Membrane localization of acetylated CNK1 mediates a positive feedback on RAF/ERK signaling.
ABSTRACT: Spatiotemporal control is a common mechanism that modulates activity and function of signal transducers in the signaling network. We identified acetylation of CNK1 (connector enhancer of kinase suppressor of Ras-1) as a late step in the activation of CNK1 signaling, accompanied with prolonged stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). We identified the acetyltransferase CREB (cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein)-binding protein and the deacetylase SIRT2 (sirtuin type 2) as novel binding partners of CNK1, modulating the acetylation state of CNK1. Acetylation of CNK1 at position Lys414 located in the pleckstrin homology domain drives membrane localization of CNK1 in growth factor-stimulated cells. Inhibition of ERK signaling abolishes CNK1 acetylation. Cosmic database search identified CNK1 mutants at position Arg426 near the acetylation site in several human tumor types. These mutants show constitutive acetylation and membrane localization. CNK1 mutants substituting Arg426, the acetylation mimetic mutant CNK1-K414Q, and membrane-anchored CNK1 mutants all interact with the protein kinase CRAF and stimulate ERK-dependent cell proliferation and cell migration. In RAS-transformed cells, CNK1 is acetylated and membrane-bound and drives cell proliferation. Thus, growth factor-stimulated ERK signaling induces CNK1 acetylation, and acetylated CNK1 promotes ERK signaling, demonstrating a novel function of CNK1 as positive feedback regulator of the RAF/MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase)/ERK pathway. In addition, acetylation of CNK1 is an important step in oncogenic signaling, promoting cell proliferation and migration.
Project description:Cnk1 (connector enhancer of kinase suppressor of Ras 1) is a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing scaffold protein that increases the efficiency of Ras signaling pathways, imparting efficiency and specificity to the response of cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Mutated KRAS (mut-KRAS) is the most common proto-oncogenic event, occurring in approximately 25% of human cancers and has no effective treatment. In this study, we show that selective inhibition of Cnk1 blocks growth and Raf/Mek/Erk, Rho and RalA/B signaling in mut-KRAS lung and colon cancer cells with little effect on wild-type (wt)-KRAS cells. Cnk1 inhibition decreased anchorage-independent mut-KRas cell growth more so than growth on plastic, without the partial "addiction" to mut-KRAS seen on plastic. The PH domain of Cnk1 bound with greater affinity to PtdIns(4,5)P2 than PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, and Cnk1 localized to areas of the plasma membranes rich in PtdIns, suggesting a role for the PH domain in the biological activity of Cnk1. Through molecular modeling and structural modification, we identified a compound PHT-7.3 that bound selectively to the PH domain of Cnk1, preventing plasma membrane colocalization with mut-KRas. PHT-7.3 inhibited mut-KRas, but not wild-type KRas cancer cell and tumor growth and signaling. Thus, the PH domain of Cnk1 is a druggable target whose inhibition selectively blocks mutant KRas activation, making Cnk1 an attractive therapeutic target in patients with mut-KRAS-driven cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify a therapeutic strategy to selectively block oncogenic KRas activity through the PH domain of Cnk1, which reduces its cell membrane binding, decreasing the efficiency of Ras signaling and tumor growth.
Project description:The Eph receptors and their membrane-bound ligands, ephrins, play important roles in various biological processes such as cell adhesion and movement. The transmembrane ephrinBs transduce reverse signaling in a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent or -independent, as well as PDZ-dependent manner. Here, we show that ephrinB1 interacts with Connector Enhancer of KSR1 (CNK1) in an EphB receptor-independent manner. In cultured cells, cotransfection of ephrinB1 with CNK1 increases JNK phosphorylation. EphrinB1/CNK1-mediated JNK activation is reduced by overexpression of dominant-negative RhoA. Overexpression of CNK1 alone is sufficient for activation of RhoA; however, both ephrinB1 and CNK1 are required for JNK phosphorylation. Co-immunoprecipitation data showed that ephrinB1 and CNK1 act as scaffold proteins that connect RhoA and JNK signaling components, such as p115RhoGEF and MKK4. Furthermore, adhesion to fibronectin or active Src overexpression increases ephrinB1/CNK1 binding, whereas blocking Src activity by a pharmacological inhibitor decreases not only ephrinB1/CNK1 binding, but also JNK activation. EphrinB1 overexpression increases cell motility, however, CNK1 depletion by siRNA abrogates ephrinB1-mediated cell migration and JNK activation. Moreover, Rho kinase inhibitor or JNK inhibitor treatment suppresses ephrinB1-mediated cell migration. Taken together, our findings suggest that CNK1 is required for ephrinB1-induced JNK activation and cell migration.
