Extraction of Illegal Dyes from Red Chili Peppers with Cholinium-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents.
ABSTRACT: Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as a new kind of green solvents have been used to extract bioactive compounds but there are few applications in extracting chrysoidine dyes. In this study, we developed an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method with choline chloride/hydrogen bond donor (ChCl/HBD) DES for the extraction of chrysoidine G (COG), astrazon orange G (AOG), and astrazon orange R (AOR) in food samples. Some experimental parameters, such as extraction time, raw material/solvent ratio, and temperature, were evaluated and optimized as follows: the ratio of ChCl/HBD, 1 : 2 (v/v); the ratio of sample/DES, 1 : 10 (g/mL); extraction time, 20 min; extraction temperature, 50°C. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (μg/mL) were 0.10 for COG and 0.06 for AOG and AOR. The relative standard deviations were in the range of 1.2-2.1%. The recoveries of the three dyes were in the range of 80.2-105.0%. By comparing with other commonly used solvents for extracting chrysoidine dyes, the advantages of DESs proved them to be potential extraction solvents for chrysoidine G, astrazon orange G, and astrazon orange R in foods.
Project description:Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are green organic solvents that have broad prospects in the extraction of effective components of traditional Chinese medicine. This work employed the quantitative analysis of multi-components by a single marker (QAMS) method to quantitatively determine the six effective components of glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, isoliquiritin apioside, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritin, and glycyrrhetinic acid in Glycyrrhiza uralensis, which was used for comprehensive evaluation of the optimal extraction process by DESs. First, Choline Chloride: Lactic Acid (ChCl-LA, molar ratio 1:1) was selected as the most suitable DES by comparing the extraction yields of different DESs. Second, the extraction protocol was investigated by extraction time, extraction temperature, liquid-to-material ratio, molar ratio, and ultrasonic power. The Box–Behnken design (BBD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the optimal DES conditions. The result showed that the best DES system was 1.3-butanediol/choline chloride (ChCl) with the molar ratio of 4:1. The optimal extraction process of licorice was 20 mL/g, the water content was 30%, and the extraction time was 41 min. The comprehensive impact factor (z) was 0.92. At the same time, it was found that the microstructure of the residue extracted by the eutectic solvent was more severely damaged than the residue after the traditional solvent extraction through observation under an electron microscope. The DES has the characteristics of high efficiency and rapidity as an extraction solution.
Project description:Using the basic principle of construction between a hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) and a hydrogen bond donor (HBD), four bio-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were prepared in a 1:2 molar ratio of HBA:HBD. 2,3-Dihydroxypropyl-1-triethylammonium chloride ([C9H22N+O2]Cl-) was synthesized from raw glycerol and used as an HBA. Lactic acid, urea, pure glycerol, and ethylene glycol were selected as HBD. Attempts to prepare DESs, using citric acid and benzoic acid as HBDs, were unsuccessful. All these DESs were characterized using FTIR and NMR techniques. Besides, physicochemical parameters such as pH, viscosity, density, and melting point were determined. The behavior of these DES to fractionate olive pomace was studied. Lignin recovery yields spanned between 27% and 39% (w/w) of the available lignin in olive pomace. The best DES, in terms of lignin yield ([C9H22N+O2]Cl- -lactic acid), was selected to perform a scale-up lignin extraction using 40 g of olive pomace. Lignin recovery on the multigram scale was similar to the mg scale (38% w/w). Similarly, for the holocellulose-rich fractions, recovery yields were 34% and 45% for mg and multi-gram scale, respectively. Finally, this DES was used to fractionate four fruit pruning samples. These results show that our novel DESs are alternative approaches to the ionic liquid:triethylammonium hydrogen sulfate and the widely used DES: choline chloride:lactic acid (1:10 molar ratio) for biomass processing.
Project description:1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO)-based ionic liquids (ILs) 2-4 were synthesized by the N-alkylation of DABCO using alkyl halides of varying chain lengths (C2, C5, and C7). The N-alkylated DABCO-ILs were mixed with polyethylene glycols (PEGs) of varying molar masses as hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) to prepare new deep eutectic solvents (DESs). These DABCO-PEG-based DESs were successfully employed for the synthesis of a variety of indoles 7a-7h (by Fischer indole synthesis) and 1H-tetrazoles 9a-9i (by click chemistry). For comparison, DESs of DABCO-ILs with different alcohols (as HBD) were also prepared and investigated for the synthesis of indoles. Although comparable yields were observed in DES-containing alcohols and PEGs, the use of PEG as HBD in DES (as an alternative to alcohols) provides a much safer, nonvolatile, and environmentally benign reaction medium for synthetic reactions. The first successful application of PEG-polymer-based DES as benign reaction media for organic syntheses offers exciting opportunities to be explored in the realm of green synthesis.
