CREB3L2-mediated expression of Sec23A/Sec24D is involved in hepatic stellate cell activation through ER-Golgi transport.
ABSTRACT: Hepatic fibrosis is caused by exaggerated wound healing response to chronic injury, which eventually leads to hepatic cirrhosis. Differentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to myofibroblast-like cells by inflammatory cytokines is the critical step in fibrosis. This step is accompanied by enlargement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus, suggesting that protein synthesis and secretion are augmented in the activated HSCs. However, the process of rearrangement of secretory organelles and their functions remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we revealed that differentiation alters early secretory gene expression. We observed significant isoform-specific upregulation of the inner coat protein complex II (COPII) components, Sec23A and Sec24D, via the transmembrane bZIP transcription factor, CREB3L2/BBF2H7, during HSC activation. Moreover, knockdown of these components abrogated the activation, suggesting that Sec23A/Sec24D-mediated ER to Golgi trafficking is required for HSC activation.
Project description:Protein transport from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi is primarily conducted by coated vesicular carriers such as COPII. Here, we describe zebrafish bulldog mutations that disrupt the function of the cargo adaptor Sec24D, an integral component of the COPII complex. We show that Sec24D is essential for secretion of cartilage matrix proteins, whereas the preceding development of craniofacial primordia and pre-chondrogenic condensations does not depend on this isoform. Bulldog chondrocytes fail to secrete type II collagen and matrilin to extracellular matrix (ECM), but membrane bound receptor beta1-Integrin and Cadherins appear to leave ER in Sec24D-independent fashion. Consequently, Sec24D-deficient cells accumulate proteins in the distended ER, although a subset of ER compartments and Golgi complexes as visualized by electron microscopy and NBD C(6)-ceramide staining appear functional. Consistent with the backlog of proteins in the ER, chondrocytes activate the ER stress response machinery and significantly upregulate BiP transcription. Failure of ECM secretion hinders chondroblast intercalations thus resulting in small and malformed cartilages and severe craniofacial dysmorphology. This defect is specific to Sec24D mutants since knockdown of Sec24C, a close paralog of Sec24D, does not result in craniofacial cartilage dysmorphology. However, craniofacial development in double Sec24C/Sec24D-deficient animals is arrested earlier than in bulldog/sec24d, suggesting that Sec24C can compensate for loss of Sec24D at initial stages of chondrogenesis, but Sec24D is indispensable for chondrocyte maturation. Our study presents the first developmental perspective on Sec24D function and establishes Sec24D as a strong candidate for cartilage maintenance diseases and craniofacial birth defects.
Project description:Transport of newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi is mediated by the coat protein complex COPII. The inner coat of COPII is assembled from heterodimers of SEC23 and SEC24. Though mice with mutations in one of the four Sec24 paralogs, Sec24b, exhibit a neural tube closure defect, deficiency in humans or mice has not yet been described for any of the other Sec24 paralogs. We now report characterization of mice with targeted disruption of Sec24d. Early embryonic lethality is observed in mice completely deficient in SEC24D, while a hypomorphic Sec24d allele permits survival to mid-embryogenesis. Mice haploinsufficient for Sec24d exhibit no phenotypic abnormality. A BAC transgene containing Sec24d rescues the embryonic lethality observed in Sec24d-null mice. These results demonstrate an absolute requirement for SEC24D expression in early mammalian development that is not compensated by the other three Sec24 paralogs. The early embryonic lethality resulting from loss of SEC24D in mice contrasts with the previously reported mild skeletal phenotype of SEC24D deficiency in zebrafish and restricted neural tube phenotype of SEC24B deficiency in mice. Taken together, these observations suggest that the multiple Sec24 paralogs have developed distinct functions over the course of vertebrate evolution.
