Early Effects of Prolonged Cardiac Arrest and Ischemic Postconditioning during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on Cardiac and Brain Mitochondrial Function in Pigs.
ABSTRACT: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (CA) is a prevalent medical crisis resulting in severe injury to the heart and brain and an overall survival of less than 10%. Mitochondrial dysfunction is predicted to be a key determinant of poor outcomes following prolonged CA. However, the onset and severity of mitochondrial dysfunction during CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is not fully understood. Ischemic postconditioning (IPC), controlled pauses during the initiation of CPR, has been shown to improve cardiac function and neurologically favorable outcomes after 15min of CA. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction develops during prolonged CA and can be rescued with IPC during CPR (IPC-CPR).A total of 63 swine were randomized to no ischemia (Naïve), 19min of ventricular fibrillation (VF) CA without CPR (Untreated VF), or 15min of CA with 4min of reperfusion with either standard CPR (S-CPR) or IPC-CPR. Mitochondria were isolated from the heart and brain to quantify respiration, rate of ATP synthesis, and calcium retention capacity (CRC). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was quantified from fresh frozen heart and brain tissue.Compared to Naïve, Untreated VF induced cardiac and brain ROS overproduction concurrent with decreased mitochondrial respiratory coupling and CRC, as well as decreased cardiac ATP synthesis. Compared to Untreated VF, S-CPR attenuated brain ROS overproduction but had no other effect on mitochondrial function in the heart or brain. Compared to Untreated VF, IPC-CPR improved cardiac mitochondrial respiratory coupling and rate of ATP synthesis, and decreased ROS overproduction in the heart and brain.Fifteen minutes of VF CA results in diminished mitochondrial respiration, ATP synthesis, CRC, and increased ROS production in the heart and brain. IPC-CPR attenuates cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction caused by prolonged VF CA after only 4min of reperfusion, suggesting that IPC-CPR is an effective intervention to reduce cardiac injury. However, reperfusion with both CPR methods had limited effect on mitochondrial function in the brain, emphasizing an important physiological divergence in post-arrest recovery between those two vital organs.
Project description:Cerebral metabolic alterations during cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and extracorporeal cardiopulmonary life support (ECLS) are poorly explored. Markers are needed for a more personalized resuscitation and post-resuscitation care. Aim of this study was to investigate early metabolic changes in the hippocampal CA1 region during ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (VF-CA) and ECLS versus conventional CPR. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (350g) underwent 8min untreated VF-CA followed by ECLS (n = 8; bloodflow 100ml/kg), mechanical CPR (n = 18; 200/min) until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Shams (n = 2) were included. Glucose, glutamate and lactate/pyruvate ratio were compared between treatment groups and animals with and without ROSC. Ten animals (39%) achieved ROSC (ECLS 5/8 vs. CPR 5/18; OR 4,3;CI:0.7-25;p = 0.189). During VF-CA central nervous glucose decreased (0.32±0.1mmol/l to 0.04±0.01mmol/l; p<0.001) and showed a significant rise (0.53±0.1;p<0.001) after resuscitation. Lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio showed a 5fold increase (31 to 164; p<0.001; maximum 8min post ROSC). Glutamate showed a 3.5-fold increase to (2.06±1.5 to 7.12±5.1?mol/L; p<0.001) after CA. All parameters normalized after ROSC with no significant differences between ECLS and CPR. Metabolic changes during ischemia and resuscitation can be displayed by cerebral microdialysis in our VF-CA CPR and ECLS rat model. We found similar microdialysate concentrations and patterns of normalization in both resuscitation methods used. Institutional Protocol Number: GZ0064.11/3b/2011.
Project description:During cardiac arrest (CA), myocardial perfusion is solely dependent on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) although closed-chest compressions only provide about 10-20% of normal myocardial perfusion. The study was conducted in a whole animal CPR model to determine whether CPR-generated oxygen delivery preserves or worsens mitochondrial function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (400-450 g) were randomly divided into four groups: (1) BL (instrumentation only, no cardiac arrest), (2) CA(15) (15 min cardiac arrest without CPR), (3) CA(25) (25 min cardiac arrest without CPR) and (4) CPR (15 min cardiac arrest, followed by 10 min CPR). The differences between groups were evaluated by measuring mitochondrial respiration, electron transport chain (ETC) complex activities and mitochondrial ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The CA(25) group had the greatest impairment of mitochondrial respiration and ETC complex activities (I-III). In contrast, the CPR group was not different from the CA(15) group regarding all measures of mitochondrial function. Complex I was more susceptible to ischemic injury than the other complexes and was the major determinant of mitochondrial dysfunction. Observations of mitochondrial ultrastructure by TEM were compatible with the biochemical results. The findings suggest that, despite low blood flow and oxygen delivery, CPR is able to preserve heart mitochondrial function and viability during ongoing global ischemia. Preservation of complex I activity and mitochondrial function during cardiac arrest may be an important mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of CPR which have been shown in clinical studies.