Project description:The Artemisia argyi leaf (AL) has been used as a traditional medicine and food supplement in China and other Asian countries for hundreds of years. Phytochemical studies disclosed that AL contains various bioactive constituents. Among bioactive constituents, phenolic acids have been recognized as the main active compounds in AL. To the best of our knowledge, no research has been focused on extraction method for the bioactive phenolic acids from AL. Nowadays, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are emerging as a new type of green and sustainable solvent for efficient extraction of bioactive compounds from natural products. In the present study, an environmentally friendly extraction method based on DESs was established to extract bioactive phenolic acids from ALs. Diverse tailor-made solvents, including binary and ternary DESs, were explored for simultaneous extraction of four phenolic acids (3-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid) from AL. The results indicated that the ternary DES composed of a 2:1:2 molar ratio of choline chloride, malic acid, and urea showed enhanced extraction yields for phenolic acids compared with conventional organic solvents and other DESs. Subsequently, the extraction parameters for the four phenolic acids by selected tailor-made DESs, including liquid-solid ratios, water content (%) in the DESs, and extraction time, were optimized using response surface methodology and the optimal extraction conditions were: extraction time, 23.5 min; liquid-solid ratio, 57.5 mL/g (mL of DES/g dry weight of plant material); water content, 54%. The research indicated that DESs were efficient and sustainable green extraction solvents for extraction of bioactive phenolic acids from natural products. Compared to the conventional organic solvents, the DESs have a great potential as possible alternatives to those organic solvents in health-related areas such as food and pharmaceuticals.
Project description:An unprecedented, environmentally friendly, and faster method for the determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA) (a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and largely widespread in nature, in wheat and derived products) has, for the first time, been set up and validated using choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) (e.g., ChCl/glycerol (1:2) and ChCl/ urea (1:2) up to 40% (w/w) water) as privileged, green, and biodegradable extraction solvents. This also reduces worker exposure to toxic chemicals. Results are comparable to those obtained using conventional, hazardous and volatile organic solvents (VOCs) typical of the standard and official methods. OTA recovery from spiked durum wheat samples, in particular, was to up to 89% versus 93% using the traditional acetonitrile-water mixture with a repeatability of the results (RSDr) of 7%. Compatibility of the DES mixture with the antibodies of the immunoaffinity column was excellent as it was able to retain up to 96% of the OTA. Recovery and repeatability for durum wheat, bread crumbs, and biscuits proved to be within the specifications required by the current European Commission (EC) regulation. Good results in terms of accuracy and precision were achieved with mean recoveries between 70% (durum wheat) and 88% (bread crumbs) and an RSDr between 2% (biscuits) and 7% (bread).
Project description:A high-yield one-pot two-step synthesis of 2-aminoimidazoles (2-AI), exploiting an under-air heterocyclodehydration process between ?-chloroketones and guanidine derivatives, and using deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as nonconventional, "green" and "innocent" reaction media, has been accomplished successfully. The combination of either glycerol or urea with choline chloride (ChCl) proved to be effective for decreasing the reaction time to about 4-6 h in contrast to the 10-12 h usually required for the same reaction run in toxic and volatile organic solvents and under an argon atmosphere. In addition, the use of the ChCl-urea as a DES also enables the direct isolation of triaryl-substituted 2-AI derivatives by means of a simple work-up procedure consisting in filtration and crystallization, and allows the recycle of the DES mixture. A plausible mechanism highlighting the potential role played by hydrogen bonding catalysis has also been illustrated.
