Novel Durable Antimicrobial Ceramic with Embedded Copper Sub-Microparticles for a Steady-State Release of Copper Ions.
ABSTRACT: Using pottery clay, porous ceramic stones were molded and then decorated with copper sub-microparticles inside the pores. Copper added antimicrobial functionality to the clay-based ceramic and showed ability in disinfecting water. Populations of both Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae in contaminated water were reduced by >99.9% in 3 h when exposed to an antimicrobial stone. This antimicrobial performance is attributed to a slow release of copper into water at both room and elevated temperatures. Copper is leached by water to produce ion concentrations in water at a level of 0.05-0.20 ppm after 24 to 72 h immersion tests. This concentration is reproducible over a number of cycles >400. To our knowledge, this is the first formulation of copper sub-microparticles inside the porous structure of commercial-sized ceramic stones that can disinfect bacteria-contaminated water over a period of at least several months.
Project description:Hospital acquired infections (HAIs) and the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains are major threats to human health. Copper is well known for its high antimicrobial efficacy, including the ability to kill superbugs and the notorious ESKAPE group of pathogens. We sought a material that maintains the antimicrobial efficacy of copper while minimizing the downsides - cost, appearance and metallic properties - that limit application. Here we describe a copper-glass ceramic powder as an additive for antimicrobial surfaces; its mechanism is based on the controlled release of copper (I) ions (Cu1+) from cuprite nanocrystals that form in situ in the water labile phase of the biphasic glass ceramic. Latex paints containing copper-glass ceramic powder exhibit ?99.9% reduction in S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, K. aerogenes and E. Coli colony counts when evaluated by the US EPA test method for efficacy of copper-alloy surfaces as sanitizer, approaching that of benchmark metallic copper.
Project description:The data presented in this article are generated as part of the research article entitled "from a naturally occurring material (clay mineral) to the production of porous ceramic membranes" (Elgamouz and Tijani, 2018) . This article describe how clays as very abundant versatile materials that have many properties not available in pure materials namely, silica, alumina and zirconia can be used for the preparation of ceramic membranes (Karaborni et al., 1996; Oun et al., 2017; Hollanders et al., 2016; de Oliveira Henriques et al., 2017) , , , . This paper presents data obtained at different stages of the fabrication of a clay-zeolite composite ceramic membrane made from a largely available clay from the central region of Morocco (Meknes). The data include the characterization of the clay powder using XRD, FTIR, thermogravimetric (TGA and TDA) analysis of the clay powder. The data of porosity, mesoporosity, specific surface area, volumes of the pores, volumes of mesopores, diameters of the pores using mercury intrusion porosimetry and adsorption desorption of nitrogen data that was computed from BET and BJH theories of the clay supports at different firing temperatures (700, 750, 800, 850 and 900?°C). Data obtained from measurement of nitrogen permeation of support alone and that of the silicalite membranes are also represented.
Project description:Although metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or porous coordination polymers have been widely studied, their antimicrobial activities have not yet been fully investigated. In this work, antifungal activity of copper-based benzene-tricarboxylate MOF (Cu-BTC MOF), which is water stable and industrially interesting, is investigated against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Fusarium oxysporum. The Cu-BTC MOF can effectively inhibit the growth rate of C. albicans and remarkably inhibit the spore growth of A. niger, A. oryzae and F. oxysporum. This finding shows the potential of using Cu-BTC MOF as a strong biocidal material against representative yeasts and moulds that are commonly found in the food and agricultural industries.
Project description:Six pharmaceutical pastes were prepared using chemically modified kaolin and talc powders. Tests were conducted to determine their structural and chemical characteristics as well as their antimicrobial protection, thus rendering them suitable for cosmetic and pharmaceutical uses. Kaolin and talc were treated chemically via the cation exchange method to load the clay particles with copper and zinc ions, two cations well known for their antimicrobial properties. Mineralogical analyses were conducted by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) before and after the modification, confirming the mineralogical purity of the samples. Scanning electron microscopy was also used in conjunction with energy dispersed spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) to obtain chemical mapping images, revealing the dispersion of the added metals upon the clay minerals surfaces. Moreover, chemical analysis has been performed (XRF) to validate the enrichment of the clays with each metal utilizing the cation exchange capacity. All modified samples showed the expected elevated concentration in copper or zinc in comparison to their unmodified versions. From the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the chemical state of the samples' surfaces was investigated, revealing the presence of salt compounds and indicating the oxidation state of adsorbed metals. Finally, the resistance of pastes in microbial growth when challenged with bacteria, molds, and yeasts was assessed. The evaluation is based on the European Pharmacopeia (EP) criteria.
