Factors affecting mortality and resource use for hospitalized patients with cirrhosis: A population-based study.
ABSTRACT: Hospitalizations for advanced liver disease are costly and associated with significant mortality. This population-based study aimed to evaluate factors associated with in-hospital mortality and resource use for the management of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis.Mortality records and resource utilization for 52,027 patients hospitalized with cirrhosis and/or complications of portal hypertension (ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, or hepatorenal syndrome) were extracted from a nationally representative sample of Thai inpatients covered by Universal Coverage Scheme during 2009 to 2013.The rate of dying in the hospital increased steadily by 12% from 9.6% in 2009 to 10.8% in 2013 (P < .001). Complications of portal hypertension were independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality except for ascites. The highest independent risk for hospital death was seen with hepatorenal syndrome (odds ratio [OR], 5.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.38-5.79). Mortality rate remained high in patients with infection, particularly septicemia (OR, 4.26; 95% CI, 4.0-4.54) and pneumonia (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 2.18-2.73). Receiving upper endoscopy (OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.27-0.32) and paracentesis (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87-1.00) were associated with improved patient survival. The inflation-adjusted national annual costs (P = .06) and total hospital days (P = .07) for cirrhosis showed a trend toward increasing during the 5-year period. Renal dysfunction, infection, and sequelae of portal hypertension except for ascites were independently associated with increased resource utilization.Renal dysfunction, infection, and portal hypertension-related complications are the main factors affecting in-hospital mortality and resource utilization for hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. The early intervention for modifiable factors is an important step toward improving hospital outcomes.
Project description:Background & Aims:Portal hypertension contributes to the pathogenesis of malnutrition and sarcopenia in cirrhosis via multiple mechanisms. Terlipressin is a vasopressin analogue that we administer via continuous outpatient infusion, as a bridge to transplantation in patients with hepatorenal syndrome or refractory ascites. We describe, for the first time, the impact of outpatient terlipressin on nutritional and muscle parameters. Methods:Nutrition (subjective global assessment), handgrip strength, dietary intake (energy, protein), frequency of paracentesis and severity of liver disease (model for end-stage liver disease score) were prospectively recorded at terlipressin commencement and follow-up (transplantation, cessation or census date). Results:Nineteen patients were included (89% male, median age 59.6 years, median model for end-stage liver disease score 24), of whom 12 had hepatorenal syndrome and 7 had refractory ascites. All patients were malnourished at baseline, 63% (n = 12) had sarcopenic-range grip strength, and mean paracentesis frequency was 2.86 ± 1.62/month. Median duration of terlipressin was 51 days (interquartile range 29-222). Fourteen patients (74%) were transplanted, 2 delisted (10%) and 3 (16%) continued terlipressin. Energy and protein intake improved significantly following terlipressin, from 17.94 ± 5.43 kcal/kg to 27.70 ± 7.48 kcal/kg, and 0.74 ± 0.28 g/kg to 1.16 ± 0.31 g/kg, respectively (both p < 0.001). Handgrip strength increased from 25.36 ± 8.13 kg to 28.49 ± 7.63 kg (p = 0.001). Linear regression analysis demonstrated hand grip strength increased 0.075% for every 1-day of terlipressin (p = 0.005). The frequency of large-volume paracentesis reduced by 46%, to 1.57 ± 1.51/month (p = 0.001). Conclusion:Continuous terlipressin infusion reduces the complications of portal hypertension and is associated with an improvement in nutritional and muscle parameters in patients on the liver transplant waiting list, in whom such characteristics usually demonstrate progressive decline. This validates both the aetiological role of portal hypertension in malnutrition and represents a promising new anabolic therapy. Lay summary:Malnutrition and poor muscle strength are common in liver disease and often get worse while patients await liver transplant. Terlipressin is a medication used to treat portal hypertension in patients with hepatorenal syndrome. It is usually given for a few days or weeks in patients confined to hospital. Our centre provides outpatient terlipressin for weeks to months as a bridge to liver transplant. In patients treated with terlipressin at our hospital, we observed a substantial increase in their dietary intake and muscle strength, which may improve their quality of life and outcomes after liver transplant.
Project description:Approximately one half of patients develop ascites within 10 years of diagnosis of compensated cirrhosis. It is a poor prognostic indicator, with only 50% surviving beyond two years. Mortality worsens significantly to 20% to 50% at one year if the ascites becomes refractory to medical therapy. Pakistan has one of the highest prevalence of viral hepatitis in the world and patients with ascites secondary to liver cirrhosis make a major percentage of both inpatient and outpatient burden. Studies indicate that over 80% of patients admitted with ascites have liver cirrhosis as the cause. This expert opinion suggests proper assessment of patients with ascites in the presence of underlying cirrhosis. This expert opinion includes appropriate diagnosis and management of uncomplicated ascites, refractory ascites and complicated ascites (including spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) ascites, hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) and hyponatremia. The purpose behind this expert opinion is to help consultants, postgraduate trainees, medical officers and primary care physicians optimally manage their patients with cirrhosis and ascites in a resource constrained setting as is often encountered in a developing country like Pakistan.
