Peptide Immunoaffinity Enrichment with Targeted Mass Spectrometry: Application to Quantification of ATM Kinase Phospho-Signaling.
ABSTRACT: Peptide immunoaffinity enrichment coupled with targeted mass spectrometry is a quantitative approach for the robust and reproducible quantification of peptide analytes. The approach is capable of multiplexed quantification of peptides, including posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation. Anti-peptide antibodies are used to enrich analytes and heavy stable isotope-labeled standards. The enriched peptides are directly measured by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), a well-characterized quantitative mass spectrometry-based method. Quantification is performed by measuring the analyte (light) peptide response relative to the heavy standard, which is spiked at a known concentration. Here, we describe the methodology for multiplexed measurement of phosphorylated peptides on the ATM kinase and their nonmodified peptide analogs in cellular lysates. The method provides quantitative measurements of phospho-signaling and can be extended to a number of other phosphopeptides and sample types.
Project description:In most cell signaling experiments, analytes are measured one Western blot lane at a time in a semiquantitative and often poorly specific manner, limiting our understanding of network biology and hindering the translation of novel therapeutics and diagnostics. We show the feasibility of using multiplex immuno-MRM for phospho-pharmacodynamic measurements, establishing the potential for rapid and precise quantification of cell signaling networks. A 69-plex immuno-MRM assay targeting the DNA damage response network was developed and characterized by response curves and determinations of intra- and inter-assay repeatability. The linear range was ? 3 orders of magnitude, the median limit of quantification was 2.0 fmol/mg, the median intra-assay variability was 10% CV, and the median interassay variability was 16% CV. The assay was applied in proof-of-concept studies to immortalized and primary human cells and surgically excised cancer tissues to quantify exposure-response relationships and the effects of a genomic variant (ATM kinase mutation) or pharmacologic (kinase) inhibitor. The study shows the utility of multiplex immuno-MRM for simultaneous quantification of phosphorylated and nonmodified peptides, showing feasibility for development of targeted assay panels to cell signaling networks.
Project description:Triggered by Offset, Multiplexed, Accurate mass, High resolution, and Absolute Quantitation (TOMAHAQ) is a recently introduced targeted proteomics method that combines peptide and sample multiplexing. TOMAHAQ assays enable sensitive and accurate multiplexed quantification by implementing an intricate data collection scheme that comprises multiple MSn scans, mass inclusion lists, and data-driven filters. Consequently, manual creation of TOMAHAQ methods can be time-consuming and error prone, while the resulting TOMAHAQ data may not be compatible with common mass spectrometry analysis pipelines. To address these concerns we introduce TomahaqCompanion, an open-source desktop application that enables rapid creation of TOMAHAQ methods and analysis of TOMAHAQ data. Starting from a list of peptide sequences, a user can perform each step of TOMAHAQ assay development including (1) generation of priming run target list, (2) analysis of priming run data, (3) generation of TOMAHAQ method file, and (4) analysis and export of quantitative TOMAHAQ data. We demonstrate the flexibility of TomahaqCompanion by creating a variety of methods testing TOMAHAQ parameters (e.g., number of SPS notches, run length, etc.). Lastly, we analyze an interference sample comprising heavy yeast peptides, a standard human peptide mixture, TMT11-plex, and super heavy TMT (shTMT) isobaric labels to demonstrate ?10-200 attomol limit of quantification within a complex background using TOMAHAQ.
Project description:We assemble a versatile molecular scaffold from simple building blocks to create binary and multiplexed stable isotope reagents for quantitative mass spectrometry. Termed Protected Amine Labels (PAL), these reagents offer multiple analytical figures of merit including, (1) robust targeting of peptide N-termini and lysyl side chains, (2) optimal mass spectrometry ionization efficiency through regeneration of primary amines on labeled peptides, (3) an amino acid-based mass tag that incorporates heavy isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen to ensure matched physicochemical and MS/MS fragmentation behavior among labeled peptides, and (4) a molecularly efficient architecture, in which the majority of hetero-atom centers can be used to synthesize a variety of nominal mass and sub-Da isotopologue stable isotope reagents. We demonstrate the performance of these reagents in well-established strategies whereby up to four channels of peptide isotopomers, each separated by 4 Da, are quantified in MS-level scans with accuracies comparable to current commercial reagents. In addition, we utilize the PAL scaffold to create isotopologue reagents in which labeled peptide analogs differ in mass based on the binding energy in carbon and nitrogen nuclei, thereby allowing quantification based on MS or MS/MS spectra. We demonstrate accurate quantification for reagents that support 6-plex labeling and propose extension of this scheme to 9-channels based on a similar PAL scaffold. Finally, we provide exemplar data that extend the application of isotopologe-based quantification reagents to medium resolution, quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometers.
