Muscle gap approach under a minimally invasive channel technique for treating long segmental lumbar spinal stenosis: A retrospective study.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to compare the efficacy of muscle gap approach under a minimally invasive channel surgical technique with the traditional median approach.In the Orthopedics Department of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital, Tongzhou District, Beijing, 68 cases of lumbar spinal canal stenosis underwent surgery using the muscle gap approach under a minimally invasive channel technique and a median approach between September 2013 and February 2016. Both approaches adopted lumbar spinal canal decompression, intervertebral disk removal, cage implantation, and pedicle screw fixation. The operation time, bleeding volume, postoperative drainage volume, and preoperative and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) score and Japanese Orthopedics Association score (JOA) were compared between the 2 groups.All patients were followed up for more than 1 year. No significant difference between the 2 groups was found with respect to age, gender, surgical segments. No diversity was noted in the operation time, intraoperative bleeding volume, preoperative and 1 month after the operation VAS score, preoperative and 1 month after the operation JOA score, and 6 months after the operation JOA score between 2 groups (P > .05). The amount of postoperative wound drainage (260.90 ± 160 mL vs 447.80 ± 183.60 mL, P < .001) and the VAS score 6 months after the operation (1.71 ± 0.64 vs 2.19 ± 0.87, P = .01) were significantly lower in the muscle gap approach group than in the median approach group (P < .05). In the muscle gap approach under a minimally invasive channel group, the average drainage volume was reduced by 187 mL, and the average VAS score 6 months after the operation was reduced by an average of 0.48.The muscle gap approach under a minimally invasive channel technique is a feasible method to treat long segmental lumbar spinal canal stenosis. It retains the integrity of the posterior spine complex to the greatest extent, so as to reduce the adjacent spinal segmental degeneration and soft tissue trauma. Satisfactory short-term and long-term clinical results were obtained.
Project description:To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of intraoperative myelography in determining adequacy of indirect spinal canal decompression during transpsoas lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF).Seven patients diagnosed with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) were prospectively included to this study. All patients underwent LLIF and subsequently received intraoperative myelography to determine the effect of indirect spinal canal decompression, which was visualized in both anterior-posterior and lateral images. Those patients with insufficient indirect canal decompression were further resolved by microendoscopic canal decompression (MECD). Radiological parameters, including stenosis ratio and dural sac area of operated levels, were measured and compared before and after operation. Besides, all patients were followed up for at least one year using visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg, Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (JOA), and Oswestry disability index (ODI).Seven patients with 8 operated levels underwent LLIF safely and demonstrated significant symptom relief postoperatively. Five operated levels showed adequate indirect canal decompression intraoperatively, while the remaining three levels did not achieve the adequacy, and their residual stenosis was resolved following MECD. Radiological parameters were improved statistically when compared with preoperation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, neurological symptoms of all patients were also improved significantly (P < 0.05), shown by improved VAS (back and leg), JOA, and ODI at both two-week and one-year follow-up.Intraoperative myelography during LLIF is able to assess adequacy of indirect canal decompression for DLSS, thus promising favorable clinical outcomes.
Project description:Background:Standard posterior percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy (PECD) is considered an effective minimally invasive surgery. Although standard PECD can be used to treat radiculopathy with relatively minimal trauma, it is still a challenge to use this approach for treating myelopathy. Objective:This report is aimed at first describing a posterior transpedicular approach under endoscopy for myelopathy and evaluating the feasibility and short-term clinical effects of this approach. Methods:In our retrospective analysis between Feb. 2016 to Mar. 2017, 16 patients managed with PECD using the posterior transpedicular approach for symptomatic single-segment myelopathy. Surgery involved drilling 1/2 to 2/3 of the medial portion of the pedicle under endoscopy to provide sufficient space and an appropriate angle for inserting the endoscope into the spinal canal, followed by ventral decompression of the spinal cord. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to evaluate pedicle healing and spinal cord decompression. The primary outcomes included a visual analog scale (VAS) scores of axial neck pain and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores of neurological conditions. Results:All patients completed a 1-year follow-up examination. The mean duration of surgery was 95.44 ± 19.44?min (52-130?min). The fluoroscopy duration was 5.88 ± 1.05 (4-7). The VAS scores of axial pain significantly improved from 6.94 ± 0.75 preoperatively to 2.88 ± 1.22 postoperatively (P < 0.05). The mean JOA scores improved from 8.50 ± 1.12 preoperatively to 14.50 ± 1.46 at the final follow-up (P < 0.05). The effects were excellent in 8 cases, good in 6 cases, and fair in 2 cases. After partial pedicle excision, the width of the remaining pedicle was 1.70 ± 0.22?mm postoperatively and significantly recovered to 3.38 ± 0.49?mm at the 1-year follow-up. There were no surgery-related complications, such as dural tearing, spinal cord injury, nerve root injury, pedicle fracture, and cervical hematocele or infection. Conclusions:The posterior transpedicular approach is an effective method for the treatment of myelopathy in select patients and is a supplement to the described surgical approach for PECD.
