coefficients to assess ecosystem service values (ESV) for the 1980s, 1995, 2000, and 2010, we estimated the ESV in Shaanxi Province for different years, and characterized the spatial and temporal distribution of ESV and GDP. The results demonstrated that the total value of ecosystem services in Shaanxi Province increased from 208.95 billion Yuan in the 1980s to 309.76 billion Yuan in 2010. Variation Coefficient (Cv) and Theil index (T) were used to reflect the disparities of GDP or ESV within the study area. The values of Cv in descending order are GDP, ESV per capita, ESV, and GDP per capita. The Theil indexes of GDP were much greater than the ones of ESV. Variations of Cv and T showed that disparity in GDP kept increasing from the 1980s to 2000, then decreased; while no significant change in regional disparity of ESV were detected in parallel. The cities with higher GDP usually contributed little to ESV, and vice versa. The variation in GDP and ESV, in terms of the prefectural totals and per capita values, increased from the 1980s to 2010. This study provides an accessible way for local decision makers to evaluate the regional balance between economic growth and ecosystem services.
Project description:Based on satellite remote sensing image, GIS and Fragstats, this study modeled and calculated the dynamic changes of land use, land cover and landscape patterns in Guizhou Province, China, and calculated the changes of ecosystem service values (ESVs). The impacts of the evolution of landscape patterns on the ESVs were analyzed, and reasonable policy recommendations were made. The findings are as follows: (1) In the past two decades, the area of cropland and grassland has decreased; the area of water bodies, urban and rural, industrial and mining, and residential areas has increased; the area of forestland has increased first and then decreased. (2) The two major types of landscapes, cropland and grassland, are clearly being replaced by two land types, forest land and water bodies. (3) Overall, the degree of landscape aggregation and adjacency has decreased, and the landscape heterogeneity has increased. (4) The total amount of ESV in 2000, 2008, 2013 and 2017 was 2574 × 108 Yuan RMB, 2605 × 108 Yuan RMB, 2618 × 108 Yuan RMB and 2612 × 108 Yuan RMB, respectively. The changes of landscape patterns had important impacts on the ESVs. In order to solve the problems caused by the increasingly prominent changes in the landscape patterns and improve the ESVs, it is necessary to rationally plan and allocate land resources, optimize the industrial structures, and develop effective regulatory policies.
Project description:In the North China Plain, coal mining subsided lakes are surface water bodies that form after the conclusion of coal mining. In China, mining subsided lakes are often transformed into artificial wetland parks for ecological restoration. While many studies have focused on evaluating coal mining subsidence lake ecosystem service value and water pollution, little attention has been paid to changes in ecological regimes and ecological spillover effects before and after the reclamation of mining areas. This paper examines the Pan'an Lake artificial wetland in Jiawang District, Xuzhou, as a case study. Changes in the ecological regime of the mining subsidence area before and after land reclamation and corresponding spatial spillover effect on land prices are assessed based on remote sensing, GIS raster calculations and geostatistical methods. The results show that the ecosystem service value and ecological storage capacity changed significantly after the mining subsided lake was transformed into an artificial wetland and the wetland ecosystem has been developing well with significantly positive spillover effects on surrounding land prices. From 2008 to 2017, service functions of the artificial wetland ecosystem of Pan'an Lake increased by 81.95%, and the system's ecological storage capacity increased from RMB 6,754 yuan/hm2 in 2008 to RMB 12,289 yuan/hm2 in 2017. The average impact of the Pan'an Lake artificial wetland on the spillover effects of surrounding residential land prices was measured at RMB 195.18 yuan/m2, and the total spillover value of planned residential land in the study area was measured at RMB 805,422,100 yuan. The present study can serve as a useful guide for evaluating the economic feasibility of land reclamation planning and ecological restoration in mining subsidence areas.
