Effect of Carbon in Fabrication Al-SiC Nanocomposites for Tribological Application.
ABSTRACT: Aluminium-based hybrid composites are a new class of advanced materials with the potential of satisfying the demands in engineering applications. This paper describes the effects of carbon addition on the formation and properties of AMC with SiC nanoparticles reinforcement. The composites were produced via mechanical alloying followed by hot pressing. Three forms of carbon, graphite (GR), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and, for the first time, glassy carbon (GC), were used for the hybrid composites manufacturing and compared with tribological properties of Al-SiC composite without carbon addition. GC and CNTs enhanced formation of Al-SiC composite particles and resulted in a homogeneous distribution of reinforcing particles. On the other hand, GR addition altered mechanochemical alloying and did not lead to a proper distribution of nanoparticulate SiC reinforcement. Hot pressing technique led to the reaction between Al and carbon as well as SiC particles and caused the formation of Al₄C₃ and γ-Al₂O₃. The subsistence of carbon particles in the composites altered the predominant wear mechanisms since the wear reduction and the stabilization of the friction coefficient were observed. GC with simultaneous γ-Al₂O₃ formation in the hybrid Al-SiC(n)-C composites turned out to be the most effective additive in terms of their tribological behaviour.
Project description:Tribological performance of the hot-pressed pure Al2O3 and its composites containing various hybrid contents of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated under different loading conditions using the ball-on-disc method. Benchmarked against the pure Al2O3, the composite reinforced with a 0.5 wt% GNP exhibited a 23% reduction in the friction coefficient along with a promising 70% wear rate reduction, and a hybrid reinforcement consisting of 0.3 wt.% GNPs + 1 wt.% CNTs resulted in even better performance, with a 86% reduction in the wear rate. The extent of damage to the reinforcement phases caused during wear was studied using Raman spectroscopy. The wear mechanisms for the composites were analysed based on the mechanical properties, brittleness index and microstructural characterizations. The excellent coordination between GNPs and CNTs contributed to the excellent wear resistance property in the hybrid GNT-reinforced composites. GNPs played the important role in the formation of a tribofilm on the worn surface by exfoliation; whereas CNTs contributed to the improvement in fracture toughness and prevented the grains from being pulled out during the tribological test.
Project description:The current study investigated the effect of adding a carbon nanotube-alumina (CNT-Al₂O₃) hybrid on the fracture toughness of epoxy nanocomposites. The CNT-Al₂O₃ hybrid was synthesised by growing CNTs on Al₂O₃ particles via the chemical vapour deposition method. The CNTs were strongly attached onto the Al₂O₃ particles, which served to transport and disperse the CNTs homogenously, and to prevent agglomeration in the CNTs. The experimental results demonstrated that the CNT-Al₂O₃ hybrid-filled epoxy nanocomposites showed improvement in terms of the fracture toughness, as indicated by an increase of up to 26% in the critical stress intensity factor, K1C, compared to neat epoxy.
Project description:A new friction counterpart for carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide ceramic-matrix composites (C/SiCs) and zirconia (ZrO2) toughened by magnesia ceramics is proposed. The effects of the C/SiC surface processing parameters friction on the tribological performance are investigated under dry friction and ambient temperature conditions. The wear tests are carried out using the pin-on-disc friction method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on an instrument equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) is used to observe the surfaces of the pins and discs before and after the application of friction to reveal the wear mechanism. The results show that surface processing influenced the tribological properties of C/SiC significantly. When the pressure is 30?N, the speed is 0.5?m/s, and the C/SiC surface is ground using 1500# sandpaper, the counterpart tribological performance is the best among the samples considered herein. It is found that the retention ability of the counterparts influenced the tribology performance significantly.
Project description:Hybrid reinforcement's novel composite (Al-Fe3O4-SiC) via powder metallurgy method was successfully fabricated. In this study, the aim was to define the influence of SiC-Fe3O4 nanoparticles on microstructure, mechanical, tribology, and corrosion properties of the composite. Various researchers confirmed that aluminum matrix composite (AMC) is an excellent multifunctional lightweight material with remarkable properties. However, to improve the wear resistance in high-performance tribological application, hardening and developing corrosion resistance was needed; thus, an optimized hybrid reinforcement of particulates (SiC-Fe3O4) into an aluminum matrix was explored. Based on obtained results, the density and hardness were 2.69 g/cm3, 91 HV for Al-30Fe3O4-20SiC, after the sintering process. Coefficient of friction (COF) was decreased after adding Fe3O4 and SiC hybrid composite in tribology behaviors, and the lowest COF was 0.412 for Al-30Fe3O4-20SiC. The corrosion protection efficiency increased from 88.07%, 90.91%, and 99.83% for Al-30Fe3O4, Al-15Fe3O4-30SiC, and Al-30Fe3O4-20SiC samples, respectively. Hence, the addition of this reinforcement (Al-Fe3O4-SiC) to the composite shows a positive outcome toward corrosion resistance (lower corrosion rate), in order to increase the durability and life span of material during operation. The accomplished results indicated that, by increasing the weight percentage of SiC-Fe3O4, it had improved the mechanical properties, tribology, and corrosion resistance in aluminum matrix. After comparing all samples, we then selected Al-30Fe3O4-20SiC as an optimized composite.
