A Novel Aldosterone Antagonist Limits Renal Injury in 5/6 Nephrectomy.
ABSTRACT: Aldosterone antagonists slow the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but their use is limited by hyperkalemia, especially when associated with RAS inhibitors. We examined the renoprotective effects of Ly, a novel non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blocker, through two experimental protocols: In Protocol 1, male Munich-Wistar rats underwent 5/6 renal ablation (Nx), being divided into: Nx+V, receiving vehicle, Nx+Eple, given eplerenone, 150?mg/kg/day, and Nx+Ly, given Ly, 20?mg/kg/day. A group of untreated sham-operated rats was also studied. Ly markedly raised plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone, and exerted more effective anti-albuminuric and renoprotective action than eplerenone. In Protocol 2, Nx rats remained untreated until Day 60, when they were divided into: Nx+V receiving vehicle; Nx+L treated with losartan, 50?mg/kg/day; Nx+L+Eple, given losartan and eplerenone, and Nx+L+Ly, given losartan and Ly. Treatments lasted for 90 days. As an add-on to losartan, Ly normalized blood pressure and albuminuria, and prevented CKD progression more effectively than eplerenone. This effect was associated with strong stimulation of PRA and aldosterone. Despite exhibiting higher affinity for the MR than either eplerenone or spironolactone, Ly caused no hyperkalemia. Ly may become a novel asset in the effort to detain the progression of CKD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) is the cornerstone of antihypertensive treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) on top of conventional RAAS blockade confer cardio- and renoprotective effects. Yet, the detailed effects of this therapeutic approach on key RAAS effectors have not been elucidated to date.<h4>Methods</h4>In this exploratory placebo-controlled study, 15 patients with CKD stages 2-3 and albuminuria due to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) were randomized to receive the MRA eplerenone or placebo in addition to ACEi therapy. Employing mass-spectrometry, we quantified plasma angiotensin levels [Ang I, Ang II, Ang-(1-7), Ang-(1-5), Ang III, Ang IV], renin and aldosterone in patients before and after 8 weeks of MRA treatment.<h4>Results</h4>While blood pressure and kidney function were similar in the placebo and eplerenone treatment group during the study period, distinct differences in RAAS regulation occurred: eplerenone treatment resulted in an increase in plasma renin activity, Ang I and aldosterone concentrations, indicating global RAAS activation. In addition, eplerenone on top of ACEi profoundly upregulated the alternative RAAS effector Ang-(1-7).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Combined eplerenone and ACEi therapy increases Ang-(1-7) levels in patients with CKD indicating a unique nephroprotective RAAS pattern with considerable therapeutic implications.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity associated with increased arterial stiffness. Plasma aldosterone levels are increased in CKD, and aldosterone has been found to increase vascular inflammation and fibrosis. It was hypothesized that aldosterone receptor inhibition with eplerenone could reduce arterial stiffness in CKD stage 3-4.<h4>Study design</h4>The design was randomized, open, parallel group. Measurements of arterial stiffness markers were undertaken at weeks 1 and 24.<h4>Intervention</h4>24 weeks of add-on treatment with 25-50 mg eplerenone or standard medication.<h4>Outcomes</h4>Primary outcome parameter was carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). Secondary outcomes were augmentation index (AIx), ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) and urinary albumin excretion.<h4>Results</h4>Fifty-four CKD patients (mean eGFR 36 mL/min/1.73 m(2), SD 11) were randomized. Forty-six patients completed the trial. The mean difference in cfPWV changes between groups was 0.1 m/s (95%CI: -1.0, 1.3), P?=?0.8. The mean difference in AIx changes between groups was 4.4% (0.1, 8.6), P?=?0.04. AASI was unchanged in both groups. The ratio of change in urinary albumin excretion in the eplerenone group compared to the control was 0.61 (0.37, 1.01), P?=?0.05. Four patients were withdrawn from the eplerenone group including three because of possible side effects; one was withdrawn from the control group. Mild hyperkalemia was seen on three occasions and was easily managed.<h4>Limitations</h4>The full planned number of patients was not attained. The duration of the trial may have been too short to obtain full effect of eplerenone on the arteries.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Add-on treatment with eplerenone in CKD stage 3-4 did not significantly reduce cfPWV. There may be beneficial vascular effects leading to attenuated pulse wave reflection. Treatment was well-tolerated.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.govNCT01100203.
Project description:Among patients with proteinuric chronic kidney disease (CKD), current guideline recommendations mandate the use of agents blocking the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) as first-line antihypertensive therapy based on randomized trials demonstrating that RAAS inhibitors are superior to other antihypertensive drug classes in slowing nephropathy progression to end-stage renal disease. However, the opportunities for adequate RAAS blockade in CKD are often limited, and an important impediment is the risk of hyperkalemia, especially when RAAS inhibitors are used in maximal doses or are combined. Accordingly, a large proportion of patients with proteinuric CKD may not have the anticipated renoprotective benefits since RAAS blockers are often discontinued due to incident hyperkalemia or are administered at suboptimal doses for fear of the development of hyperkalemia. Two newer potassium binders, patiromer and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS-9), have been shown to effectively and safely reduce serum potassium levels and maintain long-term normokalemia in CKD patients receiving background therapy with RAAS inhibitors. Whether these novel potassium-lowering therapies can overcome the barrier of hyperkalemia and enhance the tolerability of RAAS inhibitor use in proteinuric CKD awaits randomized trials.
