Association between Alcohol Consumption and Diverticulosis and Diverticular Bleeding: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: There have been conflicting reports on the association of alcohol use and diverticular disease. We aimed to determine the odds of developing diverticular disease and diverticular bleeding in patients who consumed alcohol on a regular basis compared with those who did not. MEDLINE and PUBMED were searched up until February 2017 on observational trials, which investigated the effect of alcohol use on two outcomes of diverticular disease: diverticulosis and diverticular bleeding. Quantitative estimates (odds ratios [OR] and confidence intervals [CI]) from included studies were pooled by using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed by the I2 statistic. In 6 studies including 53,644 subjects and 6 studies including 3,404 subjects, alcohol consumption on a regular basis was not associated with either diverticulosis (OR=1.99; 95% CI 0.99-4.03, I2=99%) or diverticular bleeding (OR=1.39; 95% CI 0.84-2.32, I2=45%) compared to subjects who did not consume alcohol on a regular basis, respectively. Increased odds of diverticulosis or diverticular bleeding among individuals who consume alcohol on a regular basis were not observed in these meta-analyses.
Project description:Clinical features and lifestyle factors associated with diverticulosis compared to diverticular disease (DD), either symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) or in patients who have had previous diverticulitis (PD), are unclear.The objective of this article is to compare cross-sectionally demographic and clinical features and quality of life (QoL) in diverticulosis, SUDD and PD patients.The REMAD Registry is a prospective, observational, multicentre, cohort study. Patients were categorised according to: diverticulosis; SUDD (recurrent abdominal symptoms attributed to diverticula in absence of overt inflammation) and PD (?1 previous diverticulitis).A total of 1217 patients (57.9% diverticulosis, 24.7% SUDD and 17.4% PD) were included. Compared to diverticulosis, female gender was associated to SUDD (OR 1.94; 95% CI: 1.43-2.62) and PD (OR 1.79; 95% CI: 1.24-2.56); age???60 years was associated to PD (OR 2.10; 95% CI: 1.42-3.08 vs diverticulosis, OR 1.57; 95% CI: 1.01-2.45 vs SUDD). PD patients showed an association with past bleeding (OR 29.29; 95% CI: 8.17-104.98 vs diverticulosis, OR 16.84; 95% CI: 3.77-75.25 vs SUDD). Compared to diverticulosis, family history for diverticula was associated to PD (OR 1.88; 95% CI: 1.27-2.78). Patients with diverticulosis showed higher QoL scores, both physical (p?=?0.0001 and 0.0257) and mental (p?<?0.0001 and 0.0038), in comparison to SUDD and PD.Family history for diverticula and history of bleeding distinguish diverticulosis from DD. These clinical features should be kept in mind in the management of DD.
Project description:Asymptomatic diverticulosis is commonly attributed to constipation caused by a low-fiber diet, although evidence for this mechanism is limited. We examined the associations between constipation and low dietary fiber intake with risk of asymptomatic diverticulosis.We performed a cross-sectional study that analyzed data from 539 individuals with diverticulosis and 1569 without (controls). Participants underwent colonoscopy and assessment of diet, physical activity, and bowel habits. Our analysis was limited to participants with no knowledge of their diverticular disease to reduce the risk of biased responses.Constipation was not associated with an increased risk of diverticulosis. Participants with less frequent bowel movements (<7/wk) had reduced odds of diverticulosis compared with those with regular bowel movements (7/wk) (odds ratio [OR], 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40-0.80). Those reporting hard stools also had reduced odds (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.55-1.02). There was no association between diverticulosis and straining (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.59-1.22) or incomplete bowel movement (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.61-1.20). We found no association between dietary fiber intake and diverticulosis (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.71-1.30) in comparing the highest quartile with the lowest (mean intake, 25 vs 8 g/day).In our cross-sectional, colonoscopy-based study, neither constipation nor a low-fiber diet was associated with an increased risk of diverticulosis.