Project description:<h4>Study design</h4>Multicenter, prospective, randomized, and double-blinded study.<h4>Objectives</h4>To compare tubular and endoscopic interlaminar approach.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and neurogenic claudication of were randomized to tubular or endoscopic technique. Enrollment period was 12 months. Clinical follow up at 1, 3, 6 months after surgery with visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score. Radiologic evaluation with magnetic resonance pre- and postsurgery.<h4>Results</h4>Twenty patients were enrolled: 10 in tubular approach (12 levels) and 10 in endoscopic approach (11 levels). The percentage of enlargement of the spinal canal was higher in endoscopic approach (202%) compared with tubular approach (189%) but was not statistically significant (<i>P</i> = .777). The enlargement of the dural sac was higher in endoscopic group (209%) compared with tubular group (203%) but no difference was found between the 2 groups (<i>P</i> = .628). A modest significant correlation was found between the percentage of spinal canal decompression and enlargement of the dural sac (<i>r</i> = 0.5, <i>P</i> = .023). Both groups reported a significant clinical improvement postsurgery. However, no significant association was found between the percentage of enlargement of the spinal canal or the dural sac and clinical improvement as determined by scales scores. Endoscopic group had lower intrasurgical bleeding (<i>P</i> < .001) and lower disability at 6 months of follow-up than tubular group (p=0.037).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis, endoscopic technique allows similar decompression of the spinal canal and the dural sac, lower intrasurgical bleeding, similar symptoms improvement, and lower disability at 6 months of follow-up, as compared with the tubular technique.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, efficacy, and indications of percutaneous pedicle screw fixation (PPSF) combined with selective transforaminal endoscopic decompression (TED) in the treatment of thoracolumbar burst fracture (TBLF). METHODS:From August 2015 to October 2018, a total of 41 patients with single-segment TLBF (28 men and 13 women) were enrolled in this study. X-ray and computed tomography were obtained before surgery, 1?week after surgery, and 1?year after surgery to evaluate spinal recovery. In addition, we used the visual analog scale (VAS), the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the Japanese Orthopedic Association score (JOA), and the Frankel classification of neurological deficits to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatments. RESULTS:The average follow-up time was 22.02 ± 8.28?months. The postoperative Cobb angle, vertebral body compression ratio, vertebral wedge angle, mid-sagittal canal diameter compression ratio, and Frankel grade were significantly improved. There were also significant improvements in the VAS (7.61 ± 1.41 vs. 1.17 ± 0.80, P?<?0.001), ODI (89.82 ± 7.44 vs. 15.71 ± 13.50, P?<?0.001), and JOA (6.90 ± 2.91 vs. 24.90 ± 3.03, P?<?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Our results showed that PPSF combined with selective TED in the treatment of TLBF had excellent efficacy, high safety, less secondary injury than other treatments, and a wide range of indications and that it could accurately distinguish patients who did not need spinal canal decompression after posterior fixation. PPSF combined with selective TED is therefore a good choice for the treatment of TLBF.
