Sodium intake and multiple sclerosis activity and progression in BENEFIT.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To assess whether a high-salt diet, as measured by urinary sodium concentration, is associated with faster conversion from clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to multiple sclerosis (MS) and MS activity and disability. METHODS:BENEFIT was a randomized clinical trial comparing early versus delayed interferon beta-1b treatment in 465 patients with a CIS. Each patient provided a median of 14 (interquartile range = 13-16) spot urine samples throughout the 5-year follow-up. We estimated 24-hour urine sodium excretion level at each time point using the Tanaka equations, and assessed whether sodium levels estimated from the cumulative average of the repeated measures were associated with clinical (conversion to MS, Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes. RESULTS:Average 24-hour urine sodium levels were not associated with conversion to clinically definite MS over the 5-year follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.67-1.24 per 1g increase in estimated daily sodium intake), nor were they associated with clinical or MRI outcomes (new active lesions after 6 months: HR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.97-1.13; relative change in T2 lesion volume: -0.11, 95% CI = -0.25 to 0.04; change in EDSS: -0.01, 95% CI = -0.09 to 0.08; relapse rate: HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.56-1.07). Results were similar in categorical analyses using quintiles. INTERPRETATION:Our results, based on multiple assessments of urine sodium excretion over 5 years and standardized clinical and MRI follow-up, suggest that salt intake does not influence MS disease course or activity. Ann Neurol 2017;82:20-29.
Project description:Current guidelines recommend under 2 g/day sodium intake in chronic kidney disease, but there are a few studies relating sodium intake to long-term outcomes. Here we evaluated the association of mean baseline 24-h urinary sodium excretion with kidney failure and a composite outcome of kidney failure or all-cause mortality using Cox regression in 840 participants enrolled in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. Mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 3.46 g/day. Kidney failure developed in 617 participants, and the composite outcome was reached in 723. In the primary analyses, there was no association between 24-h urine sodium and kidney failure (HR 0.99 (95% CI 0.91-1.08)) nor on the composite outcome (HR 1.01 (95% CI 0.93-1.09)), each per 1 g/day higher urine sodium. In exploratory analyses, there was a significant interaction of baseline proteinuria and sodium excretion with kidney failure. Using a two-slope model, when urine sodium was under 3 g/day, higher urine sodium was associated with increased risk of kidney failure in those with baseline proteinuria under 1 g/day and with lower risk of kidney failure in those with baseline proteinuria of ? 1 g/day. There was no association between urine sodium and kidney failure when urine sodium was ? 3 g/day. Results were consistent using first baseline and time-dependent urinary sodium excretion. Thus, we noted no association of urine sodium with kidney failure. Results of the exploratory analyses need to be verified in additional studies and the mechanism explored.
Project description:Importance:Clinicians' experience and findings from recent natural history studies suggest that multiple sclerosis (MS) may now be running a more slowly progressing course than before. Objective:To investigate whether the risk of reaching MS disability milestones has changed over the last decade in Sweden. Design, Setting, and Participants:A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study. By April 2017, 12?512 patients with available information on demographics, MS phenotype, and date of MS onset and diagnosis were registered in the Swedish MS Registry of which 7331 patients with at least 2 recorded Expanded Disability Status Scale scores (EDSS) and diagnosed between January 1995 and December 2010 were included. No further exclusion criteria were applied. Patients were followed up until December 2016 with a median duration follow-up of 8.5 (interquartile range, 4.7-13.8) years. Statistical analysis began in April 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures:Patients were followed up from MS onset date to the date of sustained EDSS 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0. To handle interval-censored observations, a Weibull model was fit, and the change in the risk of EDSS 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0 over calendar years was estimated and hazard ratios (HRs) with corresponding CIs were calculated. Results:Of 7331 patients, 5196 (70.9%) were women, and the mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 38.3 (11.7) years. Adjusting for sex, number of clinic visits, diagnostic delay, and onset age, a 3% decrease per calendar year of diagnosis for the risk of sustained EDSS 3.0 (HR,?0.97; 95% CI,?0.96-0.97), a 6% decrease for the risk of EDSS 4.0 (HR,?0.94; 95% CI,?0.93-0.95), and a 7% decrease for the risk of EDSS 6.0 (HR,?0.93; 95% CI,?0.91-0.94) among patients with relapsing-onset MS was found. The trends were not significant for patients with progressive-onset MS (EDSS 3.0: HR,?1.01; 95% CI,?0.98-1.03; EDSS 4.0: HR,?1.00; 95% CI,?0.98-1.02; EDSS 6.0: HR,?1.00; 95% CI,?0.98-1.02). Conclusions and Relevance:Risk of reaching major disability milestones has significantly decreased over the last decade in patients with relapsing-onset MS in Sweden. Several factors could potentially be responsible for this observation. However, given that no change was seen in disability accrual of patients with progressive-onset MS and the absence of efficacious treatment option in this group, increased use of more efficacious disease-modifying treatments could be a possible driver of this change.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>In 2010, the Institute of Medicine (now the National Academy of Medicine) recommended collecting 24-hour urine to estimate US sodium intake because previous studies indicated 90% of sodium consumed was excreted in urine.<h4>Objective</h4>To estimate mean population sodium intake and describe urinary potassium excretion among US adults.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the US noninstitutionalized population, 827 of 1103 (75%) randomly selected, nonpregnant participants aged 20 to 69 years in the examination component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected at least one 24-hour urine specimen in 2014. The overall survey response rate for the 24-hour urine collection was approximately 50% (75% [24-hour urine component response rate] × 66% [examination component response rate]).<h4>Exposures</h4>24-hour collection of urine.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Mean 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion. Weighted national estimates of demographic and health characteristics and mean electrolyte excretion accounting for the complex survey design, selection probabilities, and nonresponse.<h4>Results</h4>The study sample (n = 827) represented a population of whom 48.8% were men; 63.7% were non-Hispanic white, 15.8% Hispanic, 11.9% non-Hispanic black, and 5.6% non-Hispanic Asian; 43.5% had hypertension (according to 2017 hypertension guidelines); and 10.0% reported a diagnosis of diabetes. Overall mean 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was 3608 mg (95% CI, 3414-3803). The overall median was 3320 mg (interquartile range, 2308-4524). In secondary analyses by sex, mean sodium excretion was 4205 mg (95% CI, 3959-4452) in men (n = 421) and 3039 mg (95% CI, 2844-3234) in women (n = 406). By age group, mean sodium excretion was 3699 mg (95% CI, 3449-3949) in adults aged 20 to 44 years (n = 432) and 3507 mg (95% CI, 3266-3748) in adults aged 45 to 69 years (n = 395). Overall mean 24-hour urinary potassium excretion was 2155 mg (95% CI, 2030-2280); by sex, 2399 mg (95% CI, 2253-2545) in men and 1922 mg (95% CI, 1757-2086) in women; and by age, 1986 mg (95% CI, 1878-2094) in adults aged 20 to 44 years and 2343 mg (95% CI, 2151-2534) in adults aged 45 to 69 years.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>In cross-sectional data from a 2014 sample of US adults, estimated mean sodium intake was 3608 mg per day. The findings provide a benchmark for future studies.
Project description:Background:Previous studies have reported an association between dietary sodium intake and overweight/central obesity. However, dietary survey methods were prone to underestimate sodium intake. Therefore, this study investigated the associations of calculated 24-h urinary sodium excretion, an index of dietary sodium intake, with various obesity parameters including body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in a population with a relatively high sodium intake. Methods:A total of 16,250 adults (aged ?19 years) and 1476 adolescents (aged 10-18 years), with available information on spot urine sodium levels and anthropometric measurements from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were included in this study. We calculated 24-h urine sodium excretion levels from spot urine sodium levels using the Tanaka formula. Results:In adults, those with high sodium excretion levels (? 3200 mg) showed increased odds of overweight and central obesity compared to those with low urinary sodium excretion level (<?2200 mg) (odds ratio [OR]?=?2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.90-2.49 for overweight; OR?=?2.50, 95% CI?=?2.13-2.94 for central obesity). These associations were also observed in adolescents (OR?=?5.80, 95% CI?=?3.17-10.60 for overweight; OR?=?4.19, 95% CI?=?1.78-9.89 for central obesity). Conclusions:The present study suggests that reducing salt intake might be important for preventing overweight and central obesity, especially in adolescents. However, because the present study was conducted with cross-sectional study design, further longitudinal studies are warranted to confirm the causal relationship between urinary sodium excretion and overweight/central obesity.
Project description:24-h urinary sodium excretion is the gold standard for evaluating dietary sodium intake, but it is often not feasible in large epidemiological studies due to high participant burden and cost. Three methods--Kawasaki, INTERSALT, and Tanaka--have been proposed to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from a spot urine sample, but these methods have not been validated in the general Chinese population. This aim of this study was to assess the validity of three methods for estimating 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urine samples against measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion in a Chinese sample population. Data are from a substudy of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study that enrolled 120 participants aged 35 to 70 years and collected their morning fasting urine and 24-h urine specimens. Bias calculations (estimated values minus measured values) and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the validity of the three estimation methods. 116 participants were included in the final analysis. Mean bias for the Kawasaki method was -740 mg/day (95% CI: -1219, 262 mg/day), and was the lowest among the three methods. Mean bias for the Tanaka method was -2305 mg/day (95% CI: -2735, 1875 mg/day). Mean bias for the INTERSALT method was -2797 mg/day (95% CI: -3245, 2349 mg/day), and was the highest of the three methods. Bland-Altman plots indicated that all three methods underestimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods for estimation of 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urines all underestimated true 24-h urinary sodium excretion in this sample of Chinese adults. Among the three methods, the Kawasaki method was least biased, but was still relatively inaccurate. A more accurate method is needed to estimate the 24-h urinary sodium excretion from spot urine for assessment of dietary sodium intake in China.
Project description:Importance:Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) may be effective in aggressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) that fail to respond to standard therapies. Objective:To evaluate the long-term outcomes in patients who underwent AHSCT for the treatment of MS in a large multicenter cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants:Data were obtained in a multicenter, observational, retrospective cohort study. Eligibility criteria were receipt of AHSCT for the treatment of MS between January 1995 and December 2006 and the availability of a prespecified minimum data set comprising the disease subtype at baseline; the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score at baseline; information on the administered conditioning regimen and graft manipulation; and at least 1 follow-up visit or report after transplant. The last patient visit was on July 1, 2012. To avoid bias, all eligible patients were included in the analysis regardless of their duration of follow-up. Data analysis was conducted from September 1, 2014 to April 27, 2015. Exposures:Demographic, disease-related, and treatment-related exposures were considered variables of interest, including age, disease subtype, baseline EDSS score, number of previous disease-modifying treatments, and intensity of the conditioning regimen. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcomes were MS progression-free survival and overall survival. The probabilities of progression-free survival and overall survival were calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis models. Results:Valid data were obtained from 25 centers in 13 countries for 281 evaluable patients, with median follow-up of 6.6 years (range, 0.2-16 years). Seventy-eight percent (218 of 281) of patients had progressive forms of MS. The median EDSS score before mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells was 6.5 (range, 1.5-9). Eight deaths (2.8%; 95% CI, 1.0%-4.9%) were reported within 100 days of transplant and were considered transplant-related mortality. The 5-year probability of progression-free survival as assessed by the EDSS score was 46% (95% CI, 42%-54%), and overall survival was 93% (95% CI, 89%-96%) at 5 years. Factors associated with neurological progression after transplant were older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.05), progressive vs relapsing form of MS (HR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.27-4.28), and more than 2 previous disease-modifying therapies (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.10-2.47). Higher baseline EDSS score was associated with worse overall survival (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.40-2.95). Conclusions and Relevance:In this observational study of patients with MS treated with AHSCT, almost half of them remained free from neurological progression for 5 years after transplant. Younger age, relapsing form of MS, fewer prior immunotherapies, and lower baseline EDSS score were factors associated with better outcomes. The results support the rationale for further randomized clinical trials of AHSCT for the treatment of MS.
Project description:To evaluate whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels or tobacco use were associated with conversion to multiple sclerosis (MS) or MS progression/activity in patients presenting with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS).In this prospective, longitudinal study, we measured EBV IgG antibody and cotinine (biomarker of tobacco use) levels at up to 4 time points (baseline, months 6, 12, and 24) among 468 participants with CIS enrolled in the BENEFIT (Betaferon/Betaseron in Newly Emerging Multiple Sclerosis for Initial Treatment) clinical trial. Outcomes included time to conversion to clinically definite or McDonald MS, number of relapses, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) changes, brain and T2 lesion volume changes, and number of new active lesions over 5 years. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, treatment allocation, baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, number of T2 lesions, body mass index, EDSS, steroid treatment, and CIS onset type.We found no associations between any EBV IgG antibody or cotinine levels with conversion from CIS to MS or MS progression as measured by EDSS or activity clinically or on MRI. The relative risk of conversion from CIS to clinically definite MS was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 0.76-1.72) for the highest vs the lowest quintile of EBNA-1 IgG levels, and 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.71-1.31) for cotinine levels >25 ng/mL vs <10.Neither increased levels of EBV IgG antibodies, including against EBNA-1, nor elevated cotinine levels indicative of tobacco use, were associated with an increased risk of CIS conversion to MS, or MS activity or progression over a 5-year follow-up.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate the association between plasma neurofilament light chain (pNfL) levels and the risk of developing sustained disability worsening.<h4>Methods</h4>Concentrations of pNfL were determined in 4,385 persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 1,026 randomly selected population-based sex- and age-matched controls using the highly sensitive Single Molecule Array (SimoaTM) NF-Light Advantage Kit. We assessed the impact of age-stratified pNfL levels above the 80th, 95th, and 99th percentiles among controls on the risk of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) worsening within the following year and reaching sustained EDSS scores of 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0 and conversion to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS).<h4>Results</h4>The median (interquartile range [IQR]) pNfL was 7.5 (4.1) pg/mL in controls and 11.4 (9.6) pg/mL in MS (<i>p</i> < 0.001). The median (IQR) duration of follow-up was 5 (5.1) years. High pNfL was associated with increased adjusted rates of EDSS worsening ranging between 1.4 (95% confidence intervals [CIs]: 1.1-1.8) and 1.7 (95% CI: 1.4-2.3). High pNfL was also associated with the risk of reaching a sustained EDSS score of 3.0, with adjusted rates ranging between 1.5 (95% CI: 1.2-1.8) and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.3-1.8) over all percentile cutoffs (all <i>p</i> < 0.001). Similar increases were observed for the risk of sustained EDSS score 4.0. In contrast, the risk of reaching sustained EDSS score 6.0 and conversion to SPMS was not consistently significant.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Elevated pNfL levels at early stages of MS are associated with an increased risk of reaching sustained disability worsening. Hence, pNfL may serve as a prognostic tool to assess the risk of developing permanent disability in MS.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To assess the long-term prognostic value of an integral of longitudinal measurements of plasma neurofilament light chain levels (NfLlong) over 12 and 24 months vs single neurofilament light chain (NfL) measurements in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and its additional value when combined with clinical and MRI measures. METHODS:This analysis included continuously fingolimod-treated patients with RRMS from the 24-month FTY720 Research Evaluating Effects of Daily Oral therapy in Multiple Sclerosis (FREEDOMS)/12-month Trial Assessing Injectable Interferon vs FTY720 Oral in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (TRANSFORMS) phase 3 trials and their long-term extension, LONGTERMS. Patients were classified into high (?30 pg/mL, n = 110) and low (<30 pg/mL, n = 164) NfL categories based on the baseline (BL) NfL value or the geometric mean NfLlong calculated over 12 and 24 months to predict disability-related outcomes and brain volume loss (BVL). The additional prognostic value of NfL was quantified using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS:A single high (vs low) NfL measure at BL was prognostic of a higher risk of reaching Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ?4 earlier (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.19; 95% CI = 1.21-3.97) and higher BVL over 120 months (difference: -1.12%; 95% CI = -2.07 to -0.17). When NfLlong was measured over 24 months, high NfL was associated with a higher risk of reaching EDSS score ?4 (HR = 7.91; 95% CI = 2.99-20.92), accelerated 6-month confirmed disability worsening (HR = 3.14; 95% CI = 1.38-7.11), and 20% worsening in the Timed 25-Foot Walk Test (HR = 3.05; 95% CI = 1.38-6.70). Area under the ROC curve was consistently highest in models combining NfL with clinical and MRI measures. CONCLUSIONS:NfLlong had a higher prognostic value than single NfL assessments on long-term outcomes in RRMS. Combining it with clinical and MRI measures increased sensitivity and specificity to predict long-term disease outcomes. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE:This study provides Class I evidence that NfLlong was more strongly associated with long-term outcomes than single NfL assessments in patients with RRMS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a highly heterogenic course making prediction of long term outcome very difficult.<h4>Objective</h4>The objective was to evaluate current and identify additional clinical factors that are linked to long term outcome of relapsing-remitting MS assessed by disability status 10 years after disease onset.<h4>Methods</h4>This observational study included 793 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Clinical factors hypothesized to influence long term outcome measured by EDSS scores 10 years after disease onset were analysed by Kaplan-Meier-estimates. Multinomial logistic regression models regarding mild (EDSS ?2.5), moderate (EDSS 3.0-5.5) or severe (EDSS ?6.0) disability were calculated to correct for confounders.<h4>Results</h4>Secondary progression was the strongest predictor of severe disability (Hazard ratio [HR] 503.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 160.0-1580.1); p<0.001). Complete remission of neurological symptoms at onset reduced the risk of moderate disability (HR 0.42; CI 0.23-0.77; p = 0.005), while depression (HR 3.59; CI 1.14-11.24; p = 0.028) and cognitive dysfunction (HR 4.64; CI 1.11-19.50; p = 0.036) 10 years after disease onset were associated with severe disability. Oligoclonal bands and pregnancy were not correlated with disability.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We were able to identify clinically apparent chronic depression and cognitive dysfunction to be associated with adverse long term outcome in MS and to confirm that pregnancy has no negative impact. Additionally, we emphasize the positive predictive value of complete remission of initial symptoms.