First-trimester smoking cessation in pregnancy did not increase the risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia: A Murmansk County Birth Registry study.
ABSTRACT: Although prior studies have shown that smoking reduces preeclampsia/eclampsia risk, the consequence of giving up this habit during pregnancy should be assessed. The aims of the current study were threefold: (i) describe maternal characteristics of women with preeclampsia/eclampsia; (ii) examine a possible association between the number of cigarettes smoked daily during pregnancy and the development of this affliction; and (iii) determine if first-trimester discontinuation of smoking during pregnancy influences the risk.A registry-based study was conducted using data from the Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR). It included women without pre-existing hypertension, who delivered a singleton infant during 2006-2011 and had attended the first antenatal visit before 12 week of gestation. We adjusted for potential confounders using logistic regression.The prevalence of preeclampsia/eclampsia was 8.3% (95%CI: 8.0-8.6). Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated with maternal age, education, marital status, parity, excessive weight gain and body mass index at the first antenatal visit. There was a dose-response relationship between the number of smoked cigarettes per day during pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia (adjusted OR1-5 cig/day = 0.69 with 95%CI: 0.56-0.87; OR6-10 cig/day = 0.65 with 95%CI: 0.51-0.82; and OR≥11 cig/day = 0.49 with 95%CI: 0.30-0.81). There was no difference in this risk among women who smoked before and during pregnancy and those who did so before but not during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.10 with 95%CI: 0.91-1.32).Preeclampsia/eclampsia was associated with maternal age, education, marital status, parity, excessive weight gain, and body mass index at the first antenatal visit. There was a negative dose-response relationship between the number of smoked cigarettes per day during pregnancy and the odds of preeclampsia/eclampsia. However, women who gave up smoking during the first trimester of gestation had the same risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia as those who smoked while pregnant. Consequently, antenatal clinic specialists are advised to take these various observations into account when counselling women on smoking cessation during pregnancy.
Project description:We used microarrays to determine the transcriptional profiles of placental tissue obtained from women who smoked during pregnancy and from women who did not smoke during pregnancy. Fetal growth restriction is a frequent complication in mothers who smoke cigarettes during pregnancy. To evaluate novel pathways that regulate fetal growth affected by mothers who smoke, we isolated placental mRNA from smoking mothers with severe fetal growth restriction and compared them by microarray analysis to non-smoking mothers with appropriately grown fetuses. Bioinformatics analysis revealed distinct transcriptional patterns in the placentas of smoking mothers when compared to placentas from control non-smoking women. Analyses of the top upregulated and downregulated genes revealed several gene products such as secreted frizzled related protein 1 that was markedly upregulated in the placentas from women who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy. Total RNA was isolated from placental specimens obtained at time of delivery. RNA was hybridized to Affymetrix arrays, and analyzed.
Project description:A counterintuitive interaction between smoking during pregnancy and preeclampsia on birth weight for gestational age (BWGA) outcomes was recently reported. In this report, we examine the relationship between these factors in a well-documented study population with exposure data on trimester of maternal smoking.Preeclamptic (n?=?238), gestational hypertensive (n?=?219), and normotensive women (n?=?342) were selected from live-births to nulliparous Iowa women. Disease status was verified by medical chart review, and smoking exposure was assessed by self-report. Fetal growth was assessed as z-score of BWGA. Multiple linear regression was used to test for the association of maternal smoking and preeclampsia with BWGA z-score.There was no interaction between smoking with preeclampsia or gestational hypertension on fetal growth. BWGA z-scores were significantly lower among women with preeclampsia and those who smoked any time during pregnancy (??=?-0.33, p?=?<0.0001 and ??=?-0.25, p?=?0.05) compared to normotensive and non-smoking women, respectively. Infants of women with gestational hypertension were comparable in size to infants born to normotensive women.Women who developed preeclampsia and those who smoked during pregnancy delivered infants that were significantly smaller than infants of women who did not develop preeclampsia and non-smoking women, respectively.