Project description:Immunoaffinity enrichment of peptides coupled to targeted, multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (immuno-MRM) enables precise quantification of peptides. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies are routinely used as affinity reagents in immuno-MRM assays, but they are not renewable, limiting the number of experiments that can be performed. In this technical note, we describe a workflow to regenerate anti-peptide polyclonal antibodies coupled to magnetic beads for enrichments in multiplex immuno-MRM assays. A multiplexed panel of 44 antibodies (targeting 60 peptides) is used to show that peptide analytes can be effectively stripped off of antibodies using acid washing without compromising assay performance. The performance of the multiplexed panel (determined by correlation, agreement, and precision of reused assays) is reproducible (R(2) between 0.81 and 0.99) and consistent (median CVs 8-15%) for at least 10 times of washing and reuse. Application of this workflow to immuno-MRM studies greatly reduces per sample assay cost and increases the number of samples that can be interrogated with a limited supply of polyclonal antibody reagent. This allows more characterization for promising and desirable targets prior to committing funds and efforts to conversion to a renewable monoclonal antibody.
Project description:There is an urgent need for quantitative assays in verifying and validating the large numbers of protein biomarker candidates produced in modern "-omics" experiments. Stable isotope standards with capture by anti-peptide antibodies (SISCAPA) has shown tremendous potential to meet this need by combining peptide immunoaffinity enrichment with quantitative mass spectrometry. In this study, we describe three significant advances to the SISCAPA technique. First, we develop a method for an automated magnetic bead-based platform capable of high throughput processing. Second, we implement the automated method in a multiplexed SISCAPA assay (nine targets in one assay) and assess the performance characteristics of the multiplexed assay. Using the automated, multiplexed platform, we demonstrate detection limits in the physiologically relevant ng/ml range (from 10 microl of plasma) with sufficient precision (median coefficient of variation, 12.6%) for quantifying biomarkers. Third, we demonstrate that enrichment of peptides from larger volumes of plasma (1 ml) can extend the limits of detection to the low pg/ml range of protein concentration. The method is generally applicable to any protein or biological specimen of interest and holds great promise for analyzing large numbers of biomarker candidates.
Project description:Access to a wider range of quantitative protein assays would significantly impact the number and use of tissue markers in guiding disease treatment. Quantitative mass spectrometry-based peptide and protein assays, such as immuno-SRM assays, have seen tremendous growth in recent years in application to protein quantification in biological fluids such as plasma or urine. Here, we extend the capability of the technique by demonstrating the application of a multiplexed immuno-SRM assay for quantification of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) levels in cell line lysates and human surgical specimens. The performance of the assay was characterized using peptide response curves, with linear ranges covering approximately four orders of magnitude and limits of detection in the low fmol/mg lysate range. Reproducibility was acceptable with median coefficients of variation of approximately 10%. We applied the assay to measurements of ER and HER2 in well-characterized cell line lysates with good discernment based on ER/HER2 status. Finally, the proteins were measured in surgically resected breast cancers, and the results showed good correlation with ER/HER2 status determined by clinical assays. This is the first implementation of the peptide-based immuno-SRM assay technology in cell lysates and human surgical specimens.
Project description:Immunoaffinity enrichment of proteotypic peptides, coupled with selected reaction monitoring, enables indirect protein quantification. However the lack of suitable antibodies limits its widespread application. We developed a method in which multi-specific antibodies are used to enrich groups of peptides, thus facilitating multiplexed quantitative protein assays. We tested this strategy in a pharmacokinetic experiment by targeting a group of homologous drug transforming proteins in human hepatocytes. Our results indicate the generic applicability of this method to any biological system.