Project description:Approximately one-third of the mammalian proteome is transported from the endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi via COPII-coated vesicles. SEC23, a core component of coat protein-complex II (COPII), is encoded by two paralogous genes in vertebrates (Sec23a and Sec23b). In humans, SEC23B deficiency results in congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type-II (CDAII), while SEC23A deficiency results in a skeletal phenotype (with normal red blood cells). These distinct clinical disorders, together with previous biochemical studies, suggest unique functions for SEC23A and SEC23B. Here we show indistinguishable intracellular protein interactomes for human SEC23A and SEC23B, complementation of yeast Sec23 by both human and murine SEC23A/B, and rescue of the lethality of sec23b deficiency in zebrafish by a sec23a-expressing transgene. We next demonstrate that a Sec23a coding sequence inserted into the murine Sec23b locus completely rescues the lethal SEC23B-deficient pancreatic phenotype. We show that SEC23B is the predominantly expressed paralog in human bone marrow, but not in the mouse, with the reciprocal pattern observed in the pancreas. Taken together, these data demonstrate an equivalent function for SEC23A/B, with evolutionary shifts in the transcription program likely accounting for the distinct phenotypes of SEC23A/B deficiency within and across species, a paradigm potentially applicable to other sets of paralogous genes. These findings also suggest that enhanced erythroid expression of the normal SEC23A gene could offer an effective therapeutic approach for CDAII patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cancer treatment is based on tumor staging. Curative intent is only applied to localized tumors. Recent studies show that oligometastatic patients who have limited number of metastases may benefit from metastasis-directed local treatments to achieve long-term survival. However, mechanisms underlying oligometastatic to polymetastatic progression remains elusive.<h4>Methods</h4>The effects of miR-200c and Sec23a on tumor metastasis were verified both in vitro and in vivo. The secretome changes were detected by mass spectrometry.<h4>Findings</h4>We established a pair of homologous lung-metastasis derived oligometastatic and polymetastatic cell lines from human melanoma cancer cell line M14. Using the two cell lines, we have identified Sec23a, a gene target of miR-200c, suppresses miR-200c augmented oligometastatic to polymetastatic progression via its secretome. Firstly, miR-200c over-expression and Sec23a interference accelerated oligometastatic to polymetatic progression. Secondly, Sec23a functions downstream of miR-200c. Thirdly, mass spectrometric analysis of the secretory protein profile suggests that Sec23a-dependent secretome may impact metastatic colonization by modifying tumor microenvironment. Fourthly, the survival analysis using The Cancer Genome Atlas database shows Sec23a as a favorable prognostic marker for skin cutaneous melanoma, supporting the clinical relevance of our findings.<h4>Interpretation</h4>The finding that Sec23a is a suppressor of oligometastatic to polymetastatic progression has clinical implications. First, it provides a new theoretical framework for the development of treatments that prevent oligometastasis to polymetastasis. Second, Sec23a may be used as a favorable prognostic marker for the selection of patients with stable oligometastatic disease for oligometastasis-based local therapies of curative intent. FUND: National Natural Science Foundations of China.
Project description:COPII (coat protein complex-II) vesicles transport proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi. Higher eukaryotes have two or more paralogs of most COPII components. Here we characterize mice deficient for SEC23A and studied interactions of Sec23a null allele with the previously reported Sec23b null allele. SEC23A deficiency leads to mid-embryonic lethality associated with defective development of extraembryonic membranes and neural tube opening in midbrain. Secretion defects of multiple collagen types are observed in different connective tissues, suggesting that collagens are primarily transported in SEC23A-containing vesicles in these cells. Other extracellular matrix proteins, such as fibronectin, are not affected by SEC23A deficiency. Intracellular accumulation of unsecreted proteins leads to strong induction of the unfolded protein response in collagen-producing cells. No collagen secretion defects are observed in SEC23B deficient embryos. We report that E-cadherin is a cargo that accumulates in acini of SEC23B deficient pancreas and salivary glands. Compensatory increase of one paralog is observed in the absence of the second paralog. Haploinsufficiency of the remaining Sec23 paralog on top of homozygous inactivation of the first paralog leads to earlier lethality of embryos. Our results suggest that mammalian SEC23A and SEC23B transport overlapping yet distinct spectra of cargo in vivo.