Project description:Previously, applications of intensity analysis (IA) on land use and land cover change (LULCC) studies have focused on deviations from uniform intensity (UI) and failed to quantify the reasons behind these deviations. This study presents the application of IA with hypothetical errors that could explain non-uniform LULCC in the context of IA at four-time points. LULCC in the Ashi watershed was examined using Landsat images from 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2014 showing the classes: Urban, water, agriculture, close canopy, open canopy and other vegetation. Matrices were created to statistically examine LULCC using IA. The results reveal that the seeming LULCC intensities are not uniform with respect to the interval, category and transition levels of IA. Error analysis indicates that, hypothetical errors in 13%, 19% and 11.2% of the 2000, 2010 and 2014 maps respectively could account for all differences between the observed gain intensities and the UI; while errors in 12%, 21%, and 11% of the 1990, 2000 and 2010 maps respectively could account for all differences between the observed loss intensities and the UI. A hypothetical error in 0.6% and 1.6% of the 1990 map; 1.5% and 4% of the 2000 map; 1.2% and 2.1% of the 2010 map could explain divergences from uniform transitions given URB gain and AGR gain during 1990-2000, 2000-2010 and 2010-2014 respectively. Evidence for a specific deviation from the relevant hypothesized UI is either strong or weak depending on the size of these errors. We recommend that users of IA concept consider assessing their map errors, since limited ground information on past time point data exist. These errors will indicate strength of evidence for deviations and reveals patterns that increase researcher's insight on LULCC processes.
Project description:The small Sanjiang plain is one of the most important commodity grain production bases and the largest fresh water wetland in China. Due to the rapid expansion of agricultural activities in the past 30 years, the contradiction between economic development and the loss of ecosystem services has become an issue of increasing concern in the area. In this study, we analysed land use changes and the loss of ecosystem services value caused by these changes. We found that cropland sprawl was predominant and occurred in forest, wetland, and grassland areas in the small Sanjiang plain from 1980 to 2010. Using a model to evaluate ecosystem services value, we calculated that the decreased values of ecosystem services were 169.88 × 10(8) Yuan from 1980 to 2000 and 120.00 × 10(8) Yuan from 2000 to 2010. All of the ecosystem services were diminished from 1980 to 2010 except for food production. Therefore, the loss of ecosystem services value should be considered by the policymakers of land use and development.
Project description:The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) is a keystone species in the alpine rangeland ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most previous studies of habitat selection by plateau pika have been conducted at a local microhabitat scale; however, little is known about the relationship between the distribution of plateau pika and macrohabitat factors at broad spatial scales. Using a presence-only ecological niche model (maximum entropy, Maxent), we predicted the distribution of plateau pika in the Qinghai Lake basin based on a set of environmental and anthropogenic variables at 1-km spatial resolution, and identified key macrohabitat factors that contribute to the predictive performance. Our results showed suitable area for plateau pika in the Qinghai Lake basin being approximately 3982 km2, which is 15.8% of the land area in the whole watershed. The distance to road emerged as the most important predictor of the distribution patterns of plateau pika, while the soil type was of ancillary importance. Mean air temperature of wettest quarter, distance to resident site and altitude also produced high gains in defining plateau pika's distribution. A higher predictive accuracy was achieved by the model that combined environmental and anthropogenic variables. With the constraint of human factors, the presence probability of plateau pika in about 1661 km2 will increase. These findings demonstrate the impact of human activities on the distribution of plateau pika, and the importance of vegetation reservation for plateau pika control.
Project description:Being subject to climate change and human intervention, the land-use pattern in the agro-pastoral ecotone of Northern China has undergone complex changes over the past few decades, which may jeopardize the provision of ecosystem services. Thus, for sustainable land management, ecosystem services should be evaluated and monitored. In this study, based on Landsat TM/ETM data, we quantitatively evaluated the losses of ecosystem service values (ESV) in three sections of the agro-pastoral ecotone from 1980-2015. The results were as follows: (1) the main characteristic of the land conversions was that a large area of grassland was converted into cultivated land in the agro-pastoral ecotone; (2) on the spatial scale, the ESV losses of the agro-pastoral ecotone can be called an "inclined surface" in the direction of the northeast to southwest, and the northeastern section of the agro-pastoral ecotone lost more ESV than the middle and northwest sections (p < 0.05), on the temporal scale, the order of losses was 1990-2000 > 1980-1990 > 2000-2015; (3) the agro-pastoral ecotone lost more ESV, which was mainly due to four kinds of land conversion, which were grassland that was transformed into cultivated land, grassland transformed into unused land, grassland transformed into built-up areas, and cultivated land transformed into built-up areas; (4) although these land conversions were curbed after the implementation of protection policies at the end of the 1990s, due to reduced precipitation and increasing temperatures, the agro-pastoral ecotone will face a more severe situation in the future; and, (5) during the period of 1990-2015, the overall dynamic processes of increasing population gradually expanded to the sparsely populated pastoral area. Therefore, we believe that human interventions are the main cause of ecological deterioration in the agro-pastoral ecotone. This study provides references for fully understanding the regional differences in the ecological and environmental effects of land use change and it helps to objectively evaluate ecological civilization construction in the agro-pastoral ecotone of Northern China.
