Leptomycin B alters the subcellular distribution of CRM1 (Exportin 1).
ABSTRACT: CRM1 (chromosome maintenance region 1, Exportin 1) binds to nuclear export signals and is required for nucleocytoplasmic transport of a large variety of proteins and RNP complexes. Leptomycin B (LMB), the first specific inhibitor of CRM1 identified, binds covalently to cysteine 528 in the nuclear export signal binding region of CRM1 leading to the inhibition of protein nuclear export. Although the biochemical mechanisms of action of CRM1 inhibitors such as LMB are well studied, the subcellular effects of inhibition on CRM1 are unknown. We have found that LMB causes CRM1 to redistribute from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in A549 cells. A significant decrease in nuclear CRM1 coupled with an increase in cytoplasmic CRM1 was sustained for up to 4 h, while there was no change in total CRM1 protein in fractionated cells. Cells expressing an LMB insensitive HA-tagged CRM1-C528S protein were unaffected by LMB treatment, whereas HA-tagged wildtype CRM1 redistributed from the nucleus to the cytoplasm with LMB treatment, similar to endogenous CRM1. GFP-tagged CRM1 protein microinjected into the cytoplasm of A549 cells distributed throughout the cell in untreated cells remained primarily cytoplasmic in LMB-treated cells. Upon nuclear microinjection, GFP-CRM1 translocated to and accumulated in the cytoplasm of LMB-treated cells. Thus, LMB binds to CRM1 and causes its redistribution to the cytoplasm by inhibiting its nuclear import. Decreasing the nuclear availability of CRM1 likely contributes to the accumulation of CRM1 cargo proteins in the nucleus, suggesting a new mechanism of action for LMB.
Project description:The cellular target of leptomycin B (LMB), a nuclear export inhibitor, has been identified as CRM1 (exportin 1), an evolutionarily conserved receptor for the nuclear export signal of proteins. However, the mechanism by which LMB inhibits CRM1 still remains unclear. CRM1 in a Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutant showing extremely high resistance to LMB had a single amino acid replacement at Cys-529 with Ser. The mutant gene, named crm1-K1, conferred LMB resistance on wild-type S. pombe, and Crm1-K1 no longer bound biotinylated LMB. (1)H NMR analysis showed that LMB bound N-acetyl-L-cysteine methyl ester through a Michael-type addition, consistent with the idea that LMB binds covalently via its alpha, beta-unsaturated delta-lactone to the sulfhydryl group of Cys-529. When HeLa cells were cultured with biotinylated LMB, the only cellular protein bound covalently was CRM1. Inhibition by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), an alkylating agent, of CRM1-mediated nuclear export probably was caused by covalent binding of the electrophilic structure in NEM to the sulfhydryl group of Cys-529, because the crm1-K1 mutant showed the normal rate for the export of Rev nuclear export signal-bearing proteins in the presence of not only LMB but also NEM. These results show that the single cysteine residue determines LMB sensitivity and is selectively alkylated by LMB, leading to CRM1 inactivation.
Project description:Recent studies have demonstrated the interference of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking with the establishment and maintenance of various cancers. Nucleocytoplasmic transport is highly regulated and coordinated, involving different nuclear transport factors or receptors, importins and exportins, that mediate cargo transport from the cytoplasm into the nucleus or the other way round, respectively. The exportin CRM1 (Chromosome region maintenance 1) exports a plethora of different protein cargoes and ribonucleoprotein complexes. Structural and biochemical analyses have enabled the deduction of individual steps of the CRM1 transport cycle. In addition, CRM1 turned out to be a valid target for anticancer drugs as it exports numerous proto-oncoproteins and tumor suppressors. Clearly, detailed understanding of the flexibility, regulatory features and cooperative binding properties of CRM1 for Ran and cargo is a prerequisite for the design of highly effective drugs. The first compound found to inhibit CRM1-dependent nuclear export was the natural drug Leptomycin B (LMB), which blocks export by competitively interacting with a highly conserved cleft on CRM1 required for nuclear export signal recognition. Clinical studies revealed serious side effects of LMB, leading to a search for alternative natural and synthetic drugs and hence a multitude of novel therapeutics. The present review examines recent progress in understanding the binding mode of natural and synthetic compounds and their inhibitory effects.