Project description:Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous mutations in two unlinked genes, SEC23A c.1200G>C (p.M400I) and MAN1B1 c.1000C>T (p.R334C), associated with congenital birth defects in two patients from a consanguineous family. Patients presented with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, tall stature, obesity, macrocephaly, and maloccluded teeth. The parents were healthy heterozygous carriers for both mutations and an unaffected sibling with tall stature carried the heterozygous mutation in SEC23A only. Mutations in SEC23A are responsible for craniolenticosultura dysplasia (CLSD). CLSD patients are short, have late-closing fontanels, and have reduced procollagen (pro-COL1A1) secretion because of abnormal pro-COL1A1 retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The mutation we identified in MAN1B1 was previously associated with reduced MAN1B1 protein and congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). CDG patients are also short, are obese, and have abnormal glycan remodeling. Molecular analysis of fibroblasts from the family revealed normal levels of SEC23A in all cells and reduced levels of MAN1B1 in cells with heterozygous or homozygous mutations in SEC23A and MAN1B1. Secretion of pro-COL1A1 was increased in fibroblasts from the siblings and patients, and pro-COL1A1 was retained in Golgi of heterozygous and homozygous mutant cells, although intracellular pro-COL1A1 was increased in patient fibroblasts only. We postulate that increased pro-COL1A1 secretion is responsible for tall stature in these patients and an unaffected sibling, and not previously discovered in patients with mutations in either SEC23A or MAN1B1. The patients in this study share biochemical and cellular characteristics consistent with mutations in MAN1B1 and SEC23A, indicating a digenic disease.
Project description:Fibrogenesis encompasses the deposition of matrix proteins, such as collagen I, by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) that culminates in cirrhosis. Fibrogenic signals drive transcription of procollagen I, which enters the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is trafficked through the secretory pathway, and released to generate extracellular matrix. Alternatively, disruption of procollagen I ER export could activate the unfolded protein response (UPR) and drive HSC apoptosis. Using a small interfering RNA screen, we identified Transport and Golgi organization 1 (TANGO1) as a potential participant in collagen I secretion. We investigated the role of TANGO1 in procollagen I secretion in HSCs and liver fibrogenesis. Depletion of TANGO1 in HSCs blocked collagen I secretion without affecting other matrix proteins. Disruption of secretion led to procollagen I retention within the ER, induction of the UPR, and HSC apoptosis. In wild-type (WT) HSCs, both TANGO1 and the UPR were induced by transforming growth factor ? (TGF?). As the UPR up-regulates proteins involved in secretion, we studied whether TANGO1 was a target of the UPR. We found that UPR signaling is responsible for up-regulating TANGO1 in response to TGF?, and this mechanism is mediated by the transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1). In vivo, murine and human cirrhotic tissue displayed increased TANGO1 messenger RNA levels. Finally, TANGO1+/- mice displayed less hepatic fibrosis compared to WT mice in two separate murine models: CCl4 and bile duct ligation. CONCLUSION:Loss of TANGO1 leads to procollagen I retention in the ER, which promotes UPR-mediated HSC apoptosis. TANGO1 regulation during HSC activation occurs through a UPR-dependent mechanism that requires the transcription factor, XBP1. Finally, TANGO1 is critical for fibrogenesis through mediating HSC homeostasis. The work reveals a unique role for TANGO1 and the UPR in facilitating collagen I secretion and fibrogenesis. (Hepatology 2017;65:983-998).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Autophagy is an inducible autodigestive process that allows cells to recycle proteins and other materials for survival during stress and nutrient deprived conditions. The kinase ULK1 is required to activate this process. ULK1 phosphorylates a number of target proteins and regulates many cellular processes including the early secretory pathway. Recently, ULK1 has been demonstrated to phosphorylate Sec16 and affects the transport of serotonin transporter at the ER exit sites (ERES), but whether ULK1 may affect the transport of other cargo proteins and general secretion has not been fully addressed. RESULTS:In this study, we identified Sec23A, a component of the COPII vesicle coat, as a target of ULK1 phosphorylation. Elevated autophagy, induced by amino acid starvation, rapamycin, or overexpression of ULK1 caused aggregation of the ERES, a region of the ER dedicated for the budding of COPII vesicles. Transport of cargo proteins was also inhibited under these conditions and was retained at the ERES. ULK1 phosphorylation of Sec23A reduced the interaction between Sec23A and Sec31A. We identified serine 207, serine 312 and threonine 405 on Sec23A as ULK1 phosphorylation sites. Among these residues, serine 207, when changed to phospho-deficient and phospho-mimicking mutants, most faithfully recapitulated the above-mentioned effects of ULK1 phospho-regulation. CONCLUSION:These findings identify Sec23A as a new target of ULK1 and uncover a mechanism of coordinating intracellular protein transport and autophagy.
