Improved early risk stratification of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention using a combination of serum soluble ST2 and NT-proBNP.
ABSTRACT: Although soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) in serum is known to be associated with ischemic heart disease and heart failure, data regarding its prognostic impact in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is limited. We evaluated the prognostic impacts of serum sST2 and other serum biomarkers in STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Consecutive all 323 patients with STEMI that underwent primary PCI were enrolled. Blood tests and samples were obtained in an emergency room. The primary endpoint was 1-year major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs), defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke, and ischemia-driven revascularization.Mean age was 59.1±13.1 years (men 84%). MACCE (20 cardiovascular deaths, 7 non-fatal MI, 4 non-fatal stroke, 7 ischemia-driven revascularizations) occurred in 38 patients (12%). After adjusting for confounding factors, Cox regression analysis revealed that high serum sST2 (>75.8 ng/mL mean value, adjusted hazard ratio 2.098, 95% CI 1.008-4.367, p = 0.048) and high serum NT-proBNP level (>400 pg/mL, adjusted hazard ratio 2.606, 95% CI 1.086-6.257, p = 0.032) at the time of presentation independently predicted MACCE within a year of primary PCI. Furthermore, when high serum sST2 level was combined with high serum NT-proBNP level, the hazard ratio of MACCE was highest (adjusted hazard ratio 7.93, 95% CI 2.97-20.38, p<0.001).Elevated serum levels of sST2 or NT-proBNP at the time of presentation were found to predict 1-year MACCE independently and elevated serum levels of sST2 plus NT-proBNP were associated with even poorer prognosis in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.
Project description:Objective:To assess the dynamics of serum levels of soluble isoform of suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and their correlations with the development of adverse left ventricular remodeling (LVR) through 6?months in patients with primary myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation (STEMI). Methods:Subjects were 31 patients with STEMI (median age: 58?years), who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during the first 24?hours of the onset of myocardial infarction (MI). Blood samples and parameters of echocardiography were assessed at days 1, 3, 7, and 14 and 6?months after STEMI. Results:Serum levels of sST2 and NT-proBNP decreased during the 6-month period. Levels of sST2 decreased by 48% from admission to day 7, and levels of NT-proBNP decreased by 40% from day 7 to 6?months after STEMI. Serum levels of sST2 at day 1 (r?=?0.5, P?<?.05) and day 3 (r?=?0.4, P?<?.05) were associated with adverse LVR by 6?months after STEMI. Logistic regression analysis showed that a high concentration of sST2 at day 7 increased the risk of adverse LVR (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-0.9; areas under curve [AUC]?=?0.8; P?=?.002), with 92% sensitivity and 70% specificity. A multivariate analysis model revealed that adverse LVR was associated with the level of sST2 (P?=?.003) and with complete revascularization (P?=?.01) at the admission. Conclusions:The dynamics of serum levels of sST2 and NT-proBNP were different. The level of sST2 normalized by the 7th day; NT-proBNP decreased only by the end of the 6-month period after MI. Increased serum levels of sST2 by the 7th day of MI were associated with the development of adverse LVR by the end of the 6-month period.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been shown to be a prognostic factor in several subgroups of patients due to its promotion of vascular calcification. However, the prognostic impact of serum ALP level in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with a relatively low calcification burden has not been determined. We aimed to investigate the association of ALP level measured at time of presentation on clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI requiring primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS:A total of 1178 patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively enrolled from the INTERSTELLAR registry and classified into tertiles by ALP level (<64, 65-82, or >83 IU/L). The primary study outcome was a major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular event (MACCE), defined as the composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and ischemia-driven revascularization. RESULTS:Median follow-up duration was 25 months (interquartile range, 10-39 months). The incidence of MACCE significantly increased as ALP level increased, that is, for the <64, 65-82, and >83 IU/L tertiles incidences were 8.7%, 11.7%, and 15.7%, respectively; p for trend = 0.003). After adjustment for potential confounders, the adjusted hazard ratios for MACCE in the middle and highest tertiles were 1.69 (95% CI 1.01-2.81) and 2.46 (95% CI 1.48-4.09), respectively, as compared