Project description:Globally, carbon-rich mangrove forests are deforested and degraded due to land-use and land-cover change (LULCC). The impact of mangrove deforestation on carbon emissions has been reported on a global scale; however, uncertainty remains at subnational scales due to geographical variability and field data limitations. We present an assessment of blue carbon storage at five mangrove sites across West Papua Province, Indonesia, a region that supports 10% of the world's mangrove area. The sites are representative of contrasting hydrogeomorphic settings and also capture change over a 25-years LULCC chronosequence. Field-based assessments were conducted across 255 plots covering undisturbed and LULCC-affected mangroves (0-, 5-, 10-, 15- and 25-year-old post-harvest or regenerating forests as well as 15-year-old aquaculture ponds). Undisturbed mangroves stored total ecosystem carbon stocks of 182-2,730 (mean ± SD: 1,087 ± 584) Mg C/ha, with the large variation driven by hydrogeomorphic settings. The highest carbon stocks were found in estuarine interior (EI) mangroves, followed by open coast interior, open coast fringe and EI forests. Forest harvesting did not significantly affect soil carbon stocks, despite an elevated dead wood density relative to undisturbed forests, but it did remove nearly all live biomass. Aquaculture conversion removed 60% of soil carbon stock and 85% of live biomass carbon stock, relative to reference sites. By contrast, mangroves left to regenerate for more than 25 years reached the same level of biomass carbon compared to undisturbed forests, with annual biomass accumulation rates of 3.6 ± 1.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1 . This study shows that hydrogeomorphic setting controls natural dynamics of mangrove blue carbon stocks, while long-term land-use changes affect carbon loss and gain to a substantial degree. Therefore, current land-based climate policies must incorporate landscape and land-use characteristics, and their related carbon management consequences, for more effective emissions reduction targets and restoration outcomes.
Project description:The rapid increase in anthropogenic activities, socioeconomic development, and land use land cover (LULC) changes since the opening of economic reforms (1978), have changed the ecosystem service value (ESV) in Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao (GKHM) region located in South China. This leads to the requirement of a significant tailored analysis of ecosystem services regarding incisive and relevant planning to ensure sustainability at regional level. This study focuses on the use of Landsat satellite imagery to quantify the precise impact of LULC changes on the ecosystem services in GHKM over the past three decades (1986-2017). The most renowned established unit value transfer method has been employed to calculate the ESV. The results show that the total ecosystem service value in GHKM has decreased from 680.23 billion CNY in 1986 to 668.45 billion CNY in 2017, mainly due to the decrease in farmland and fishponds. This overall decrease concealed the more dynamic and complex nature of the individual ESV. The most significant decrease took place in the values of water supply (-22.20 billion CNY, -14.72%), waste treatment (-20.77 billion CNY, -14.63%), and food production (-7.96 billion CNY, -33.18%). On the other hand, the value of fertile soil formation and retention (6.28 billion CNY, +7.26%) and recreation and culture (5.09 billion CNY, +12.91%) increased. Furthermore, total ESV and ESV per capita decreased significantly with the continuous increase in total gross domestic product (GDP) and GDP per capita. A substantial negative correlation exists between farmland ESV and GDP indicating human encroachment into a natural and semi natural ecosystems. The results suggest that in the rapidly urbanizing region, the protection of farmland and to control the intrusion of urban areas has marked an important societal demand and a challenge to the local government. This required a pressing need for smart LULC planning and to improve policies and regulation to guarantee ecosystem service sustainability for acceptable life quality in the study area and other fast expanding urban areas in China.