Project description:Excess mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation promotes target organ dysfunction, vascular injury and fibrosis. MR antagonists like eplerenone are used for treating heart failure, but their use is limited due to the compound class-inherent hyperkalemia risk. Here we present evidence that AZD9977, a first-in-class MR modulator shows cardio-renal protection despite a mechanism-based reduced liability to cause hyperkalemia. AZD9977 in vitro potency and binding mode to MR were characterized using reporter gene, binding, cofactor recruitment assays and X-ray crystallopgraphy. Organ protection was studied in uni-nephrectomised db/db mice and uni-nephrectomised rats administered aldosterone and high salt. Acute effects of single compound doses on urinary electrolyte excretion were tested in rats on a low salt diet. AZD9977 and eplerenone showed similar human MR in vitro potencies. Unlike eplerenone, AZD9977 is a partial MR antagonist due to its unique interaction pattern with MR, which results in a distinct recruitment of co-factor peptides when compared to eplerenone. AZD9977 dose dependently reduced albuminuria and improved kidney histopathology similar to eplerenone in db/db uni-nephrectomised mice and uni-nephrectomised rats. In acute testing, AZD9977 did not affect urinary Na+/K+ ratio, while eplerenone increased the Na+/K+ ratio dose dependently. AZD9977 is a selective MR modulator, retaining organ protection without acute effect on urinary electrolyte excretion. This predicts a reduced hyperkalemia risk and AZD9977 therefore has the potential to deliver a safe, efficacious treatment to patients prone to hyperkalemia.
Project description:The progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) cannot be completely inhibited. We first explored factors contributing to CKD progression in patients with CKD in a prospective observational study. In the next phase, we focused on the effects of aldosterone, conducting a single-blinded placebo-controlled study using the selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA), eplerenone (25 mg/day). We recruited patients with CKD stage 2 and 3 whose plasma aldosterone concentration was above 15 ng/dL based on the prior data of a prospective observational study. In the CKD cohort study (n?=?141), baseline plasma aldosterone concentration was identified as an independent contributory factor for the future rate of change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). When the cut-off value for aldosterone was set at 14.5 ng/dL, the decline rate was significantly higher in patients with higher plasma aldosterone concentration (??1.22?±?0.39 ml/min/1.73 m2/year vs. 0.39?±?0.40 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, p?=?0.0047). In the final intervention study, in the eplerenone group, eGFR dropped at 6 months after the initiation of the study, and thereafter eGFR was maintained until the end of the study. At 24 months and 36 months, eGFR was significantly higher in the eplerenone group than in the placebo group. In conclusion, MRA can be an effective strategy in preventing CKD progression, especially in patients with high plasma aldosterone.
Project description:INTRODUCTION::AZD9977 is a novel mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) modulator, which in preclinical studies demonstrated organ protection without affecting aldosterone-regulated urinary electrolyte excretion. However, when tested in humans, using fludrocortisone as an MR agonist, AZD9977 exhibited similar effects on urinary Na+/K+ ratio as eplerenone. The aim of this study is to understand whether the contradictory results seen in rats and humans are due to the mineralocorticoid used. MATERIALS AND METHODS::Rats were treated with single doses of AZD9977 or eplerenone in combination with either aldosterone or fludrocortisone. Urine was collected for five to six hours and total amounts excreted Na+ and K+ were assessed. RESULTS::AZD9977 dose-dependently increased urinary Na+/K+ ratio in rats when tested against fludrocortisone, but not when tested against aldosterone. Eplerenone dose-dependently increased urinary Na+/K+ ratio when tested against fludrocortisone as well as aldosterone. CONCLUSIONS::The data suggest that the contrasting effects of AZD9977 on urinary electrolyte excretion observed in rats and humans are due to the use of the synthetic mineralocorticoid fludrocortisone. Future clinical studies are required to confirm the reduced electrolyte effects of AZD9977 and the subsequent lower predicted hyperkalemia risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIMS:Dietary potassium (K+) has beneficial effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. Recently, several epidemiological studies have revealed an association between urinary K+ excretion (as proxy for dietary intake) and better renal outcomes in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To address causality, we designed the "K+ in CKD" study. METHODS:The K+ in CKD study is a multicenter, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial aiming to include 399 patients with hypertension, CKD stage 3b or 4 (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 15-44 mL/min/1.73 m2), and an average eGFR decline > 2 mL/min/1.73 m2/year. As safety measure, all included subjects will start with a 2-week open-label phase of 40 mmol potassium chloride daily. Patients who do not subsequently develop hyperkalemia (defined as serum K+ >5.5 mmol/L) will be randomized to receive potassium chloride, potassium citrate (both K+ 40 mmol/day), or placebo for 2 years. The primary end point is the difference in eGFR after 2 years of treatment. Secondary end points include other renal outcomes (> 30% decrease in eGFR, doubling of serum creatinine, end-stage renal disease, albuminuria), ambulatory blood pressure, CV events, all-cause mortality, and incidence of hyperkalemia. Several measurements will be performed to analyze the effects of potassium supplementation, including body composition monitoring, pulse wave velocity, plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations, urinary ammonium, and intracellular K+ concentrations. CONCLUSION:The K+ in CKD study will demonstrate if K+ sup-plementation has a renoprotective effect in progressive CKD, and whether alkali therapy has additional beneficial effects.