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Preeclampsia and eclampsia are common complications of pregnancy globally, including sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Although it has a high burden on maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, evidence on the risk of the problem is limited. Therefore, the aim of this review was to examine the factors associated with preeclampsia and eclampsia among mothers in SSA countries. METHODS:We searched article from SSA countries using electronic database MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL published in English from January 2000 to May 2020. Two reviewers independently screened, extracted and assessed the quality of the articles. Both random and fixed effect model were used for analysis. Heterogeneity of the studies and publication bias were checked. STATA 16 used for analysis. RESULTS:Fifty-one studies met the inclusion criteria and included in this review. The following factors were identified through meta-analysis: being primiparous (OR: 2.52; 95% CI:1.19, 3.86), previous history of maternal preeclampsia/eclampsia (OR:5.6; 95% CI:1.82, 9.28), family history of preeclampsia/eclampsia (OR:1.68; 95% CI:1.26, 2.11), high maternal body mass index (OR: 1.69; 95% CI:1.17, 2.21), chronic hypertension (OR: 2.52; 95% CI:1.29, 3.74), anaemia during pregnancy (OR: 3.22; 95% CI:2.70, 3.75) and lack of antenatal care visits (OR: 2.71; 95% CI:1.45, 3.96). There was inconclusive evidence for a relationship with a number of other factors, such as nutrition and related factors, antenatal care visits, birth spacing, and other factors due to few studies found in our review. CONCLUSIONS:The risk of preeclampsia and eclampsia is worse among women who have a history of preeclampsia/eclampsia (either themselves or family members), primiparous, obesity and overweight, living with chronic disease, having anaemia during pregnancy and absence from ANC visits. Therefore, investment must be made in women's health needs to reduce the problem and health service providers need to give due attention to high-risk women.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Preeclampsia/eclampsia is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet patients' perspectives about their diagnosis are not well understood. Our study examines patient knowledge among women with preeclampsia/eclampsia in a large urban hospital in Ghana. METHODS:Postpartum women diagnosed with preeclampsia or eclampsia were asked to complete a survey 2-5?days after delivery that assessed demographic information, key obstetric factors, and questions regarding provider counseling. Provider counseling on diagnosis, causes, complications, and future health effects of preeclampsia/eclampsia was quantified on a 4-point scale ('Counseling Composite Score'). Participants also completed an objective knowledge assessment regarding preeclampsia/eclampsia, scored from 0 to 22 points ('Preeclampsia/Eclampsia Knowledge Score' (PEKS)). Linear regression was used to identify predictors of knowledge score. RESULTS:A total of 150 participants were recruited, 88.7% (133) with preeclampsia and 11.3% (17) with eclampsia. Participants had a median age of 32?years, median parity of 2, and mean number of 5.4 antenatal visits. Approximately half of participants reported primary education as their highest level of education. While 74% of women reported having a complication during pregnancy, only 32% of participants with preeclampsia were able to correctly identify their diagnosis, and no participants diagnosed with eclampsia could correctly identify their diagnosis. Thirty-one percent of participants reported receiving no counseling from providers, and only 11% received counseling in all four categories. Even when counseled, 40-50% of participants reported incomplete understanding. Out of 22 possible points on a cumulative knowledge assessment scale, participants had a mean score of 12.9?±?0.38. Adjusting for age, parity, and the number of antenatal visits, higher scores on the knowledge assessment are associated with more provider counseling (? 1.4, SE 0.3, p?<?0.001) and higher level of education (? 1.3, SE 0.48, p?=?0.008). CONCLUSIONS:Counseling by healthcare providers is associated with higher performance on a knowledge assessment about preeclampsia/eclampsia. Patient knowledge about preeclampsia/eclampsia is important for efforts to encourage informed healthcare decisions, promote early antenatal care, and improve self-recognition of warning signs-ultimately improving morbidity and reducing mortality.