Project description:Background:Conventional anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) for cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is associated with a high incidence of surgery-related complications. A novel anterior decompression technique [vertebral body sliding osteotomy (VBSO)] has been developed to prevent such complications and achieve effective anterior decompression for severe OPLL patients. The purpose of this study was to describe the procedure of novel surgical technique and to evaluate the long-term surgical outcomes. Methods:Between 2012 and 2014, 24 patients underwent VBSO for treatment of cervical myelopathy caused by severe OPLL. Operation time, estimated blood loss (EBL), neurologic outcomes and perioperative complications were investigated. Various radiographic parameters such as the preoperative canal occupying ratio, postoperative canal widening, and preoperative and postoperative cervical sagittal alignment were also measured. Minimum follow-up was 24 months. Results:The mean Japanese Orthopaedic Association score for cervical myelopathy (C-JOA score) improved from 12.4±2.9 preoperatively to 16.0±1.4 at the final follow-up (P<0.05). The mean recovery rate of the C-JOA score at the final follow-up was 68.65%±17.80%. The mean operating time was 130.7±21.0 minutes and the EBL was 176.3±38.0 mL. There were no perioperative complications. Pseudarthrosis was detected in two cases at 12 months postoperatively. The average spinal canal compromised ratio by OPLL decreased from 64.0%±15.0% preoperatively to 15.5%±12.2% postoperatively (P<0.05), with an average postoperative canal widening of 5.15±1.39 mm. Conclusions:Novel anterior decompression technique termed VBSO may be an effective and safe surgical option for anterior decompression surgery in patients with severe cervical OPLL. Since, VBSO does not involve a direct manipulation of the OPLL mass or dissection of the interspace between the OPLL and dura mater, this may significantly decrease the incidence of surgery-related complications, operation time, and intraoperative blood loss.
Project description:Background:Epidural steroid injection is a non-operative minimally invasive procedure for pain relief in spinal canal stenosis. However, there is no significant consensus regarding its efficacy. Objectives:In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of translaminar injection of triamcinolone in lumbar canal stenosis. Methods:In a retrospective study, we included 111 patients with MRI-confirmed spinal canal stenosis who were irresponsive to 12 weeks of conservative treatment and underwent epidural injection of triamcinolone through the translaminar approach. Outcome measures were routinely checked before the intervention and four weeks after the intervention, which included the Visual Analog scale (VAS) for low back pain, VAS for lower-limb pain, and Oswestry Disability index (ODI). Results:The study population included 32 (28.8%) males and 79 (71.2%) females with the mean age of 61 ± 13.4 years. The mean ODI, VAS for low back pain, and VAS for lower-limb pain significantly improved at the final evaluation session (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). The levels of improvement in ODI, VAS for low back pain, and VAS for lower-limb pain were considerably more in patients with single-level involvement (P < 0.001, P = 0.04, and P < 0.001, respectively). Improvement of lower-limb VAS was negatively correlated with age (r = -0.400, P < 0.001) and BMI (r = -0.525, P < 0.001). The ODI improvement was also negatively correlated with BMI (r = -0.569, P < 0.001). Conclusions:Epidural injection of triamcinolone through the translaminar approach could be regarded as an efficacious method for the alleviation of pain and disability in patients with spinal canal stenosis.
Project description:To determine whether the effectiveness of core stability exercises correlates with the severity of spinal stenosis in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.Forty-two patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis treated in the department of orthopedics of our hospital between May 2013 and January 2016 were included in the study. All the patients performed core stability exercises once daily for six weeks, and the clinical outcomes were evaluated using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and self-reported walking capacity. The anteroposterior osseous spinal canal diameter was measured to evaluate the severity of spinal stenosis. The correlation between the stenosis degree and the differences of Japanese Orthopaedic Association score or self-reported walking capacity at baseline and after treatment were analyzed.The patients were divided into three groups according to the spinal stenosis degree. In the three groups, there was no significant difference in JOA or self-reported walking distance at baseline (p>0.05) and after treatment (p>0.05). The JOA scores and self-reported walking distance were significantly increased after treatment (p<0.05) in any of the three groups when compared to the baseline. Also, there was no significant correlation between the stenosis degree and the difference of JOA (p>0.05) or self-reported walking distance (p>0.05).There was no significantcorrelation between the effectiveness of core stability exercises and the severity of spinal stenosis in patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect and correlation between preoperative imaging parameters and the clinical effect of endoscopic transforaminal decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis. METHODS:In