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The role of somatostatin in GLP-1-induced inhibition of glucagon secretion in mice.


ABSTRACT: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Their main mechanism of action is enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion (from increased beta cell glucose sensitivity) and inhibition of glucagon secretion. The latter has been demonstrated to account for about half of their blood glucose-lowering activity. Whereas the effect of GLP-1 on insulin secretion is clearly dependent on ambient glucose concentrations and has been described in detail, the mechanism responsible for the inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on glucagon secretion is heavily debated. Glucagon inhibition is also said to be glucose-dependent, although it is unclear what is meant by this. We hypothesise here that GLP-1 does not inhibit glucagon secretion during hypoglycaemia because the inhibition depends on somatostatin secretion, which in turn is dependent on glucose levels.We used the perfused mouse pancreas model to investigate this hypothesis.We found that, in this model, GLP-1 was able to significantly inhibit glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells at all glucose levels tested: 6.0, 1.5 and 0.5 mmol/l (-27.0%, -37.1%, and -23.6%, respectively), and the decrease in glucagon secretion was invariably accompanied by an increase in somatostatin secretion (+286.8%, +158.7%, and +118.8%, respectively). Specific blockade of somatostatin receptor 2 increased glucagon secretion (+118.8% at 1.5 mmol/l glucose and +162.9% at 6.0 mmol/l glucose) and completely eliminated the inhibitory effect of GLP-1.We have shown here that the glucagon-lowering effect of GLP-1 is entirely mediated through the paracrine actions of somatostatin in the perfused mouse pancreas. However, in this model, the inhibitory effect of GLP-1 was preserved at hypoglycaemic levels, leaving unanswered the question of how this is avoided in vivo in individuals treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists.

SUBMITTER: Orgaard A 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5552842 | BioStudies | 2017-01-01

SECONDARY ACCESSION(S): 10.1007/s00125-017-4315-2

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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