Project description:Scaffold proteins such as the multidomain protein CNK1 orchestrate the signalling network by integrating and controlling the underlying pathways. Using an optogenetic approach to stimulate CNK1 uncoupled from upstream effectors, we identified selective clusters of CNK1 that either stimulate RAF-MEK-ERK or AKT signalling depending on the light intensity applied. OptoCNK1 implemented in MCF7 cells induces differentiation at low light intensity stimulating ERK activity whereas stimulation of AKT signalling by higher light intensity promotes cell proliferation. CNK1 clustering in response to increasing EGF concentrations revealed that CNK1 binds to RAF correlating with ERK activation at low EGF dose. At higher EGF dose active AKT binds to CNK1 and phosphorylates and inhibits RAF. Knockdown of CNK1 protects CNK1 from this AKT/RAF crosstalk. In C2 skeletal muscle cells CNK1 expression is induced with the onset of differentiation. Hence, AKT-bound CNK1 counteracts ERK stimulation in differentiated but not in proliferating cells. Ectopically expressed CNK1 facilitates C2 cell differentiation and knockdown of CNK1 impaired the transcriptional network underlying C2 cell differentiation. Thus, CNK1 expression, CNK1 clustering and the thereto related differential signalling processes decide on proliferation and differentiation in a cell type- and cell stage-dependent manner by orchestrating AKT and RAF signalling.
Project description:To what extent the secretory pathway is regulated by cellular signaling is unknown. In this study, we used RNA interference to explore the function of human kinases and phosphatases in controlling the organization of and trafficking within the secretory pathway. We identified 122 kinases/phosphatases that affect endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export, ER exit sites (ERESs), and/or the Golgi apparatus. Numerous kinases/phosphatases regulate the number of ERESs and ER to Golgi protein trafficking. Among the pathways identified, the Raf-MEK (MAPK/ERK [extracellular signal-regulated kinase] kinase)-ERK cascade, including its regulatory proteins CNK1 (connector enhancer of the kinase suppressor of Ras-1) and neurofibromin, controls the number of ERESs via ERK2, which targets Sec16, a key regulator of ERESs and COPII (coat protein II) vesicle biogenesis. Our analysis reveals an unanticipated complexity of kinase/phosphatase-mediated regulation of the secretory pathway, uncovering a link between growth factor signaling and ER export.
Project description:Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) chaperones a key subset of signaling proteins and is necessary for malignant transformation. Hsp90 is subject to an array of posttranslational modifications that affect its function, including acetylation. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and knockdown of HDAC6 induce Hsp90 acetylation and inhibit its activity. However, direct determination of the functional consequences of Hsp90 acetylation has awaited mapping of specific sites. We now demonstrate that Hsp90 K294 is acetylated. Mutational analysis of K294 shows that its acetylation status is a strong determinant of client protein and cochaperone binding. In yeast, Hsp90 mutants that cannot be acetylated at K294 have reduced viability and chaperone function compared to WT or to mutants that mimic constitutive acetylation. These data suggest that acetylation/deacetylation of K294 plays an important role in regulating the Hsp90 chaperone cycle.
Project description:Vascular tube morphogenesis requires the establishment of endothelial cell (EC) apical-basal polarity in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices. To date, there is little understanding of how EC polarity is controlled during these highly dynamic and rapid morphogenic events. We show that the microtubule tip complex proteins, end binding 1 (EB1), p150(Glued), and Clasp1, control human EC tube formation by (1) inducing microtubule assembly and asymmetric cytoskeletal polarization, whereby acetylated and detyrosinated tubulins distribute in a subapical membrane location and filamentous actin distributes basally; (2) increasing tubulin posttranslational modifications, including required acetylation events; and (3) regulating an EC lumen signaling cascade that involves membrane type 1 matrix metallopatrinase (MT1-MMP)-dependent proteolysis as well as Pak, Raf, and Erk kinases. Another regulator of this process is the microtubule stabilizing protein, tau, which binds p150(Glued) and similarly affects EC lumen formation by controlling the levels of acetylated and detyrosinated tubulins. Increased expression of the tubulin deacetylases, sirtuin 2, and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), blocks EC tube formation and cytoskeletal polarization, while siRNA suppression of these deacetylases stimulates these events. Overall, this work reveals a fundamental role for microtubule tip complex proteins in coordinating microtubule assembly, posttranslational modifications including acetylation, and apical-basal cytoskeletal polarization to control the developing apical membrane surface during blood vessel tubulogenesis in 3D matrix environments.