Project description:Formation of colonic diverticula, via herniation of the colonic wall, is responsible for the development of diverticulosis. When diverticulosis becomes symptomatic, it becomes diverticular disease. Diverticular disease is common in Western and industrialized countries, and it is associated with numerous abdominal symptoms (including pain, bloating, nausea, diarrhea, and constipation). Standard medical therapies with antibiotics are currently recommended for patients affected by diverticular disease. However, changing concepts on the pathophysiology of the disease suggest that diverticular disease may share many of the hallmarks of inflammatory bowel diseases. On this basis, the addition of therapies using mesalazine and probiotics may enhance treatment efficacy by shortening the course of the disease and preventing recurrences.
Project description:Diverticula are outpouchings of the intestinal wall and are common anatomical alterations detected in the human colon. Colonic diverticulosis (the presence of diverticula in the colon; referred to as diverticulosis) remains asymptomatic in most individuals but ~25% of individuals will develop symptomatic diverticulosis, termed colonic diverticular disease (also known as diverticular disease). Diverticular disease can range in severity from symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) to symptomatic disease with complications such as acute diverticulitis or diverticular haemorrhage. Since the early 2000s, a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of diverticulosis and diverticular disease, which encompasses genetic alterations, chronic low-grade inflammation and gut dysbiosis, has led to improvements in diagnosis and management. Diagnosis of diverticular disease relies on imaging approaches, such as ultrasonography, CT and MRI, as biomarkers alone are insufficient to establish a diagnosis despite their role in determining disease severity and progression as well as in differential diagnosis. Treatments for diverticular disease include dietary fibre, pharmacological treatments such as antibiotics (rifaximin), anti-inflammatory drugs (mesalazine) and probiotics, alone or in combination, and eventually surgery. Despite being effective in treating primary disease, their effectiveness in primary and secondary prevention of complications is still uncertain.
Project description:Diverticulosis is one of the most common gastrointestinal conditions affecting the general population in the Western world. It is estimated that over 2.5 million people are affected by diverticular disease in the United States. The spectrum of clinical manifestations of diverticulosis ranges from asymptomatic diverticulosis to complicated diverticulitis. Treatment for symptomatic diverticular disease is largely based on symptoms. Traditional therapy includes fiber, bowel rest, antibiotics, pain control and surgery for selected cases. This review discusses recent advances in the medical treatment of diverticular disease such as the use of mesalamine, rifaximin and probiotics as our understanding of the disease evolves.
Project description:Colonic diverticulosis is a very common condition. Many patients develop diverticulitis or other complications of diverticular disease. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) consistently identified three major genetic susceptibility factors for both conditions, but did not discriminate diverticulititis and diverticulosis in particular due the limitations of registry-based approaches. Here, we aimed to confirm the role of the identified variants for diverticulosis and diverticulitis, respectively, within a well-phenotyped cohort of patients who underwent colonoscopy. Risk variants rs4662344 in Rho GTPase-activating protein 15 (ARHGAP15), rs7609897 in collagen-like tail subunit of asymmetric acetylcholinesterase (COLQ) and rs67153654 in family with sequence similarity 155?A (FAM155A) were genotyped in 1,332 patients. Diverticulosis was assessed by colonoscopy, and diverticulitis by imaging, clinical symptoms and inflammatory markers. Risk of diverticulosis and diverticulitis was analyzed in regression models adjusted for cofactors. Overall, the variant in FAM155A was associated with diverticulitis, but not diverticulosis, when controlling for age, BMI, alcohol consumption, and smoking status (ORadjusted 0.49 [95% CI 0.27-0.89], p?=?0.002). Our results contribute to the assessment specific genetic variants identified in GWAS in the predisposition to the development of diverticulitis in patients with diverticulosis.