Project description:Ischemic postconditioning (stutter CPR) and sevoflurane have been shown to mitigate the effects of reperfusion injury in cardiac tissue after 15min of ventricular fibrillation (VF) cardiac arrest. Poloxamer 188 (P188) has also proven beneficial to neuronal and cardiac tissue during reperfusion injury in human and animal models. We hypothesized that the use of stutter CPR, sevoflurane, and P188 combined with standard advanced life support would improve post-resuscitation cardiac and neurologic function after prolonged VF arrest.Following 17min of untreated VF, 20 pigs were randomized to Control treatment with active compression/decompression (ACD) CPR and impedance threshold device (ITD) (n=8) or Bundle therapy with stutter ACD CPR+ITD+sevoflurane+P188 (n=12). Epinephrine and post-resuscitation hypothermia were given in both groups per standard protocol. Animals that achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) were evaluated with echocardiography, biomarkers, and a blinded neurologic assessment with a cerebral performance category score.Bundle therapy improved hemodynamics during resuscitation, reduced need for epinephrine and repeated defibrillation, reduced biomarkers of cardiac injury and end-organ dysfunction, and increased left ventricular ejection fraction compared to Controls. Bundle therapy also improved rates of ROSC (100% vs. 50%), freedom from major adverse events (50% vs. 0% at 48h), and neurologic function (42% with mild or no neurologic deficit and 17% achieving normal function at 48h).Bundle therapy with a combination of stutter ACD CPR, ITD, sevoflurane, and P188 improved cardiac and neurologic function after 17min of untreated cardiac arrest in pigs. All studies were performed with approval from the Institutional Animal Care Committee of the Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation (protocol #12-11).
Project description:Reversible myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) or ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is associated with an immediate genomic response; IPC-induced immediate early genes are associated with reduced infarct size. Because the immediate early response gene X-1 (IEX-1) plays a central role in cell apoptosis, we examine whether IEX-1 exerts protective effects against I/R injury. We found that the IEX-1 mRNA level was increased in the IPC-imposed rat heart. However, it was downregulated in the I/R rat heart, which was prevented by in situ IPC. When IEX-1 was knocked down, the protective effects imposed by IPC were lessened. Local gene delivery of Ad-IEX-1 to the left ventricle greatly diminished cardiac infarct size and improved systolic functions of I/R hearts in rats. In contrast, knocking down IEX-1 expression exacerbates myocardial infarction. Overexpression of IEX-1 in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes significantly reduced hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced intracellular and mitochondrial ROS accumulation and cell apoptosis. Furthermore, IPC-induced phosphorylation and particle translocation of PKC? were impaired by knocking down IEX-1 in vivo, and overexpressing IEX-1 showed similar cardioprotection imposed by IPC. Our results demonstrate that IPC increases IEX-1 expression, which may promote phosphorylation and particle translocation of PKC? and thus reduce intracellular ROS accumulation. These beneficial effects reduce cardiomyocyte apoptosis and necrosis to alleviate cardiac infarction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The biological effects of nitric oxide are mediated via protein S-nitrosylation. Levels of S-nitrosylated protein are controlled in part by the denitrosylase, S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). The objective of this study was to examine whether GSNOR inhibition improves outcomes after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR). METHODS:Adult wild-type C57BL/6 and GSNOR-deleted (GSNOR-/-) mice were subjected to potassium chloride-induced CA and subsequently resuscitated. Fifteen minutes after a return of spontaneous circulation, wild-type mice were randomized to receive the GSNOR inhibitor, SPL-334.1, or normal saline as placebo. Mortality, neurological outcome, GSNOR activity, and levels of S-nitrosylated proteins were evaluated. Plasma GSNOR activity was measured in plasma samples obtained from post-CA patients, preoperative cardiac surgery patients, and healthy volunteers. RESULTS:GSNOR activity was increased in plasma and multiple organs of mice, including brain in particular. Levels of protein S-nitrosylation were decreased in the brain 6 hours after CA/CPR. Administration of SPL-334.1 attenuated the increase in GSNOR activity in brain, heart, liver, spleen, and plasma, and restored S-nitrosylated protein levels in the brain. Inhibition of GSNOR attenuated ischemic brain injury and improved survival in wild-type mice after CA/CPR (81.8% in SPL-334.1 versus 36.4% in placebo; log rank P=0.031). Similarly, GSNOR deletion prevented the reduction in the number of S-nitrosylated proteins in the brain, mitigated brain injury, and improved neurological recovery and survival after CA/CPR. Both GSNOR inhibition and deletion attenuated CA/CPR-induced disruption of blood brain barrier. Post-CA patients had higher plasma GSNOR activity than did preoperative cardiac surgery patients or healthy volunteers ( P<0.0001). Plasma GSNOR activity was positively correlated with initial lactate levels in postarrest patients (Spearman correlation coefficient=0.48; P=0.045). CONCLUSIONS:CA and CPR activated GSNOR and reduced the number of S-nitrosylated proteins in the brain. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of GSNOR prevented ischemic brain injury and improved survival rates by restoring S-nitrosylated protein levels in the brain after CA/CPR in mice. Our observations suggest that GSNOR is a novel biomarker of postarrest brain injury as well as a molecular target to improve outcomes after CA.