this prospective study, 87 patients from Shanxi Province People's Hospital met the criteria for lumbar spinal stenosis and were recruited from June 2014 to January 2016. These patients underwent endoscopic transforaminal decompression. The clinical symptoms were evaluated by VAS, ODI, and claudication at 3 and 6?months after surgery. The overall clinical efficacy was evaluated using the MacNab score. Yellow ligament thickness and area of the dural sac were examined by MRI. Bony vertebral canal area, real spinal canal area, nerve root canal bony area, nerve root canal real area, distance between the articular joints, and vertebral canal sagittal diameter were examined by CT. The soft tissue invasion ratio of the vertebral canal and the invasion ratio of the nerve root canal were calculated. Correlations between imaging parameters and age, sex, and clinical efficacy were examined. RESULTS:The MacNab scores were excellent in 47% of cases, good in 34%, generally good in 8%, and poor in 11%. VAS, ODI, and claudication were significantly improved compared with the preoperative values (P?<?0.01). A significant difference was observed between the 71-81?year age group and the other age groups (P?<?0.05). There were good correlations between clinical efficacy and vertebral canal sagittal diameter, distance between the articular joints, soft tissue invasion ratio of the vertebral canal, and invasion ratio of the nerve root canal. CONCLUSION:Treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis by endoscopic transforaminal decompression can achieve good clinical results. This operation is less effective in patients older than 71?years of age. There were positive correlations between clinical efficacy and the vertebral canal sagittal diameter, the articular joints, soft tissue invasion ratio of the vertebral canal, and invasion ratio of the nerve root canal.
Project description:To investigate the clinical and imaging predictors of surgical outcomes in patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL).From May 2010 to April 2012, a total of 200 consecutive patients with cervical OPLL were recruited for this study. Of them, 184 patients (130 men and 54 women) who could be tracked for more than 24 months after surgery were finally included for analysis. Their demographic, clinical and radiological data were collected preoperatively. The recovery ratio in terms of JOA score was used to assess the outcome of the patients preoperatively and at 2 years postoperatively. A JOA recovery rate less than 50% was considered a poor outcome.Compared with good outcome group, an older mean age at operation, a longer mean duration of symptoms, a lower mean pre-operativer JOA score, and a higher proportion of diabetics were observed in poor outcome group. Patients in poor outcome group were more likely to present kyphotic cervical alignment, smaller mean transverse area of the spinal cord, and intramedullary signal abnormalities. The result of multivariate stepwise logistic regression showed that a longer duration of symptoms and the presence of T1 hypo-intensity intramedullary changes on MRI were significant risk factors of lower JOA recovery ratios.A longer duration of symptom, T1 hypointensity on MRI and a history of minor trauma were highly predictive of a poor outcome for patients undergoing surgical treatment of OPLL. Age at operation, the history of diabetes, the preoperative JOA score, the transverse area of the spinal cord and T2 hyper-intensity on MRI were also associated with the prognosis of OPLL.
Project description:There is limited research on the changes of biomechanical characteristics of the lumbar extensor myofascia in elderly patients with chronic low back pain. This study aimed to compare the biomechanical properties of the lumbar extensor myofascia in elderly patients with chronic low back pain and healthy people when resting and to analyze the relationship between the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, visual analog scale (VAS) score, Cobb angle, and disease course and the biomechanical characteristics of the lumbar extensor myofascia. This case-control study included 40 elderly patients with chronic low back pain and 40 healthy volunteers. MyotonPRO was used to measure the biomechanical properties of the bilateral lumbar extensor myofascia (at L3/L4 level) in all participants, and the reliability of the MyotonPRO test was measured. Cobb angle was measured from lumbar computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging data. JOA and VAS scores were used to evaluate lumbar function and pain. We found that muscle tone, stiffness, and elasticity of the left and right lumbar extensor myofascia in patients with chronic low back pain were very reliable among different operators. The average lumbar extensor muscle tone and stiffness were significantly higher in patients with chronic low back pain than those in healthy controls. The average elasticity of the lumbar extensor myofascia of patients with chronic low back pain was significantly lower than that of the healthy controls. The JOA score was negatively correlated, while the VAS score was positively correlated with the mean values of tone, stiffness, and elasticity of the bilateral lumbar extensor myofascia (logarithmic decrement). Disease course had no significant correlation with muscle tone, stiffness, and elasticity of the lumbar extensor myofascia. No significant correlation was found between Cobb angle and muscle tone, stiffness, and elasticity of the lumbar extensor myofascia in either group.