Project description:Protein lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification that alters the charge, conformation, and stability of proteins. A number of genome-wide characterizations of lysine-acetylated proteins, or acetylomes, in bacteria have demonstrated that lysine acetylation occurs on proteins with a wide diversity of functions, including central metabolism, transcription, chemotaxis, and cell size regulation. Bacillus subtilis is a model organism for studies of sporulation, motility, cell signaling, and multicellular development (or biofilm formation). In this work, we investigated the role of global protein lysine acetylation in multicellular development in B. subtilis. We analyzed the B. subtilis acetylome under biofilm-inducing conditions and identified acetylated proteins involved in multicellularity, specifically, swarming and biofilm formation. We constructed various single and double mutants of genes known to encode enzymes involved in global protein lysine acetylation in B. subtilis. Some of those mutants showed a defect in swarming motility while others demonstrated altered biofilm phenotypes. Lastly, we picked two acetylated proteins known to be important for biofilm formation, YmcA (also known as RicA), a regulatory protein critical for biofilm induction, and GtaB, an UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase that synthesizes a nucleotide sugar precursor for biosynthesis of exopolysaccharide, a key biofilm matrix component. We performed site-directed mutagenesis on the acetylated lysine codons in ymcA and gtaB, respectively, and assayed cells bearing those point mutants for biofilm formation. The mutant alleles of ymcA(K64R), gtaB(K89R), and gtaB(K191R) all demonstrated a severe biofilm defect. These results indicate the importance of acetylated lysine residues in both YmcA and GtaB. In summary, we propose that protein lysine acetylation plays a global regulatory role in B. subtilis multicellularity.
Project description:The AKT family of serine-threonine kinases functions downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) to transmit signals by direct phosphorylation of a number of targets, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?), and ?-catenin. AKT binds to phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PIP3) generated by PI3K activation, which results in its membrane localization and subsequent activation through phosphorylation by phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1). Together, the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway plays pivotal roles in many cellular systems, including in the central nervous system where it governs both neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity. Recently, lysine residues (Lys14 and Lys20) on AKT, located within its pleckstrin homology (PH) domain that binds to membrane-bound PIP3, have been found to be acetylated under certain cellular contexts in various cancer cell lines. These acetylation modifications are removed by the enzymatic action of the class III lysine deacetylases, SIRT1 and SIRT2, of the sirtuin family. The extent to which reversible acetylation regulates AKT function in other cell types remains poorly understood. We report here that AKT kinase activity is modulated by a class IIb lysine deacetylase, histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), in human neural progenitor cells (NPCs). We find that HDAC6 and AKT physically interact with each other in the neuronal cells, and in the presence of selective HDAC6 inhibition, AKT is acetylated at Lys163 and Lys377 located in the kinase domain, two novel sites distinct from the acetylation sites in the PH-domain modulated by the sirtuins. Measurement of the functional effect of HDAC6 inhibition on AKT revealed decreased binding to PIP3, a correlated decrease in AKT kinase activity, decreased phosphorylation of Ser552 on ?-catenin, and modulation of neuronal differentiation trajectories. Taken together, our studies implicate the deacetylase activity of HDAC6 as a novel regulator of AKT signaling and point to novel mechanisms for regulating AKT activity with small-molecule inhibitors of HDAC6 currently under clinical development.
Project description:Sirtuins are class III deacetylases that regulate many essential processes, including cellular stress, genome stability and metabolism. Although these NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases control adaptive cellular responses, identification of sirtuin-regulated signaling targets remain under-studied. Here, we demonstrate that acetylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1 (MEK1) stimulates its kinase activity, and that acetylated MEK1 is under the regulatory control of the sirtuin family members SIRT1 and SIRT2. Treatment of cells with sirtuin inhibitors, or siRNA knockdown of SIRT1 or SIRT2 proteins, increases MEK1 acetylation and subsequent phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Generation of an acetyl-specific MEK1 antibody demonstrates that endogenous acetylated MEK1 is extensively enriched in the nucleus following epidermal growth factor stimulation. An acetyl-mimic of MEK1 increases inappropriate growth properties, suggesting that acetylation of MEK1 has oncogenic potential.
Project description:The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway plays a critical role in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) inhibits the MAPK pathway and decreases TLR signaling, but the regulation of MKP-1 is not completely understood. We now show that MKP-1 is acetylated, and that acetylation regulates its ability to interact with its substrates and deactivate inflammatory signaling. We found that LPS activates acetylation of MKP-1. MKP-1 is acetylated by p300 on lysine residue K57 within its substrate-binding domain. Acetylation of MKP-1 enhances its interaction with p38, thereby increasing its phosphatase activity and interrupting MAPK signaling. Inhibition of deacetylases increases MKP-1 acetylation and blocks MAPK signaling in wild-type (WT) cells; however, deacetylase inhibitors have no effect in cells lacking MKP-1. Furthermore, histone deacetylase inhibitors reduce inflammation and mortality in WT mice treated with LPS, but fail to protect MKP-1 knockout mice. Our data suggest that acetylation of MKP-1 inhibits innate immune signaling. This pathway may be an important therapeutic target in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.