Project description:Due to the use of copper water pipes and the discharge of industrial wastewater, contamination of copper ions in drinking water has become a severe hazard globally. To routinely check water safety on a daily basis, easy-to-use platforms for quantitative analysis of trace amounts of copper ions (Cu<sup>2+</sup>) in drinking water is needed. Here, we report microfluidic particle accumulation integrated with a Cu(II)-catalyzed Fenton reaction for visual and quantitative copper ion detection. Microparticles (MMPs) and polystyrene microparticles (PMPs) are connected via a single strand DNA, MB155. However, when Cu<sup>2+</sup> is present, MB155 is cleaved by hydroxyl free radicals (•OH) produced from Cu<sup>2+</sup>/hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) Fenton reactions, causing an increased amount of free PMPs. To visually count them, the particle solution is loaded onto a microfluidic chip where free MMPs and MMPs-MB155-PMPs can be collected by the magnetic separator, while the free PMPs continue flowing until being accumulated at the particle dam. The results showed a good linear relationship between the trapping length of PMP accumulation and the Cu<sup>2+</sup> concentration from 0 to 300 nM. A limit of detection (LOD) of 70.1 nM was achieved, which is approximately 449 times lower than the 2 × 10<sup>3</sup> μg·L<sup>-1</sup> (~31.5 μM) required by the World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, the results showed high selectivity and good tolerance to pH and hardness, indicating compatibility for detection in tap water, suggesting a potential platform for the routine monitoring of copper contamination in drinking water.
Project description:The necessity of providing clean water sources increases the demand to develop catalytic systems for water treatment. Good pollutants adsorbers are a key ingredient, and CuO is one of the candidate materials for this task. Among the different approaches for CuO synthesis, precipitation out of aqueous solutions is a leading candidate due to the facile synthesis, high yield, sustainability, and the reported shape control by adjustment of the counter anions. We harness this effect to investigate the formation of copper oxide-based 3D structures. Specifically, the counter anion (chloride, nitrate, and acetate) affects the formation of copper-based hydroxides and the final structure following their conversion into copper oxide nanostructures over porous templates. The formation of a 3D structure is obtained when copper chloride or nitrate reacts with a <i>Sorites</i> scaffold (marine-based calcium carbonate template) without external hydroxide addition. The transformation into copper oxides occurs after calcination or reduction of the obtained Cu<sub>2</sub>(OH)<sub>3</sub>X (X = Cl<sup>-</sup> or NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>) while preserving the porous morphology. Finally, the formed <i>Sorites</i>@CuO structure is examined for water treatment to remove heavy metal cations and degrade organic contaminant molecules.