with the lowest ALP tertile. CONCLUSIONS:Elevated ALP level at presentation, but within the higher limit of normal, was found to be independently associated with higher risk of MACCE after primary PCI in patients with STEMI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Elevated serum transaminase or alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been proposed as a novel prognosticator for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We evaluated the combined prognostic impact of elevated serum transaminases and ALP on admission in STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS:A total of 1176 patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI were retrospectively enrolled from the INTERSTELLAR registry. Hypoxic liver injury (HLI) was defined as serum transaminase > twice the upper limit of normal. The cut-off value of high ALP was set at the median level (73 IU/L). Patients were divided into four groups according to their serum transaminase and ALP levels. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE), defined as the composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and ischemia-driven revascularization. RESULTS:Median follow-up duration was 25 months (interquartile range, 10-39 months). The rate of MACCE was highest in patients with HLI (+) and high ALP (25.9%), compared to those in the other groups (8.2% in HLI [-] and low ALP, 11.8% in HLI [-] and high ALP, and 15.0% in HLI [+] and low ALP). Each of HLI or high ALP was an independent predictor for MACCE (HR 1.807, 95% CI 1.191-2.741; HR 1.721, 95% CI 1.179-2.512, respectively). Combined HLI and high ALP was associated with the worst prognosis (HR 3.145, 95% CI 1.794-5.514). CONCLUSIONS:Combined HLI and high ALP on admission is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI who have undergone primary PCI.
Project description:Improvement of risk scoring is particularly important for patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) who generally lack efficient monitoring of progressing heart failure. Here, we evaluated whether the combination of serum biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters may be useful to predict the remodeling-related outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and preserved LVEF (HFpEF) as compared to those with reduced LVEF (HFrEF). Echocardiographic assessment and measurement of the serum levels of NT-proBNP, sST2, galectin-3, matrix metalloproteinases, and their inhibitors (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, TIMP-1) was performed at the time of admission (1st day) and on the 10th-12th day upon STEMI onset. We found a reduction in NT-proBNP, sST2, galectin-3, and TIMP-1 in both patient categories from hospital admission to the discharge, as well as numerous correlations between the indicated biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters, testifying to the ongoing ventricular remodeling. In patients with HFpEF, NT-proBNP, sST2, galectin-3, and MMP-3 correlated with the parameters reflecting the diastolic dysfunction, while in patients with HFrEF, these markers were mainly associated with LVEF and left ventricular end-systolic volume/diameter. Therefore, the combination of the mentioned serum biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters might be useful for the prediction of adverse cardiac remodeling in patients with HFpEF.
Project description:Besides contrast-induced acute kidney injury(CI-AKI), adscititious vital organ damage such as hypoxic liver injury(HLI) may affect the survival in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We sought to evaluate the prognostic impact of CI-AKI and HLI in STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).A total of 668 consecutive patients (77.2% male, mean age 61.3±13.3 years) from the INTERSTELLAR STEMI registry who underwent primary PCI were analyzed. CI-AKI was defined as an increase of ?0.5 mg/dL in serum creatinine level or 25% relative increase, within 48h after the index procedure. HLI was defined as ?2-fold increase in serum aspartate transaminase above the upper normal limit on admission. Patients were divided into four groups according to their CI-AKI and HLI states. Major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke, ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization and target vessel revascularization were recorded.Over a mean follow-up period of 2.2±1.6 years, 94 MACCEs occurred with an event rate of 14.1%. The rates of MACCE and all-cause mortality were 9.7% and 5.2%, respectively, in the no organ damage group; 21.3% and 21.3% in CI-AKI group; 18.5% and 14.6% in HLI group; and 57.7% and 50.0% in combined CI-AKI and HLI group. Survival probability plots of composite MACCE and all-cause mortality revealed that the combined CI-AKI and HLI group was associated with the worst prognosis (p<0.0001 for both).Combined CI-AKI after index procedure and HLI on admission is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI. (INTERSTELLAR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02800421.).