Project description:Nano-sized TiCx/2009Al composites (with 5, 7, and 9 vol% TiCx) were fabricated via the combustion synthesis of the 2009Al-Ti-CNTs system combined with vacuum hot pressing followed by hot extrusion. In the present study, CNTs were used as the carbon source to synthesize nano-sized TiCx particles. An attempt was made to correlate the effect of ground CNTs by milling and the distribution of synthesized nano-sized TiCx particles in 2009Al as well as the tensile properties of nano-sized TiCx/2009Al composites. Microstructure analysis showed that when ground CNTs were used, the synthesized nano-sized TiCx particles dispersed more uniformly in the 2009Al matrix. Moreover, when 2 h-milled CNTs were used, the 5, 7, and 9 vol% nano-sized TiCx/2009Al composites had the highest tensile properties, especially, the 9 vol% nano-sized TiCx/2009Al composites. The results offered a new approach to improve the distribution of in situ nano-sized TiCx particles and tensile properties of composites.
Project description:Carbon fiber-reinforced multi-layered pyrocarbon-silicon carbide matrix (C/C-SiC) composites are widely used in aerospace structures. The complicated spatial architecture and material heterogeneity of C/C-SiC composites constitute the challenge for tailoring their properties. Thus, discovering the intrinsic relations between the properties and the microstructures and sequentially optimizing the microstructures to obtain composites with the best performances becomes the key for practical applications. The objective of this work is to optimize the thermal-elastic properties of unidirectional C/C-SiC composites by controlling the multi-layered matrix thicknesses. A hybrid approach based on micromechanical modeling and back propagation (BP) neural network is proposed to predict the thermal-elastic properties of composites. Then, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is interfaced with this hybrid model to achieve the optimal design for minimizing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of composites with the constraint of elastic modulus. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid model and optimization method.
Project description:In recent years, the deployment of sensors and other ancillary technologies has turned out to be vital in the investigation of tribological behavioral patterns of composites. The tribological behavioral patterns of AA7075 hybrid metal matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and pulverized fuel ash (PFA) were investigated in this work. The stir casting technique was used to fabricate the composites. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength and hardness were determined for the fabricated material. Besides, microstructure analysis was performed for these AA7075 hybrid MMCs reinforced with MWCNTs and pulverized fuel ash. A pin-on-disc wear testing setup was used to evaluate the wear rate, in which the EN 31 steel disc was used as the counter-face. Taguchi's design of the experiments was used to optimize the input parameters that impact the characteristics of the hybrid composites, and ANOVA (analysis of variance) was used to determine the contribution of input parameters on the wear behavior. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) was conducted on the AA7075 hybrid metal matrix composites using a copper electrode for determining the material removal rate. These investigations and the results were utilized for determining the optimized output process parameter values of the AA7075 metal matrix composite.
Project description:Damage to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during the fabrication process of CNT reinforced composites has great influence on their mechanical properties. In this study, the 2014 Al with powder sizes of 20, 9 and 5 μm was selected to study the effect of initial particle size on the damage to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during ball milling. The result shows that for CNTs in the ball milled CNT/Al (with powder size of 20 and 9 μm) mixtures, the intensity ratio of the D band and the G band (ID/IG) first increased and then reached a plateau, mainly because most of the CNTs are embedded, to a certain extent, in the aluminum powder after milling, which could protect the CNTs from damage during further milling. While for CNTs in the ball milled CNT/Al (with powder size of 5 μm) mixture, the ID/IG ratio continues to climb from 1.31 to 2.33 with time, indicating continuous damage to the CNTs occurs during the milling. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis demonstrates that the chemical instability increased with an increase in the damage level of CNTs, resulting in the formation of aluminum carbide (Al₄C₃) at a lower temperature before the melting of aluminum, which is detrimental to their mechanical properties.
Project description:The main goal of this paper is to design and justify optimized compositions of thermoplastic-matrix wear-resistant composites based on polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and polyphenylene sulfide (PPS). Their mechanical and tribological properties have been specified in the form of bilateral and unilateral limits. For this purpose, a material design methodology has been developed. It has enabled to determine the optimal degrees of filling of the PEEK- and PPS-based composites with carbon microfibers and polytetrafluoroethylene particles. According to the results of tribological tests, the PEEK-based composites have been less damaged on the metal counterpart than the PPS-based samples having the same degree of filling. Most likely, this was due to more uniform permolecular structure and greater elasticity of the matrix. The described methodology is versatile and can be used to design various composites. Its implementation does not impose any limits on the specified properties of the material matrix or the reinforcing inclusions. The initial data on the operational characteristics can be obtained experimentally or numerically. The methodology enables to design the high-strength wear-resistant composites which are able to efficiently operate both in metal-polymer and ceramic-polymer friction units.
Project description:Carbon nanofilament and nanotubes (CNTs) have shown promise for enhancing the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composites (FRPs) and imparting multi-functionalities to them. While direct mixing of carbon nanofilaments with the polymer matrix in FRPs has several drawbacks, a high volume of uniform nanofilaments can be directly grown on fiber surfaces prior to composite fabrication. This study demonstrates the ability to create carbon nanofilaments on the surface of carbon fibers employing a synthesis method, graphitic structures by design (GSD), in which carbon structures are grown from fuel mixtures using nickel particles as the catalyst. The synthesis technique is proven feasible to grow nanofilament structures-from ethylene mixtures at 550 °C-on commercial polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy were employed to characterize the surface-grown carbon species. For comparison purposes, a catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) technique was also utilized to grow multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs) on carbon fiber yarns. The mechanical characterization showed that composites using the GSD-grown carbon nanofilaments outperform those using the CCVD-grown CNTs in terms of stiffness and tensile strength. The results suggest that further optimization of the GSD growth time, patterning and thermal shield coating of the carbon fibers is required to fully materialize the potential benefits of the GSD technique.