Project description:Porous three-dimensional hydrogel scaffolds have an exquisite ability to promote tissue repair. However, because of their high water content and invasive nature during surgical implantation, hydrogels are at an increased risk of bacterial infection. Recently, we have developed elastic biomimetic cryogels, an advanced type of polymeric hydrogel, that are syringe-deliverable through hypodermic needles. These needle-injectable cryogels have unique properties, including large and interconnected pores, mechanical robustness, and shape-memory. Like hydrogels, cryogels are also susceptible to colonization by microbial pathogens. To that end, our minimally invasive cryogels have been engineered to address this challenge. Specifically, we hybridized the cryogels with calcium peroxide microparticles to controllably produce bactericidal hydrogen peroxide. Our novel microcomposite cryogels exhibit antimicrobial properties and inhibit antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), the most common cause of biomaterial implant failure in modern medicine. Moreover, the cryogels showed negligible cytotoxicity toward murine fibroblasts and prevented activation of primary bone marrow-derived dendritic cells ex vivo. Finally, in vivo data suggested tissue integration, biodegradation, and minimal host inflammatory responses when the antimicrobial cryogels, even when purposely contaminated with bacteria, were subcutaneously injected in mice. Collectively, these needle-injectable microcomposite cryogels show great promise for biomedical applications, especially in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Project description:Metallic copper to combat bacterial proliferation in drinking water systems is being investigated as an attractive alternative to existing strategies. A potential obstacle to this approach is the induction of metal resistance mechanisms in contaminating bacteria, that could severely impact inactivation efficacy. Thus far, the role of these resistance mechanisms has not been studied in conditions relevant to drinking water systems. Therefore, we evaluated the inactivation kinetics of <i>Cupriavidus metallidurans</i> CH34 in contact with metallic copper in drinking water. Viability and membrane permeability were examined for 9 days through viable counts and flow cytometry. After an initial drop in viable count, a significant recovery was observed starting after 48 h. This behavior could be explained by either a recovery from an injured/viable-but-non-culturable state or regrowth of surviving cells metabolizing lysed cells. Either hypothesis would necessitate an induction of copper resistance mechanisms, since no recovery was seen in a CH34 mutant strain lacking metal resistance mechanisms, while being more pronounced when copper resistance mechanisms were pre-induced. Interestingly, no biofilms were formed on the copper surface, while extensive biofilm formation was observed on the stainless steel control plates. When CH34 cells in water were supplied with CuSO<sub>4</sub>, a similar initial decrease in viable counts was observed, but cells recovered fully after 7 days. In conclusion, we have shown that long-term bacterial survival in the presence of a copper surface is possible upon the induction of metal resistance mechanisms. This observation may have important consequences in the context of the increasing use of copper as an antimicrobial surface, especially in light of potential co-selection for metal and antimicrobial resistance.
Project description:Electrochemical water splitting requires efficient water oxidation catalysts to accelerate the sluggish kinetics of water oxidation reaction. Here, we report a promisingly dendritic core-shell nickel-iron-copper metal/metal oxide electrode, prepared via dealloying with an electrodeposited nickel-iron-copper alloy as a precursor, as the catalyst for water oxidation. The as-prepared core-shell nickel-iron-copper electrode is characterized with porous oxide shells and metallic cores. This tri-metal-based core-shell nickel-iron-copper electrode exhibits a remarkable activity toward water oxidation in alkaline medium with an overpotential of only 180?mV at a current density of 10?mA?cm-2. The core-shell NiFeCu electrode exhibits pH-dependent oxygen evolution reaction activity on the reversible hydrogen electrode scale, suggesting that non-concerted proton-electron transfers participate in catalyzing the oxygen evolution reaction. To the best of our knowledge, the as-fabricated core-shell nickel-iron-copper is one of the most promising oxygen evolution catalysts.
Project description:Vineyard soils are frequently polluted with high concentrations of copper due application of copper sulfate in order to control fungal diseases. Bioremediation is an efficient process for the treatment of contaminated sites. Efficient copper sorption bacteria can be used for bioremoval of copper from contaminated sites. In this study, a total of 106 copper resistant bacteria were examined for resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption of copper. Eighty isolates (45 from vineyard Mollisol, 35 from Inceptisol) were obtained from EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária) experimental station, Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil (29°09'53.92?S and 51°31'39.40?W) and 26 were obtained from copper mining waste from Caçapava do Sul, RS, Brazil (30°29'43.48?S and 53'32'37.87W). Based on resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption, 15 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Maximal copper resistance and biosorption at high copper concentration were observed with isolate N2 which removed 80 mg L(-1) in 24 h. Contrarily isolate N11 (Bacillus pumilus) displayed the highest specific copper biosorption (121.82 mg/L/OD unit in 24 h). GenBank MEGABLAST analysis revealed that isolate N2 is 99% similar to Staphylococcus pasteuri. Results indicate that several of our isolates have potential use for bioremediation treatment of vineyards soils and mining waste contaminated with high copper concentration.