Project description:Complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) is a common complication of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Although STEMI patients complicated with CAVB had a higher mortality in the thrombolytic era, little is known about the impact of CAVB on STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The study aimed at evaluating the clinical impact of CAVB on STEMI patients in the primary PCI era. We consecutively enrolled 1295 STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI within 24?hours from onset. Patients were divided into two groups according to the infarct location: anterior STEMI (n = 640) and nonanterior STEMI (n = 655). The outcomes were all-cause death and major adverse cardiocerebrovascular events (MACCE) with a median follow-up period of 3.8 (1.7-6.6) years. Eighty-one patients (6.3%) developed CAVB. The incidence of CAVB was lower in anterior STEMI patients than in nonanterior STEMI (1.7% vs 10.7%, p?<?.05). Anterior STEMI patients with CAVB had a higher incidence of all-cause deaths (82% vs 20%, p?<?.05) and MACCE (82% vs 25%, p?<?.05) than those without CAVB. Although higher incidence of all-cause deaths was found more in nonanterior STEMI patients with CAVB compared with those without CAVB (30% vs 18%, p?<?.05), there was no significant difference in the incidence of MACCE (24% vs 19%). Multivariate analysis showed that CAVB was an independent predictor for all-cause mortality and MACCE in anterior STEMI patients, but not in nonanterior STEMI. CAVB is rare in anterior STEMI patients, but remains a poor prognostic complication even in the primary PCI era.
Project description:Background:In patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), approximately 10% are concomitant with a chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a non-culprit vessel. However, the impact of staged CTO recanalization on prognosis in this cohort remains disputable. This study aimed to compare the long-term outcomes of staged CTO recanalization versus medical therapy in patients with STEMI after primary PCI. Methods:Between January 2005 and December 2016, a total of 287 patients were treated with staged CTO-PCI (n = 91) or medical therapy (n = 196) after primary PCI in our center. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event (MACCE), defined as a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke or unplanned revascularization. After propensity-score matching, 77 pairs of well-balanced patients were identified. Results:The mean follow-up period was 6.06 years. Overall, the incidence of the primary endpoint of MACCE was significantly lower in staged CTO-PCI group than that in medical therapy group in both overall population (22.0% vs. 46.9%; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.29-0.77) and propensity-matched cohorts (22.1% vs. 42.9%; HR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.27-0.86). In addition, staged CTO-PCI was also associated with reduced risk of the composite of cardiac death, nonfatal MI or stroke compared with medical therapy in both overall population (9.9% vs. 26.5%; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.19-0.79) and propensity-matched cohorts (9.1% vs. 22.1%; HR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.16-0.96). After correction of the possible confounders, staged CTO-PCI was independently associated with reduced risks of MACCE (adjusted HR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.28-0.75), the composite of cardiac death, nonfatal MI or stroke (adjusted HR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22-0.94) and all-cause mortality (adjusted HR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.13-0.83). Moreover, the results of sensitivity analysis were almost concordant with the overall analysis. Conclusions:In patients with STEMI and a concurrent CTO who undergo primary PCI, successful staged recanalization of CTO in the non-culprit vessels is associated with better clinical outcomes during long-term follow-up.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the association of circulating biomarkers with echocardiographic parameters of atrial remodelling and their potential for predicting atrial fibrillation (AF). In patients with and without AF (n = 21 and n = 60) the following serum biomarkers were determined: soluble ST2 (sST2), Galectin-3 (Gal-3), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), microRNA (miR)-21, -29a, -133a, -146b and -328. Comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography was performed in all participants. Biomarkers were significantly altered in patients with AF. The echocardiographic parameter septal PA-TDI, indicating left atrial (LA) remodelling, correlated with concentrations of sST2 (r = 0.249, p = 0.048), miR-21 (r = -0.277, p = 0.012), miR-29a (r = -0.269, p = 0.015), miR-146b (r = -0.319, p = 0.004) and miR-328 (r = -0.296, p = 0.008). In particular, NT-proBNP showed a strong correlation with echocardiographic markers of LA remodelling and dysfunction (septal PA-TDI: r = 0.444, p < 0.001, LAVI/a': r = 0.457, p = 0.001, SRa: r = 0.581, p < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regressions analysis highlighted miR-21 and NT-proBNP as predictive markers for AF (miR-21: hazard ratio (HR) 0.16; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.7, p = 0.009; NT-proBNP: HR 1.002 95%CI 1.001-1.004, p = 0.006). Combination of NT-proBNP and miR-21 had the best accuracy to discriminate patients with AF from those without AF (area under the curve (AUC)= 0.843). Our findings indicate that miR-21 and NT-proBNP correlate with echocardiographic parameters of atrial remodeling and predict AF, in particular if combined.