Project description:We assessed anthropometry in 22,421 adult daughters in association with their mothers' tobacco smoking early in pregnancy (at their first antenatal visit) in Sweden, particularly their risk of short stature and obesity. Adult daughters were grouped by maternal smoking levels during pregnancy: Non-smokers (58.5%), Light smokers (24.1%; smoked 1-9 cigarettes/day), and Heavier smokers (17.4%; smoked ?10 cigarettes/day). Anthropometry was recorded on the adult daughters at approximately 26.0 years of age. Obesity was defined as BMI ?30?kg/m2, and short stature as height more than two standard deviations below the population mean. Daughters whose mothers were Light and Heavier smokers in early pregnancy were 0.8?cm and 1.0?cm shorter, 2.3?kg and 2.6?kg heavier, and had BMI 0.84?kg/m2 and 1.15?kg/m2 greater, respectively, than daughters of Non-smokers. The adjusted relative risk of short stature was 55% higher in women born to smokers, irrespectively of smoking levels. Maternal smoking had a dose-dependent association with obesity risk, with offspring of Heavier smokers 61% and of Light smokers 37% more likely to be obese than the daughters of Non-smokers. In conclusion, maternal smoking in pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of short stature and obesity in their adult daughters.
Project description:To investigate the association between cigarette use during pregnancy and pregnancy-induced hypertension/preeclampsia/eclampsia (PIH) by maternal race/ethnicity and age.This retrospective cohort study was based on the U.S. 2010 natality data. Our study sample included U.S. women who delivered singleton pregnancies between 20 and 44 weeks of gestation without major fetal anomalies in 2010 (n?=?3,113,164). Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals.We observed that the association between maternal smoking and PIH varied by maternal race/ethnicity and age. Compared with non-smokers, reduced odds of PIH among pregnant smokers was only evident for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic American Indian women aged less than 35 years. Non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander women who smoked during pregnancy had increased odds of PIH regardless of maternal age. Non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women 35 years or older who smoked during pregnancy also had increased odds of PIH.Our study findings suggest important differences by maternal race/ethnicity and age in the association between cigarette use during pregnancy and PIH. More research is needed to establish the biologic and social mechanisms that might explain the variations with maternal age and race/ethnicity that were observed in our study.
Project description:We studied associations of number of daily cigarettes in the first trimester with placental weight and birthweight in women who smoked throughout pregnancy, and in women who stopped smoking after the first trimester.We included all women with delivery of a singleton in Norway (n?=?698?891) during 1999-2014, by using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We assessed dose-response associations by applying linear regression with restricted cubic splines.In total, 12.6% smoked daily in the first trimester, and 3.7% stopped daily smoking. In women who smoked throughout pregnancy, placental weight and birthweight decreased by number of cigarettes; however, above 11-12 cigarettes we estimated no further decrease (Pnon-linearity?<?0.001). Maximum decrease in placental weight in smokers compared with non-smokers was 18.2 g [95% confidence interval (CI): 16.6 to 19.7], and for birthweight the maximum decrease was 261.9 g (95% CI: 256.1 to 267.7). In women who stopped smoking, placental weight was higher than in non-smokers and increased by number of cigarettes to a maximum of 16.2 g (95% CI: 9.9 to 22.6). Birthweight was similar in women who stopped smoking and non-smokers, and we found no change by number of cigarettes (Pnon-linearity <?0.001).In women who smoked throughout pregnancy, placental weight and birthweight decreased non-linearly by number of cigarettes in the first trimester. In women who stopped smoking, placental weight was higher than in non-smokers and increased linearly by number of cigarettes; birthweight was almost similar to that of non-smokers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The relationship between women who are exposed to secondhand smoke and preterm birth is still controversial. The present study aimed to examine the association between maternal secondhand smoking (SHS) during pregnancy and preterm birth. METHODS:A 1:1 case-control study was conducted at delivery room of The Women's and Children's Hospital of An Giang, Vietnam. A total of 288 cases of preterm birth and 288 controls included in this study. A structured questionnaire in a face-to-face interview was used to assess SHS and potential confounders (maternal age, body mass index, occupation, education level, parity, antenatal care visits, history of preterm birth, prenatal bleeding and preeclampsia/eclampsia). RESULTS:SHS was reported more frequently by women who delivered preterm babies compared with women of term deliveries (67.4% vs. 51.0%; P <0.001). After controlling all potential confounders, multivariable logistic regression analysis showed a relationship between SHS during pregnancy and preterm delivery (adjusted Odds ratio: 1.92; 95% CI 1.31, 2.81). CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that exposure to household tobacco smoke during pregnancy is associated with preterm birth.