Project description:As a result of a whole-exome sequencing study, we report three mutant alleles in SEC24D, a gene encoding a component of the COPII complex involved in protein export from the ER: the truncating mutation c.613C>T (p.Gln205(?)) and the missense mutations c.3044C>T (p.Ser1015Phe, located in a cargo-binding pocket) and c.2933A>C (p.Gln978Pro, located in the gelsolin-like domain). Three individuals from two families affected by a similar skeletal phenotype were each compound heterozygous for two of these mutant alleles, with c.3044C>T being embedded in a 14 Mb founder haplotype shared by all three. The affected individuals were a 7-year-old boy with a phenotype most closely resembling Cole-Carpenter syndrome and two fetuses initially suspected to have a severe type of osteogenesis imperfecta. All three displayed a severely disturbed ossification of the skull and multiple fractures with prenatal onset. The 7-year-old boy had short stature and craniofacial malformations including macrocephaly, midface hypoplasia, micrognathia, frontal bossing, and down-slanting palpebral fissures. Electron and immunofluorescence microscopy of skin fibroblasts of this individual revealed that ER export of procollagen was inefficient and that ER tubules were dilated, faithfully reproducing the cellular phenotype of individuals with cranio-lentico-sutural dysplasia (CLSD). CLSD is caused by SEC23A mutations and displays a largely overlapping craniofacial phenotype, but it is not characterized by generalized bone fragility and presented with cataracts in the original family described. The cellular and morphological phenotypes we report are in concordance with the phenotypes described for the Sec24d-deficient fish mutants vbi (medaka) and bulldog (zebrafish).
Project description:Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes associated with susceptibility to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection that have been identified by genome-wide association studies explain only a limited portion of the known heritability, indicating more genetic variants remain to be discovered. In this study, we adopted a new research strategy to identify more susceptibility genes and variants for HBV infection. We first performed genetic association analysis of 300 sib-pairs and 3,087 case-control samples, which revealed that 36 SNPs located in 31 genes showed nominal associations with HBV infection in both samples. Of these genes, we selected SEC24D for further molecular analysis according to the following two main lines of evidence. First, a time course analysis of the expression profiles from HBV-infected primary human hepatocytes (PHH) demonstrated that SEC24D expression increased markedly as time passed after HBV infection (P?=?4.0?×?10-4). Second, SNP rs76459466 in SEC24D was adversely associated with HBV risk (ORmeta?=?0.82; Pmeta?=?0.002), which again indicated that SEC24D represents a novel susceptibility gene for HBV infection. Moreover, SEC24D appeared to be protective against HBV infection in vitro. Consistently, we found that SEC24D expression was significantly enhanced in non-infected liver tissues (P?=?0.002). We conclude that SEC24D is a novel candidate gene linked to susceptibility to HBV infection.