Project description:Background: Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDD) comprise a group of life-threatening congenital diseases characterized by absent or impaired immune responses. Despite the fact that effective, curative treatments are available with optimal clinical outcomes when diagnosed early, newborn screening does not exist for the majority of these diseases due to the lack of detectable, specific biomarkers or validated methods for population-based screening. Peptide immunoaffinity enrichment coupled with selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (immuno-SRM) is a sensitive proteomic assay, involving antibody-mediated peptide capture, that allows for concurrent quantification of multiple analytes. This assay has promise for use in potential newborn screening of PIDDs that lead to diminished or absent target proteins in the majority of cases. Objective: To determine and evaluate if a multiplex assay based on immuno-SRM is able to reliably and precisely distinguish affected patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS), and CD3?-associated severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) from one another and from unaffected normal control dried blood spot (DBS) samples. Methods: We performed a blinded, multiplexed analysis of proteolytically-generated peptides from WASp, BTK, and CD3? (for WAS, XLA, and SCID, respectively) in DBS samples from 42 PIDD patients, 40 normal adult controls, and 62 normal newborns. The peptide ATPase copper transporting protein (ATP7B) 1056 was simultaneously monitored for quality assurance purposes. Results: The immuno-SRM assays reliably quantified the target peptides in DBS and accurately distinguished affected patients from normal controls. Analysis of signature peptides found statistically significant reduction or absence of peptide levels in affected patients compared to control groups in each case (WASp and BTK: p = 0.0001, SCID: p = 0.05). Intra and inter-assay precision ranged from 11 to 22% and 11 to 43% respectively; linearity (1.39-2000 fmol peptide), and stability (? 0.09% difference in 72 h) showed high precision for the multiplexed assay. Inter-laboratory assay comparison showed high concordance for measured peptide concentrations, with R2 linearity ? 0.97 for the WASp 274, CD3? 197, BTK 407, and ATP7B 1056 peptides. Conclusion: Immuno-SRM-based quantification of proteotypic peptides from WASp, BTK, and CD3? in DBS distinguishes relevant PIDD cases from one another and from controls, raising the possibility of employing this approach for large-scale multiplexed newborn screening of selective PIDDs.
Project description:Elevated chromatographic temperatures are well recognized to provide beneficial analytical effects. Previously, we demonstrated that elevated chromatographic temperature enhances the identification of hydrophobic peptides from enriched membrane samples. Here, we quantitatively assess and compare the recovery of peptide analytes from both simple and complex tryptic peptide matrices using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry. Our study demonstrates that elevated chromatographic temperature results in significant improvements in the magnitude of peptide recovery for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides from both simple and complex peptide matrices. Importantly, the analytical benefits for quantitative measurements in mouse whole brain matrix are highlighted, suggesting broad utility in the proteomic analyses of complex mammalian tissues. Any improvement in peptide recovery from chromatographic separations translates directly to the apparent sensitivity of downstream mass analysis in microcapillary liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (muLC-MS) based proteomic applications. Therefore, the incorporation of elevated chromatographic temperatures should result in significant improvements in peptide quantification as well as detection and identification.
Project description:Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I peptides play a critical role in immune cell recognition. Cancer cells modulate surface MHC levels in response to therapy, thereby affecting antitumor immunity. However, understanding the peptide repertoire response to treatment remains challenging and is limited by quantitative mass spectrometry-based strategies lacking robust normalization controls. We describe a novel approach that leverages recombinant heavy isotope-coded peptide MHCs (hipMHCs) and multiplex isotope tagging for quantitation of peptide repertoires using low sample input. HipMHCs improve quantitative accuracy by normalizing for variation across analyses, and enable absolute quantification using internal calibrants to determine copies per cell of MHC antigens. Application of this platform to profile the immunopeptidome response to CDK4/6 inhibition and Interferon gamma, known modulators of antigen presentation, uncovered treatment-specific alterations that connect the intracellular response to extracellular immune presentation. This method quantifies repertoire changes that can inform targeted and combination immunotherapy design. Overall design: 3 replicates each of DMSO-treated and Palbociclib-treated SKMEL5 cells