Project description:This study investigated the association between retrospectively reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms experienced during childhood and five cigarette smoking-related outcomes in adulthood.A large sample (N = 1,117) of new mothers participating in an ongoing longitudinal study completed retrospective reports of their childhood ADHD symptomatology, as well as concurrent and retrospective reports of their smoking behavior. Linear regression models tested the association between ADHD symptomatology and smoking outcomes.Childhood ADHD symptomatology was predictive of the number of cigarettes smoked per day currently and during pregnancy, as well as the age at onset of smoking. We found nonlinear associations between hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and the number of cigarettes smoked per day in pregnancy, as well as between inattentive symptoms and the number of cigarettes smoked per day currently. Women who retrospectively reported intermediate levels of ADHD symptoms during their childhood reported smoking more cigarettes per day than women who reported low or high levels of ADHD symptoms during childhood. We also found multiplicative relationship between inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms, such that inattentive symptoms were predictive of an earlier age at smoking onset only when hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were low; moreover, the magnitude of this association was stronger for Black relative to White women.These findings demonstrate the importance of considering differential effects of ADHD symptoms and smoking outcomes as a function of sex and race. They also represent a potentially indirect means through which women who have even a moderate childhood history of ADHD symptomatology may create a set of circumstances that compromise the health and well-being of their own children.
Project description:Importance:Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant mortality. Objective:To assess the probability of preterm birth among expectant mothers who smoked cigarettes before pregnancy and quit smoking at the start or during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants:This cross-sectional study analyzed information provided on live birth certificates from 2011 through 2017 that were obtained from US states that implemented the 2003 revision of the US live birth certificate. In total, 25 233 503 expectant mothers who delivered live neonates and had known prepregnancy and trimester-specific cigarette smoking frequency were included in the analyses. Exposures:Cigarette smoking frequency (1-9, 10-19, and ≥20 cigarettes per day) 3 months prior to pregnancy and for each trimester during pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures:Cigarette smoking cessation throughout pregnancy, after the first trimester, after the second trimester, and during the third trimester irrespective of first and second trimester smoking. Probability of preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestation). Results:Of 25 233 503 expectant mothers who delivered live neonates between 2011 and 2017, the modal age at delivery was 25 to 29 years; 52.9% were non-Hispanic white, 23.6% were Hispanic, and 14.2% were non-Hispanic black women; 22 600 196 mothers did not smoke during the 3 months prior to pregnancy, and 2 633 307 smoked during the 3 months prior to pregnancy. The proportion of prepregnancy smokers who quit throughout pregnancy was 24.3% in 2011 and 24.6% in 2017. The proportion of prepregnancy smokers who quit during the third trimester was 39.5% in 2011 and 39.7% in 2017. High-frequency cigarette smoking often occurred among expectant mothers who smoked during pregnancy (eg, 46.9% of third-trimester smokers smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day in 2017). The probability of preterm birth decreased more the earlier smoking cessation occurred in pregnancy. For example, the probability of preterm birth was 9.8% (95% CI, 9.7%-10.0%) among 25- to 29-year-old, non-Hispanic white, primigravida and primiparous expectant mothers (ie, pregnant for the first time and not yet delivered) who smoked 1 to 9 cigarettes per day prior to pregnancy and maintained this frequency throughout their pregnancy. The probability of preterm birth was 9.0% (95% CI, 8.8%-9.1%) if smoking cessation occurred at the start of the second trimester (an 8.9% relative decrease), and 7.8% (95% CI, 7.7%-8.0%) if cessation occurred at the start of pregnancy (a 20.3% relative decrease). Conclusions and Relevance:Quitting smoking-and quitting early in pregnancy-was associated with reduced risk of preterm birth even for high-frequency cigarette smokers.