Project description:Reduction of proteinuria and blood pressure (BP) with blockers of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) impairs the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aldosterone antagonist spironolactone has an antiproteinuric effect, but its use is limited by side effects. The present study evaluated the short-term antiproteinuric effect and safety of the selective aldosterone antagonist eplerenone in non-diabetic CKD.Open randomized cross-over trial.Forty patients with non-diabetic CKD and urinary albumin excretion greater than 300 mg/24 hours.Eight weeks of once-daily administration of add-on 25-50 mg eplerenone to stable standard antihypertensive treatment including RAS-blockade.24 hour urinary albumin excretion, BP, p-potassium, and creatinine clearance.The mean urinary albumin excretion was 22% [CI: 14,28], P < 0.001, lower during treatment with eplerenone. Mean systolic BP was 4 mmHg [CI: 2,6], P = 0.002, diastolic BP was 2 mmHg [CI: 0,4], P = 0.02, creatinine clearance was 5% [CI: 2,8], P = 0.005, lower during eplerenone treatment. After correction for BP and creatinine clearance differences between the study periods, the mean urinary albumin excretion was 14% [CI: 4,24], P = 0.008 lower during treatment. Mean p-potassium was 0.1 mEq/L [CI: 0.1,0.2] higher during eplerenone treatment, P<0.001. Eplerenone was thus well tolerated and no patients were withdrawn due to hyperkalaemia.Open label, no wash-out period and a moderate sample size.In non-diabetic CKD patients, the addition of eplerenone to standard antihypertensive treatment including RAS-blockade caused a moderate BP independent fall in albuminuria, a minor fall in creatinine clearance and a 0.1 mEq/L increase in p-potassium.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00430924.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>The aim of this study was to investigate the renoprotective effects of exosomes derived from rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) in a rat model of 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx)-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD).<h4>Methods</h4>A rat model of 5/6 Nx-induced CKD was established using conventional method. rBMSC-derived exosomes were isolated using ultracentrifugation and characterized. The exosomes were injected into 5/6 Nx rats through the caudal vein. After 12 weeks, 24 h proteinuria, serum creatinine (SCr), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were evaluated, and renal pathology was analyzed by H&E and Masson staining, and transmission electron microscopy. The expression of klotho was analyzed and the activity of the klotho promoter was evaluated using a luciferase reporter assay.<h4>Results</h4>The isolated exosomes showed typical morphological features. Exosomes transplantation reduced 24 h urinary protein excretion, and SCr and BUN levels in 5/6 Nx-induced CKD rats. Furthermore, renal pathology was improved in the exosome-treated 5/6 Nx rats. Mechanistically, the exosomes significantly upregulated the activity of klotho promoter and its expression.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Transplantation of rBMSC-derived exosomes may protect against kidney injury, probably by regulating klotho activity and expression. Our results provide a theoretical basis for the application of rBMSC-derived exosomes in CKD therapy.
Project description:Dementia resulting from small vessel diseases (SVDs) of the brain is an emerging epidemic for which there is no treatment. Hypertension is the major risk factor for SVDs, but how hypertension damages the brain microcirculation is unclear. Here, we show that chronic hypertension in a mouse model progressively disrupts on-demand delivery of blood to metabolically active areas of the brain (functional hyperemia) through diminished activity of the capillary endothelial cell inward-rectifier potassium channel, Kir2.1. Despite similar efficacy in reducing blood pressure, amlodipine, a voltage-dependent calcium-channel blocker, prevented hypertension-related damage to functional hyperemia whereas losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, did not. We attribute this drug class effect to losartan-induced aldosterone breakthrough, a phenomenon triggered by pharmacological interruption of the renin-angiotensin pathway leading to elevated plasma aldosterone levels. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that combining losartan with the aldosterone receptor antagonist eplerenone prevented the hypertension-related decline in functional hyperemia. Collectively, these data suggest Kir2.1 as a possible therapeutic target in vascular dementia and indicate that concurrent mineralocorticoid aldosterone receptor blockade may aid in protecting against late-life cognitive decline in hypertensive patients treated with angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers.