ERK2 and JNK1 contribute to TNF-?-induced IL-8 expression in synovial fibroblasts.
ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) induces the expression and secretion of interleukin 8 (IL-8), which contributes to synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To elucidate the mechanism of the onset of RA, we used synovial fibroblasts without autoimmune inflammatory diseases and investigated MAPK signaling pathways in TNF-?-induced IL-8 expression. Synovial fibroblasts isolated from healthy dogs were characterized by flow cytometry, which were positive for the fibroblast markers CD29, CD44, and CD90 but negative for the hematopoietic cell markers CD14, CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. TNF-? stimulated the secretion and mRNA expression of IL-8 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. ERK and JNK inhibitors attenuated TNF-?-induced IL-8 expression and secretion. TNF-? induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. TNF-?-induced IL-8 expression was attenuated both in ERK2- and JNK1-knockdown cells. TNF-?-induced ERK1/2 or JNK1/2 was observed in ERK2- or JNK1-knockdown cells, respectively, showing that there is no crosstalk between ERK2 and JNK1 pathways. These observations indicate that the individual activation of ERK2 and JNK1 pathways contributes to TNF-?-induced IL-8 expression in synovial fibroblasts, which appears to be involved in the progress in RA.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: Interleukin (IL) 34 is a new cytokine implicated in macrophage differentiation and osteoclastogenesis. This study assessed IL-34 expression in the tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed in synovial biopsies from patients with RA (n=20), osteoarthritis (n=3) or other inflammatory arthritis (n=4). IL-34 was detected in the synovial fluid by ELISA and its messenger RNA expression was studied by quantitative PCR in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts after stimulation by tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) and IL-1?. Wild-type, jnk1(-/-)-jnk2(-/-) and nemo(-/-) murine fibroblasts and pharmacological inhibition were used to determine the involvement of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) and JNK in that effect. RESULTS: IL-34 was expressed in 24/27 biopsies, with three samples from RA patients being negative. A significant association was found between IL-34 expression and synovitis severity. Levels of IL-34 and the total leucocyte count in synovial fluid were correlated. TNF? and IL-1? stimulated IL-34 expression by synovial fibroblasts in a dose/time-dependent manner through the NF-?B and JNK pathway. CONCLUSION: This work for the first time identifies IL-34 expression in the synovial tissue of patients with arthritis. This cytokine, as a downstream effector of TNF? and IL-1?, may contribute to inflammation and bone erosions in RA.
Project description:The overgrowth of synovial tissues is critical in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The expression of Synoviolin (SYN), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is upregulated in arthritic synovial fibroblasts and is involved in the overgrowth of synovial cells during RA. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the elevated SYN expression are not known. Here, we found that SYN expression is elevated in the synovial fibroblasts from mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induce SYN expression in mouse synovial fibroblasts. Cultivation of mouse synovial fibroblasts with IL-1beta activates mitogen-activated protein kinases, including extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), and p38, while only Erk-specific inhibitor blocks IL-1beta-induced SYN expression. Expression of transcription factor ETS1 further enhances IL-1beta-induced SYN expression. The dominant negative ETS1 mutant lacking the transcription activation domain inhibits SYN expression in a dose-dependent manner. The activation of both Erk1/2 and ETS1 is increased in the CIA synovial fibroblasts. Inhibition of Erk activation reduces ETS1 phosphorylation and SYN expression. Our data indicate that the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha induce the overgrowth of synovial cells by upregulating SYN expression via the Erk1/-ETS1 pathway. These molecules or pathways could therefore be potential targets for the treatment of RA.
Project description:Different splice variants of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-32 are found in various tissues; their putative differences in biological function remain unknown. In the present study, we report that IL-32? is the most active isoform of the cytokine. Splicing to one less active IL-32? appears to be a salvage mechanism to reduce inflammation. Adenoviral overexpression of IL-32? (AdIL-32?) resulted in exclusion of the IL-32?-specific exon in vitro as well as in vivo, primarily leading to expression of IL-32? mRNA and protein. Splicing of the IL-32?-specific exon was prevented by single-nucleotide mutation, which blocked recognition of the splice site by the spliceosome. Overexpression of splice-resistant IL-32? in THP1 cells or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fibroblasts resulted in a greater induction of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1?, compared with IL-32?. Intraarticular introduction of IL-32? in mice resulted in joint inflammation and induction of several mediators associated with joint destruction. In RA synovial fibroblasts, overexpression of primarily IL-32? showed minimal secretion and reduced cytokine production. In contrast, overexpression of splice-resistant IL-32? in RA synovial fibroblasts exhibited marked secretion of IL-32?. In RA, we observed increased IL-32? expression compared with osteoarthritis synovial tissue. Furthermore, expression of TNF? and IL-6 correlated significantly with IL-32? expression in RA, whereas this was not observed for IL-32?. These data reveal that naturally occurring IL-32? can be spliced into IL-32?, which is a less potent proinflammatory mediator. Splicing of IL-32? into IL-32? is a safety switch in controlling the effects of IL-32? and thereby reduces chronic inflammation.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Synovial fibroblasts (SF) undergo phenotypic changes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that contribute to inflammatory joint destruction. This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical and functional significance of ectopic podoplanin (gp38) expression by RA SF.<h4>Methods</h4>Expression of gp38 and its CLEC2 receptor was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in synovial arthroscopic biopsies from RA patients and normal and osteoarthritic controls. Correlation between gp38 expression and RA clinicopathological variables was analyzed. In patients rebiopsied after anti-TNF-? therapy, changes in gp38 expression were determined. Platelet-SF coculture and gp38 silencing in SF were used to analyze the functional contribution of gp38 to SF migratory and invasive properties, and to SF platelet crosstalk.<h4>Results</h4>gp38 was abundantly but variably expressed in RA, and it was undetectable in normal synovial tissues. Among clinicopathologigal RA variables, significantly increased gp38 expression was only found in patients with lymphoid neogenesis (LN), and RF or ACPA autoantibodies. Cultured synovial but not dermal fibroblasts showed strong constitutive gp38 expression that was further induced by TNF-?. In RA patients, anti-TNF-? therapy significantly reduced synovial gp38 expression. In RA synovium, CLEC2 receptor expression was only observed in platelets. gp38 silencing in cultured SF did not modify their migratory and invasive properties but reduced the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 genes induced by SF-platelet interaction.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In RA, synovial expression of gp38 is strongly associated to LN and it is reduced after anti-TNF-? therapy. Interaction between gp38 and CLEC2 platelet receptor is feasible in RA synovium in vivo and can specifically contribute to gene expression by SF.
Project description:In the present study, we evaluated the effect of largazole (LAR), a marine-derived class I HDAC inhibitor, on tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity. LAR (1-5 ?M) had no adverse effect on the viability of RA synovial fibroblasts. Among the different class I HDACs screened, LAR (0.5-5 ?M) inhibited the constitutive expression of HDAC1 (0-30%). Surprisingly, LAR increased class II HDAC [HDAC6] by ~220% with a concomitant decrease in HDAC5 [30-58%] expression in RA synovial fibroblasts. SAHA (5 ?M), a pan-HDAC inhibitor, also induced HDAC6 expression in RA synovial fibroblasts. Pretreatment of RA synovial fibroblasts with LAR further enhanced TNF-?-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. However, LAR inhibited TNF-?-induced MMP-2 activity in RA synovial fibroblasts by 35% when compared to the TNF-?-treated group. Further, the addition of HDAC6 specific inhibitor Tubastatin A with LAR suppressed TNF-?+LAR-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression and completely blocked MMP-2 activity, suggesting a role of HDAC6 in LAR-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. LAR also enhanced TNF-?-induced phospho-p38 and phospho-AKT expression, but inhibited the expression of phospho-JNK and nuclear translocation of NF-?Bp65 in RA synovial fibroblasts. These results suggest that LAR activates p38 and Akt pathways and influences class II HDACs, in particular HDAC6, to enhance some of the detrimental effects of TNF-? in RA synovial fibroblasts. Understanding the exact role of different HDAC isoenzymes in RA pathogenesis is extremely important in order to develop highly effective HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of RA.
Project description:The present study investigated the influence of PGE(2), E prostanoid (EP) receptors, and their signaling pathways on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and IL-6 expression in synovial fibroblasts (SFs) from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. RASFs expressed all four EP receptors, with selective induction of EP2 by TNF-alpha. TNF-alpha time-dependently increased intracellular cAMP/protein kinase A signaling (maximum, 6-12 h) and PGE(2) secretion (maximum, 24 h). PGE(2) and the EP2 agonists butaprost or ONO-AE1-259 ((16)-9-deoxy-9beta-chloro-15-deoxy-16-hydroxy-17,17-trimethylene-19,20-didehydro PGE(1)), in turn, induced a rapid, time-dependent (maximum, 15-30 min) increase of cAMP. Additionally, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition by NS-398 (N-(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl)-methanesulfonamide) reduced the TNF-alpha-induced increase in IL-6 mRNA/protein, which was restored by stimulation with PGE(2) or EP2, EP3, and EP4 agonists. In contrast, TNF-alpha-induced MMP-1 secretion was not influenced by NS-398 and diminished by PGE(2) via EP2. Finally, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine enhanced the effects of PGE(2) on MMP-1, but not on IL-6 mRNA. In conclusion, PGE(2) differentially affects TNF-alpha-induced mRNA expression of proinflammatory IL-6 and prodestructive MMP-1 regarding the usage of EP receptors and the dependency on cAMP. Although specific blockade of EP2 receptors is considered a promising therapeutic strategy in RA, opposite regulation of proinflammatory IL-6 and prodestructive MMP-1 by PGE(2) via EP2 may require more complex approaches to successfully inhibit the cyclooxygenase-1/2 cAMP axis.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These are reflected in altered circadian rhythm of circulating serum cortisol, melatonin and IL-6 levels and in chronic fatigue. We hypothesized that the molecular machinery responsible for the circadian timekeeping is perturbed in RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of circadian clock in RA.<h4>Methods</h4>Gene expression of thirteen clock genes was analyzed in the synovial membrane of RA and control osteoarthritis (OA) patients. BMAL1 protein was detected using immunohistochemistry. Cell autonomous clock oscillation was started in RA and OA synovial fibroblasts using serum shock. The effect of pro-inflammatory stimulus on clock gene expression in synovial fibroblasts was studied using IL-6 and TNF-?.<h4>Results</h4>Gene expression analysis disclosed disconcerted circadian timekeeping and immunohistochemistry revealed strong cytoplasmic localization of BMAL1 in RA patients. Perturbed circadian timekeeping is at least in part inflammation independent and cell autonomous, because RA synovial fibroblasts display altered circadian expression of several clock components, and perturbed circadian production of IL-6 and IL-1? after clock resetting. However, inflammatory stimulus disturbs the rhythm in cultured fibroblasts. Throughout the experiments ARNTL2 and NPAS2 appeared to be the most affected clock genes in human immune-inflammatory conditions.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We conclude that the molecular machinery controlling the circadian rhythm is disturbed in RA patients.
Project description:TNF-? is a major cytokine implicated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and its expression is regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, the impact of changes in microRNA expression on posttranslational processes involved in TNF-? signaling networks is not well defined in RA. In this study, we evaluated the effect of miR-17, a member of the miR-17-92 cluster, on the TNF-? signaling pathway in human RA synovial fibroblasts (SFs). We demonstrated that miR-17 expression was significantly low in RA serum, SFs, and synovial tissues, as well as in the serum and joints of adjuvant-induced arthritis rats. RNA-sequencing analysis showed modulation of 664 genes by pre-miR-17 in human RA SFs. Ingenuity pathway analysis of RNA-sequencing data identified the ubiquitin proteasome system in the TNF-? signaling pathway as a primary target of miR-17. Western blot analysis confirmed the reduction in TRAF2, cIAP1, cIAP2, USP2, and PSMD13 expression by miR-17 in TNF-?-stimulated RA SFs. Immunoprecipitation assays showed that miR-17 restoration increased the K48-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF2, cIAP1, and cIAP2 in TNF-?-stimulated RA SFs. Thus, destabilization of TRAF2 by miR-17 reduced the ability of TRAF2 to associate with cIAP2, resulting in the downregulation of TNF-?-induced NF-?Bp65, c-Jun, and STAT3 nuclear translocation and the production of IL-6, IL-8, MMP-1, and MMP-13 in human RA SFs. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the role of miR-17 as a negative regulator of TNF-? signaling by modulating the protein ubiquitin processes in RA SFs.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Activated synovial fibroblasts are thought to play a major role in the destruction of cartilage in chronic, inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, profound insight into the pathogenic mechanisms and the impact of synovial fibroblasts in the initial early stages of cartilage destruction is limited. Hence, the present study sought to establish a standardised in vitro model for early cartilage destruction with native, intact cartilage in order to analyse the matrix-degrading capacity of synovial fibroblasts and their influence on cartilage metabolism. METHODS: A standardised model was established by co-culturing bovine cartilage discs with early-passage human synovial fibroblasts for 14 days under continuous stimulation with TNF-alpha, IL-1beta or a combination of TNF-alpha/IL-1beta. To assess cartilage destruction, the co-cultures were analysed by histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy and laser scanning microscopy. In addition, content and/or neosynthesis of the matrix molecules cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and collagen II was quantified. Finally, gene and protein expression of matrix-degrading enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines were profiled in both synovial fibroblasts and cartilage. RESULTS: Histological and immunohistological analyses revealed that non-stimulated synovial fibroblasts are capable of demasking/degrading cartilage matrix components (proteoglycans, COMP, collagen) and stimulated synovial fibroblasts clearly augment chondrocyte-mediated, cytokine-induced cartilage destruction. Cytokine stimulation led to an upregulation of tissue-degrading enzymes (aggrecanases I/II, matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) 1, MMP-3) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) in both cartilage and synovial fibroblasts. In general, the activity of tissue-degrading enzymes was consistently higher in co-cultures with synovial fibroblasts than in cartilage monocultures. In addition, stimulated synovial fibroblasts suppressed the synthesis of collagen type II mRNA in cartilage. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate for the first time the capacity of synovial fibroblasts to degrade intact cartilage matrix by disturbing the homeostasis of cartilage via the production of catabolic enzymes/pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppression of anabolic matrix synthesis (i.e., collagen type II). This new in vitro model may closely reflect the complex process of early stage in vivo destruction in RA and help to elucidate the role of synovial fibroblasts and other synovial cells in this process, and the molecular mechanisms involved in cartilage degradation.
Project description:The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1? (IL-1?) induces prostaglandin E<sub>2</sub> (PGE<sub>2</sub>) production via upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in synovial fibroblasts. This effect of IL-1? is involved in osteoarthritis. We investigated MAPK signaling pathways in IL-1?-induced COX-2 expression in feline synovial fibroblasts. In the presence of MAPK inhibitors, IL-1?-induced COX-2 expression and PGE<sub>2</sub> release were both attenuated. IL-1? induced the phosphorylation of p38, JNK, MEK, and ERK1/2. A JNK inhibitor prevented not only JNK phosphorylation but also MEK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in IL-1?-stimulated cells, but MEK and ERK1/2 inhibitors had no effect on JNK phosphorylation. A p38 inhibitor prevented p38 phosphorylation, but had no effect on MEK, ERK1/2, and JNK phosphorylation. MEK, ERK1/2, and JNK inhibitors had no effect on p38 phosphorylation. We also observed that in IL-1?-treated cells, phosphorylated MEK, ERK1/2, and JNK were co-precipitated with anti-phospho-MEK, ERK1/2, and JNK antibodies. The silencing of JNK1 in siRNA-transfected fibroblasts prevented IL-1? to induce phosphorylation of MEK and ERK1/2 and COX-2 mRNA expression. These observations suggest that JNK1 phosphorylation is necessary for the activation of the MEK/ERK1/2 pathway and the subsequent COX-2 expression for PGE<sub>2</sub> release, and p38 independently contributes to the IL-1? effect in synovial fibroblasts.