Project description:Post-cardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction is a major cause of mortality in patients receiving successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) is the recommended treatment after resuscitation from cardiac arrest (CA) and is known to exert neuroprotective effects and improve short-term survival. Yet its cytoprotective mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, our aim was to determine the possible effect of MTH on vasoactive mediators belonging to the endothelin/nitric oxide axis in our porcine model of CA and CPR. Pigs underwent either untreated CA or CA with subsequent CPR. After state-of-the-art resuscitation, the animals were either left untreated, cooled between 32-34 °C after ROSC or treated with a bolus injection of S-PBN (sodium 4-[(tert-butylimino) methyl]benzene-3-sulfonate N-oxide) until 180 min after ROSC, respectively. The expression of endothelin 1 (ET-1), endothelin converting enzyme 1 (ECE-1), and endothelin A and B receptors (ETAR and ETBR) transcripts were measured using quantitative real-time PCR while protein levels for the ETAR, ETBR and nitric oxide synthases (NOS) were assessed using immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. Our results indicated that the endothelin system was not upregulated at 30, 60 and 180 min after ROSC in untreated postcardiac arrest syndrome. Post-resuscitative 3 hour-long treatments either with MTH or S-PBN stimulated ET-1, ECE-1, ETAR and ETBR as well as neuronal NOS and endothelial NOS in left ventricular cardiomyocytes. Our data suggests that the endothelin and nitric oxide pathways are activated by MTH in the heart.
Project description:Mild hypothermia improves survival and neurological recovery after cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine whether mild hypothermia alleviates early blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. We investigated the effects of mild hypothermia on neurologic outcome, survival rate, brain water content, BBB permeability and changes in tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) after CA and CPR. Pigs were subjected to 8 min of untreated ventricular fibrillation followed by CPR. Mild hypothermia (33°C) was intravascularly induced and maintained at this temperature for 12 h, followed by active rewarming. Mild hypothermia significantly reduced cortical water content, decreased BBB permeability and attenuated TJ ultrastructural and basement membrane breakdown in brain cortical microvessels. Mild hypothermia also attenuated the CPR-induced decreases in TJ (occludin, claudin-5, ZO-1) and AJ (VE-cadherin) protein and mRNA expression. Furthermore, mild hypothermia decreased the CA- and CPR-induced increases in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and increased angiogenin-1 (Ang-1) expression. Our findings suggest that mild hypothermia attenuates the CA- and resuscitation-induced early brain oedema and BBB disruption, and this improvement might be at least partially associated with attenuation of the breakdown of TJ and AJ, suppression of MMP-9 and VEGF expression, and upregulation of Ang-1 expression.