Project description:The signaling molecule 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) has been described as the "anti-inflammatory prostaglandin." Here we show that substrates of the nuclear export receptor CRM1 accumulate in the nucleus in the presence of 15d-PGJ(2), identifying this prostaglandin as a regulator of CRM1-dependent nuclear protein export that can be produced endogenously. Like leptomycin B (LMB), an established fungal CRM1-inhibitor, 15d-PGJ(2) reacts with a conserved cysteine residue in the CRM1 sequence. This covalent modification prevents the formation of nuclear export complexes. Cells that are transfected with mutant CRM1 (C528S) are resistant to the inhibitory effects of LMB and 15d-PGJ(2), demonstrating that the same single amino acid is targeted by the two compounds. Inhibition of the CRM1 pathway by endogenously produced prostaglandin and/or exogenously applied 15d-PGJ(2) may contribute to its anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-viral effects.
Project description:BACKGROUND:VP1 of the chicken anemia virus (CAV) is a structural protein that is required for virus encapsulation. VP1 proteins are present both in the nucleus and cytoplasm; however, the functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) and nuclear export signal (NES) of VP1 are still unknown. This study aimed to characterize the NLS and NES motifs of VP1 using bioinformatics methods and multiple-site fragment deletions, and investigate shuttling of VP2 from nucleus to cytoplasm by co-transfection with VP1. METHODS:Two putative NLS motifs were predicted by the WoLF PSORT and NLStradamus programs from the amino acid sequence of VP1. Three NES motifs of VP1 were predicted by the NetNES 1.1 Server and ELM server programs. All mutants were created by multiple-site fragment deletion mutagenesis. VP1 and VP2 were co-expressed in cells using plasmid transfection. RESULTS:A functional NLS motif was identified at amino acid residues 3 to 10 (RRARRPRG) of VP1. Critical amino acids 3 to 10 were significantly involved in nuclear import in cells and were evaluated using systematic deletion mutagenesis. Three NES motifs of VP1 were predicted by the NetNES 1.1 Server and ELM server programs. A functional NES was identified at amino acid residues 375 to 388 (ELDTNFFTLYVAQ). Leptomycin B (LMB) treatment demonstrated that VP1 export from nucleus to cytoplasm occurred through a chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-dependent pathway. With co-expression of VP1 and VP2 in cells, we observed that VP1 may transport VP2 from nucleus to cytoplasm. CONCLUSION:Our data showed that VP1 of CAV contained functional NLS and NES motifs that modulated nuclear import and export through a CRM1-dependent pathway. Further, VP1 may play a role in the transport of VP2 from nucleus to cytoplasm.
Project description:In contrast to most RNA viruses, influenza viruses replicate their genome in the nucleus of infected cells. As a result, newly-synthesized vRNA genomes, in the form of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), must be exported to the cytoplasm for productive infection. To characterize the composition of vRNP export complexes and their interplay with the nucleus of infected cells, we affinity-purified tagged vRNPs from biochemically fractionated infected nuclei. After treatment of infected cells with leptomycin B, a potent inhibitor of Crm1-mediated export, we isolated vRNP export complexes which, unexpectedly, were tethered to the host-cell chromatin with very high affinity. At late time points of infection, the cellular export receptor Crm1 also accumulated at the same regions of the chromatin as vRNPs, which led to a decrease in the export of other nuclear Crm1 substrates from the nucleus. Interestingly, chromatin targeting of vRNP export complexes brought them into association with Rcc1, the Ran guanine exchange factor responsible for generating RanGTP and driving Crm1-dependent nuclear export. Thus, influenza viruses gain preferential access to newly-generated host cell export machinery by targeting vRNP export complexes at the sites of Ran regeneration.
Project description:The export protein CRM1 is required for the nuclear export of a wide variety of cancer-related "cargo" proteins including p53, c-Abl, and FOXO-3A. Leptomycin B (LMB) is a highly specific inhibitor of CRM1 with significant in vitro potency but limited in vivo efficacy due to toxicity. We now report a series of semisynthetic LMB derivatives showing substantially improved therapeutic windows. Exposure of cancer cells to these compounds leads to a rapid and prolonged block of nuclear export and apoptosis. In contrast to what is observed in cancer cells, these agents induce cell cycle arrest, but not apoptosis, in normal lung fibroblasts. These new nuclear export inhibitors (NEI) maintain the high potency of LMB, are up to 16-fold better tolerated than LMB in vivo, and show significant efficacy in multiple mouse xenograft models. These NEIs show the potential of CRM1 inhibitors as novel and potent anticancer agents.