Project description:AIMS:To compare ischaemia-driven complete coronary revascularisation by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with usual care in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMI) and multivessel disease (MVD). METHODS:The South Limburg Myocardial Infarction (SLIM) trial (NCT03562572) is an investigator-initiated, prospective, multicentre, randomised controlled trial that compares fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided complete revascularisation during the index procedure with usual care in non-STEMI patients with MVD. A total of 414 patients will be randomised in a 1:1 fashion. The primary endpoint is the composite of all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and any revascularisation and stroke (MACCE) at 12 months. The secondary endpoints are: MACCE at 24 and 36 months, and the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, any revascularisation, stroke, major bleeding and left ventricular ejection fraction below 45% at 12, 24 and 36 months. Furthermore, quality of life will be assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) at 1 and 12 months of follow-up. CONCLUSION:The SLIM trial aims to provide evidence whether FFR-guided complete revascularisation by PCI is superior to usual care with respect to clinical outcomes (major adverse cardiovascular events) in non-STEMI patients with MVD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recently, several randomized trials have noted improved outcomes with staged percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of nonculprit vessels in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel disease. However, it remains unclear whether diabetes status affects the outcomes after different revascularization strategies. This study thus compared the impact of diabetes status on long-term outcomes after staged complete revascularization with that after culprit-only PCI.<h4>Methods</h4>From January 2006 to December 2015, 371 diabetic patients (staged PCI: 164, culprit-only PCI: 207) and 834 nondiabetic patients (staged PCI: 412, culprit-only PCI: 422) with STEMI and multivessel disease were enrolled. The primary endpoint was 5-year major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE), defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke or unplanned revascularization.<h4>Results</h4>The rate of the 5-year composite primary endpoint for diabetic patients was close to that for nondiabetic patients (34.5% vs. 33.7%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.012, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.815-1.255). In nondiabetic patients, the 5-year risks of MACCE (31.8% vs. 35.5%; adjusted HR 0.638, 95% CI 0.500-0.816), MI (4.6% vs. 9.2%; adjusted HR 0.358, 95% CI 0.200-0.641), unplanned revascularization (19.9% vs. 24.9%; adjusted HR 0.532, 95% CI 0.393-0.720), and the composite of cardiac death, MI or stroke (11.4% vs. 15.2%; adjusted HR 0.621, 95% CI 0.419-0.921) were significantly lower after staged PCI than after culprit-only PCI. In contrast, no significant difference was found between the two groups with respect to MACCE, MI, unplanned revascularization, and the composite of cardiac death, MI or stroke in diabetic patients. Significant interactions were found between diabetes status and revascularization assignment for the composite of cardiac death, MI or stroke (P<sub>interaction</sub>?=?0.013), MI (P<sub>interaction</sub>?=?0.005), and unplanned revascularization (P<sub>interaction</sub>?=?0.013) at 5 years. In addition, the interaction tended to be significant for the primary endpoint of MACCE (P<sub>interaction</sub>?=?0.053). Moreover, the results of propensity score-matching analysis were concordant with the overall analysis in both diabetic and nondiabetic population.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In patients with STEMI and multivessel disease, diabetes is not an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular events at 5 years. In nondiabetic patients, an approach of staged complete revascularization is superior to culprit-only PCI, whereas the advantage of staged PCI is attenuated in diabetic patients. Trial registration This study was not registered in an open access database.