Project description:This is the first report on the extraction of cocoa bean shell (CBS) using deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Screening results with 16 different choline chloride-based DESs showed how choline chloride:oxalic acid DES was the most suitable solvent for the extraction of the bioactive compounds from CBS and that concentrations varied greatly depending on the used solvent. The DES extraction was compared to the DESs coupled with microwave extraction (MAE), and the yields of the extracted compounds were higher for DES/MAE. For theobromine, the obtained yields for DES extraction were 2.145-4.682 mg/g, and for caffeine, were 0.681-1.524 mg/g, whereas for DES/MAE, the same compounds were obtained in 2.502-5.004 mg/g and 0.778-1.599 mg/g. Antioxidant activity was also determined, using DPPH method, obtaining 24.027-74.805% activity for DES extraction and 11.751-55.444% for DES/MAE. Water content significantly influenced the extraction of targeted active compounds from CBS, whereas extraction time and temperature did not show statistically significant influence. The extraction temperature only influenced antioxidant activity. The study demonstrated how extraction using DES and microwaves could be of a great importance in the future trends of green chemistry for the production of CBS extracts rich in bioactive compounds.
Project description:In this study, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were used for the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of valuable bioactive compounds from Chinese wild rice (<i>Zizania</i> spp.). To this end, 7 different choline chloride (CC)-based DESs were tested as green extraction solvents. Choline chloride/1,4-butanediol (DES-2) exhibited the best extraction efficiency in terms of parameters such as the total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH<sup>?</sup> and ABTS<sup>?+</sup>). Subsequently, the UAE procedure using 76.6% DES-2 was also optimized: An extraction temperature of 51.2 °C and a solid-liquid ratio of 37.0 mg/mL were considered optimal by a Box-Behnken experiment. The optimized extraction procedure proved efficient for the extraction of 9 phenolic and 3 flavonoid compounds from Chinese wild rice as determined by quantification based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ-MS). This work, thus, demonstrates the possibility of customizing green solvents that offer greater extraction capacity than that of organic solvents.
Project description:Cymbidium kanran, an orchid exclusively distributed in Northeast Asia, has been highly valued as a decorative plant and traditional herbal medicine. Here, C. kanran extracts were prepared in 70% aqueous methanol using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and subjected to liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry analysis, which were used for quantitative and qualitative analysis, respectively. It was found that the extracts were rich in flavone C-glycosides including vicenin-2, vicenin-3, schaftoside, vitexin, and isovitexin. Ten deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were synthesized by combining choline chloride (hydrogen bond acceptor) with various polyols and diols (hydrogen bond donors) and were tested as a medium for the efficient production of extracts enriched with potentially bioactive flavone C-glycosides from C. kanran. A DES named ChCl:DPG, composed of choline chloride and dipropylene glycol at a 1:4 molar ratio, exhibited the best extraction yields. Then, the effects of extraction conditions on the extraction efficiency were investigated by response surface methodology. Lower water content in the extraction solvent and longer extraction time during UAE were desirable for higher extraction yields. Under the statistically optimized conditions, in which 100 mg of C. kanran powder were extracted in 0.53 mL of a mixture of ChCl:DPG and water (74:26, w/w) for 86 min, a total of 3.441 mg g-1 flavone C-glycosides including 1.933 mg g-1 vicenin-2 was obtained. This total yield was 196%, 131%, and 71% more than those obtained using 100% methanol, water, and 70% methanol, respectively.
Project description:Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are commonly employed as environmentally-friendly solvents in numerous chemical applications owing to their unique physicochemical properties. In this study, a novel and environmentally-friendly extraction method based on ultrasound assisted-deep eutectic solvent extraction (UAE-DES) was investigated for the extraction of flavonoids from Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja (C. paliurus) leaves, and the antioxidant activities of these flavonoids were evaluated. Nine different DES systems based on either two or three components were tested, and the choline chloride/1,4?butanediol system (1:5 molar ratio) was selected as the optimal system for maximizing the flavonoid extraction yields. Other extraction conditions required to achieve the maximum flavonoid extraction yields from the leaves of C. paliurus were as follows: DES water content (v/v), 30%; extraction time, 30 min; temperature, 60 °C; and solid-liquid ratio, 20 mg/mL. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed the detection of five flavonoids in the extract, namely kaempferol-7-O-?-l-rhamnoside, kaempferol, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-?-d-glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-O-?-d-glucuronide. In vitro antioxidant tests revealed that the flavonoid-containing extract exhibited strong DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging abilities. Results indicate that UAE-DES is a suitable approach for the selective extraction of flavonoids from C. paliurus leaves, and DESs can be employed as sustainable extraction media for other bioactive compounds.