Project description:The cowpox virus-encoded anti-apoptotic protein cytokine response modifier A (CrmA) is a member of the serpin family that specifically inhibits the cellular proteins caspase 1, caspase 8 and granzyme B. In this study, we have used Flag- and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-tagged versions of CrmA to investigate the mechanisms that regulate its subcellular localization. We show that CrmA can actively enter and exit the nucleus and we demonstrate the role of the nuclear export receptor CRM1 in this shuttling process. CrmA contains a novel leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) that is functionally conserved in the anti-apoptotic cellular serpin PI-9. Besides this leucine-rich export signal, additional sequences mapping to a 103-amino-acid region flanking the NES contribute to the CRM1-dependent nuclear export of CrmA. Although YFP-tagged CrmA is primarily located in the cytoplasm, shifting its localization to be predominantly nuclear by fusion of a heterologous nuclear localization signal did not impair its ability to prevent Fas-induced apoptosis. We propose that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling would allow CrmA to efficiently target cellular pro-apoptotic proteins not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus, and thus to carry out its anti-apoptotic function in both compartments.
Project description:Stat3 is the most pleiotropic member of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of transcription factors and mediates pivotal responses for the cytokine family. In resting cells, STATs, including Stat3, reside largely in the cytoplasm. Upon cytokine stimulation, they rapidly translocate to the nucleus, where they promote the expression of target genes. During the subsequent period of signal decay they are re-exported back to the cytoplasm in preparation for the next round of signaling. This process of nuclear export can be blocked by the fungal toxin leptomycin B (LMB). In contrast to what appears to be the case for Stat1, LMB treatment not only blocks the poststimulation export of Stat3 from the nucleus back to the cytoplasm, but also promotes the nuclear accumulation of Stat3 in resting cells. Remarkably, the LMB-dependent nuclear accumulation of Stat3 in resting cells is independent of tyrosine phosphorylation, highlighting the existence of a "basal" signaling pathway. Subsequent studies identified three nuclear export signal (NES) elements. Two of these elements, Stat3(306-318) and Stat3(404-414), corresponded to those recently identified in Stat1, and a third, Stat3(524-535), is novel. Stat3(306-318) appears to be important in the rapid nuclear export seen after stimulation (poststimulation export), whereas the Stat3(404-414) and Stat3(524-535) play a more important role in regulating basal nuclear export. In summary, these studies indicate that the process of Stat3 nuclear export is dependent on multiple NES elements.
Project description:The transport receptor Crm1 mediates the export of diverse cargos containing leucine-rich nuclear export signals (NESs) through complex formation with RanGTP. To ensure efficient cargo release in the cytoplasm, NESs have evolved to display low affinity for Crm1. However, mechanisms that overcome low affinity to assemble Crm1-export complexes in the nucleus remain poorly understood. In this study, we reveal a new type of RanGTP-binding protein, Slx9, which facilitates Crm1 recruitment to the 40S pre-ribosome-associated NES-containing adaptor Rio2. In vitro, Slx9 binds Rio2 and RanGTP, forming a complex. This complex directly loads Crm1, unveiling a non-canonical stepwise mechanism to assemble a Crm1-export complex. A mutation in Slx9 that impairs Crm1-export complex assembly inhibits 40S pre-ribosome export. Thus, Slx9 functions as a scaffold to optimally present RanGTP and the NES to Crm1, therefore, triggering 40S pre-ribosome export. This mechanism could represent one solution to the paradox of weak binding events underlying rapid Crm1-mediated export.
Project description:We identified a new calmodulin kinase I (CaMKI) substrate, cytidyltransferase (CCT?), a crucial enzyme required for maintenance of cell membranes. CCT? becomes activated with translocation from the cytoplasm to the nuclear membrane, resulting in increased membrane phospholipids. Calcium-activated CCT? nuclear import is mediated by binding of its C-terminus to 14-3-3 ?, a regulator of nuclear trafficking. Here CaMK1 phosphorylates residues within this C-terminus that signals association of CCT? with 14-3-3 ? to initiate calcium-induced nuclear entry. CaMKI docks within the CCT? membrane-binding domain (residues 290-299), a sequence that displays similarities to a canonical nuclear export signal (NES) that also binds CRM1/exportin 1. Expression of a CFP-CCT? mutant lacking residues 290-299 in cells results in cytosolically retained enzyme. CRM1/exportin 1 was required for CCT? nuclear export, and its overexpression in cells was partially sufficient to trigger CCT? nuclear export despite calcium stimulation. An isolated CFP-290-299 peptide remained in the nucleus in the presence of leptomycin B but was able to target to the cytoplasm with farnesol. Thus CaMKI vies with CRM1/exportin 1 for access to a NES, and assembly of a CaMKI-14-3-3 ?-CCT? complex is a key effector mechanism that drives nuclear CCT? translocation.