Project description:Background:Although diverticular disease is a common condition, its effective treatment is challenging in clinical practice. Objective:The objective of this article is to assess pharmacological management in different clinical settings of diverticular disease and factors associated with treatment using the Italian registry Registro Malattia Diverticolare (REMAD). Methods:At study enrolment, patients were categorised into subgroups: diverticulosis, symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease and previous diverticulitis. We registered demographic, clinical and lifestyle factors, quality of life and the use of treatments for diverticular disease in the last year. Logistic regression analysis assessed the association between clinical factors and treatment consumption. Results:A total of 500 of the 1206 individuals included had had at least one treatment for diverticular disease in the last year: 23.6% (166/702) of patients with diverticulosis, 55.9% (165/295) of patients with symptomatic diverticular disease, and 80.9% (169/209) of patients with previous diverticulitis (p?<?0.001). In multivariate analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with treatment use: female gender, family history of colonic diverticula, organic digestive comorbidity and impaired physical quality of life components. Conclusion:Individuals with diverticular disease take medications based on the different clinical settings of disease. We identified different features associated with treatment use in the distinct clinical entities of diverticular disease.ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier: NCT03325829.
Project description:Introduction:Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) has benefits, including less postoperative pain, a shorter incision, and improved cosmesis. However, SILS is technically difficult because of the limited movement. An organ retractor is an instrument that has the potential to overcome these limitations. Presentation of case:An 85-year-old woman with hematochezia was referred to our hospital. Emergency endoscopy showed diverticulosis of the entire colon and active bleeding from the ascending colon. Despite endoscopic clipping, the bleeding continued. SILS total colectomy using an organ retractor was performed due to uncontrollable diverticular bleeding. A 3-cm incision was placed in the umbilicus, and three conventional ports were inserted into the single umbilical incision. An organ retractor was used for hepatocolic ligament transection, transection of the ileocolic vessels, and transection of the mesentery of the sigmoid colon. For each transection, the tension was adjusted to provide a good operative view. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion:An organ retractor was effective for SILS total colectomy to maintain an adequate operative view, which enabled safe dissection.
Project description:Diverticulosis of the colon is a widespread disease, and its prevalence is increasing especially in the developing world. The underlying pathological mechanisms that cause the formation of colonic diverticula remain unclear but are likely to be the result of complex interactions among age, diet, genetic factors, colonic motility, and changes in colonic structure. The large majority of patients remain asymptomatic throughout their life, one fifth of them become symptomatic (developing the so-called 'diverticular disease') while only a minority of these will develop acute diverticulitis. The factors predicting the development of symptoms remain to be identified. Again, it is generally recognized that diverticular disease occurrence is probably related to complex interactions among colonic motility, diet, lifestyle, and genetic features. Changes in intestinal microflora due to low-fiber diet and consequent low-grade inflammation are thought to be one of the mechanisms responsible for symptoms occurrence of both diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis. Current therapeutic approaches with rifaximin and mesalazine to treat the symptoms seem to be promising. Antibiotic treatment is currently advised only in acute complicated diverticulitis, and no treatment has currently proven effective in preventing the recurrence of acute diverticulitis. Further studies are required in order to clarify the reasons why diverticulosis occurs and the factors triggering occurrence of symptoms. Moreover, the reasons why rifaximin and mesalazine work in symptomatic diverticular disease but not in acute diverticulitis are yet to be elucidated.
Project description:Diverticular disease (DD) is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders. The pathogenesis of diverticulosis and DD is controversially discussed. Current studies call the traditional concept of a fibre-deficient diet causing the development of diverticula into question. Data from two recent twin studies have provided conclusive evidence for a strong genetic component to diverticulosis. Although genomewide association studies have provided new insights into the polygenic architecture of human diseases, genomic research in diverticulosis and DD has just been started. This is an astonishing fact given the high morbidity and mortality of the disease, as well as the substantial economic burden on health care systems. For this review, we provide an update of the molecular pathobiology and summarise recent evidence supporting the hypothesis that distinct, yet unidentified genetic variants contribute to the development of diverticulosis and DD.