Project description:AIMS:Mitochondria-targeted hydrogen sulfide donor AP39, [(10-oxo-10-(4-(3-thioxo-3H-1,2-dithiol-5yl)phenoxy)decyl) triphenylphosphonium bromide], exhibits cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress in vitro. We examined whether or not AP39 improves the neurological function and long term survival in mice subjected to cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS:Adult C57BL/6 male mice were subjected to 8 min of CA and subsequent CPR. We examined the effects of AP39 (10, 100, 1000 nmol kg(-1)) or vehicle administered intravenously at 2 min before CPR (Experiment 1). Systemic oxidative stress levels, mitochondrial permeability transition, and histological brain injury were assessed. We also examined the effects of AP39 (10, 1000 nmol kg(-1)) or vehicle administered intravenously at 1 min after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) (Experiment 2). ROSC was defined as the return of sinus rhythm with a mean arterial pressure >40 mm Hg lasting at least 10 seconds. RESULTS:Vehicle treated mice subjected to CA/CPR had poor neurological function and 10-day survival rate (Experiment 1; 15%, Experiment 2; 23%). Administration of AP39 (100 and 1000 nmol kg(-1)) 2 min before CPR significantly improved the neurological function and 10-day survival rate (54% and 62%, respectively) after CA/CPR. Administration of AP39 before CPR attenuated mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, reactive oxygen species generation, and neuronal degeneration after CA/CPR. Administration of AP39 1 min after ROSC at 10 nmol kg(-1), but not at 1000 nmol kg(-1), significantly improved the neurological function and 10-day survival rate (69%) after CA/CPR. CONCLUSION:The current results suggest that administration of mitochondria-targeted sulfide donor AP39 at the time of CPR or after ROSC improves the neurological function and long term survival rates after CA/CPR by maintaining mitochondrial integrity and reducing oxidative stress.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Despite decades of improved strategy in conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CCPR), survival rates of favorable neurological outcome after cardiac arrest (CA) remains poor. It is indicated that the survival rate of successful resuscitation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is superior to that of CCPR. But the effect of ECMO in heart is unclear. We aimed to investigate whether ECMO produces cardiac protection by ameliorating post-ischemia reperfusion myocardial injury and myocardial apoptosis. METHODS:After undergoing 8-min untreated ventricle fibrillation (VF) and 6-min basic life support, 20 male pigs were ultimately used in this study and randomly divided into two groups: CCPR group (n = 10) and extracorporeal CPR (ECPR) group (n = 10). Hemodynamics and blood samples were obtained at baseline and 1, 2, 4, and 6 h during resuscitation. The successfully resuscitated pigs were sacrificed at 6 h after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and the hearts were removed and analyzed under electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence staining assay were performed to evaluate myocardial injury and myocardial apoptosis. RESULTS:There were no significant differences at basic hemodynamic status between the two groups. The survival rate of ECPR was significantly higher than CCPR group (10/10 [100%] vs. 4/10 [40%], P = 0.04). Compared to CCPR group, ECPR group exhibited a better outcome in hemodynamic function. Cardiac function was significantly impaired after ROSC in both groups, but left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly elevated in ECPR group than CCPR group. The expression of myocardial injury biomarkers (CK-MB, cTNI, H-FABP), endothelial injury biomarker (sP-selectin), and cardiac function biomarker (BNP) were remarkably increased after ROSC in both groups, but low levels in ECPR group than in CCPR group. Cardiomyocytes injury was attenuated in ECPR group under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Typical apoptotic nuclei of cardiomyocytes were significantly reduced and oxidative damage were attenuated in ECPR group. CONCLUSIONS:During prolonged VF-induced CA, ECPR contributes to improving hemodynamics, attenuating myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, ameliorating myocardial ultra structure, improving cardiac function, and elevating survival rate by preventing oxidative damage, regulating energy metabolism, inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis.
Project description:Background: Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury is a common secondary effect of cardiac arrest which is largely responsible for postresuscitative mortality. Therefore development of therapies which restore and protect the brain function after cardiac arrest is essential. Methylene blue (MB) has been experimentally proven neuroprotective in a porcine model of global ischemia-reperfusion in experimental cardiac arrest. However, no comprehensive analyses have been conducted at gene expression level. Methods: Pigs underwent either untreated cardiac arrest (CA) or CA with subsequent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) accompanied with an infusion of saline or an infusion of saline with MB. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling using the Affymetrix porcine microarray was performed to 1) gain understanding of delayed neuronal death initiation in porcine brain during ischemia and after 30, 60 and 180 min following reperfusion, and 2) identify the mechanisms behind the neuroprotective effect of MB after ischemic injury (at 30, 60 and 180 min). Results: Our results show that restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) induces major transcriptional changes related to stress response, inflammation, apoptosis and even cytoprotection. In contrast, the untreated ischemic and anoxic insult affected only few genes mainly involved in intra-/extracellular ionic balance. Furthermore, our data show that the neuroprotective role of MB is diverse and fulfilled by regulation of the expression of soluble guanylate cyclase and biological processes accountable for inhibition of apoptosis, modulation of stress response, neurogenesis and neuroprotection. Conclusions: Our results support that MB could be a valuable intervention and should be investigated as a therapeutic agent against neural damage associated with I/R injury induced by cardiac arrest. Overall design: One group of pigs underwent cardiac arrest (CA) without subsequent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the brain of the animals was removed after 5, 20 or 30 min post CA for genome-wide expression study. Two groups of pigs underwent first CA for 12 min with a subsequent 8 min-long CPR and received either an infusion of saline or an infusion of saline with MB from one minute after the start of CPR until 50 min after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). In both latter groups the brains were removed for microarray analysis at the following time points: 30, 60, 180 min.