Project description:Ascites is among the most common complications of liver cirrhosis and is associated with a high mortality rate. The present retrospective study aimed to evaluate the potential correlation between in-hospital mortality of liver cirrhosis and volume of ascites. Patients with liver cirrhosis who were admitted to the General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region (Shenyang, China) between June 2012 and June 2014 and underwent axial abdomino-pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans were retrospectively reviewed. The volume of ascites was approximated using a five-point method, and diagnostic accuracy was expressed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of the 177 patients reviewed in the present study, 117 (61.10%) exhibited ascites on CT scans, and the in-hospital mortality rate was 4.52% (8/177). Child-Pugh and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores were significantly increased in the presence of ascites (P<0.001). The in-hospital mortality rate did not differ significantly between patients with and without ascites (P=0.052). In patients with ascites >300 ml (n=72), the AUROCs of the Child-Pugh score, MELD score, and ascites volume for predicting in-hospital mortality were 0.939 (95% CI, 0.856-0982), 0.952 (95% CI, 0.873-0.988), and 0.782 (95% CI, 0.668-0.871), respectively. These AUROCs did not differ significantly. In conclusion, quantification of ascites may aid to predict the in-hospital mortality rate of cirrhotic patients.
Project description:Portal hypertension develops as a result of increased intrahepatic vascular resistance often caused by chronic liver disease that leads to structural distortion by fibrosis, microvascular thrombosis, dysfunction of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), and hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. While the basic mechanisms of LSEC and HSC dysregulation have been extensively studied, the role of microvascular thrombosis and platelet function in the pathogenesis of portal hypertension remains to be clearly characterized. As a secondary event, portal hypertension results in splanchnic and systemic arterial vasodilation, leading to the development of a hyperdynamic circulatory syndrome and subsequently to clinically devastating complications including gastroesophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage, hepatic encephalopathy from the formation of portosystemic shunts, ascites, and renal failure due to the hepatorenal syndrome. This review article discusses: (1) mechanisms of sinusoidal portal hypertension, focusing on HSC and LSEC biology, pathological angiogenesis, and the role of microvascular thrombosis and platelets, (2) the mesenteric vasculature in portal hypertension, and (3) future directions for vascular biology research in portal hypertension.
Project description:Albumin is currently employed as a plasma expander to prevent and treat specific complications of cirrhosis with ascites, such as the prevention of paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction and renal dysfunction induced by spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of acute kidney injury and hepatorenal syndrome. Recently, evidence has shown that long-term albumin administration in patients with decompensated cirrhosis reduces mortality and incidence of complications, eases the management of ascites, is cost effective, and has a good safety profile.
Project description:Introduction:Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD, also known as Niemann-Pick Type A and Type B disease) is a rare, inherited metabolic disorder. Liver-related issues, including cirrhosis and variceal haemorrhage, are a leading cause of early mortality in individuals with chronic forms of ASMD. Due to the rarity of this lysosomal storage disorder, there can be a lack of awareness that adults with chronic ASMD disease are at significant risk of cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and variceal bleeding. This case highlights an unusual presentation of recurrent variceal bleeding in an adult with cirrhosis and portal hypertension due to chronic visceral ASMD. Case Presentation:A patient with severe splenomegaly was diagnosed with ASMD at age of 25. At age 64 they had multiple hospital admissions for hematochezia (originally diagnosed as ischemic colitis) accompanied by hypotension (blood pressure 91/45 mmHg), anemia (hemoglobin 8.5g/dL, ref 12-16; INR 1.4, ref ?1.2), and mild renal insufficiency (creatinine 1.33mg/dL, ref 0.51-0.95). Colonoscopy did not reveal a source of bleeding. Computerized tomography scanning imaging showed diffuse venous collaterals and ascites. Arteriographies during subsequent episodes of bleeding were negative for active arterial intestinal bleeding. Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding was found to originate from a varicose vein cluster connected to the right iliac vein and the superior mesenteric vein, located in the submucosa of a small intestinal loop. Multiple varices were secondary to portal hypertension in the context of cirrhosis. The patient died from recurrent variceal bleeding that exacerbated liver failure worsened by pneumonia and hypovolemic and septic shock. Conclusions:The variceal bleeding in this patient was atypical in that it originated from venous collaterals bleeding into the small intestine rather than the more typical gastroesophageal varices observed in ASMD. With long standing liver dysfunction and gradual development of portal hypertension, intestinal varices rather than occult intestinal bleeding due to ischemia should be considered in ASMD patients presenting with either hematochezia or hematemesis.
Project description:Purpose of Review:To revise experimental and clinical data supporting a less traditional role of anticoagulation for treating portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis. Recent Findings:Portal hypertension is the main driver of complications such as ascites, variceal hemorrhage, and hepatic encephalopathy, with inflammation as a key component. The traditional view of cirrhosis as a pro-hemorrhagic condition has recently changed, prothrombotic complications being recognized as frequently as the hemorrhagic ones. Several data indicate a close relationship between inflammation, prothrombotic status, worsening of hepatic fibrosis, and portal hypertension both in animal models and in patients with chronic liver disease. These findings indicate that anticoagulation may represent a potent tool to act on fibrogenesis and therefore consequently to treat portal hypertension. All anticoagulants have good to optimal safety profiles and can be used in patients with advanced chronic liver disease with confidence. Summary:Anticoagulation has a role as a pleiotropic treatment of portal hypertension in cirrhosis.
Project description:We examined the impact of HBV/HIV coinfection on outcomes in hospitalized patients compared to those with HBV or HIV monoinfection. Using the 2011 US Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we identified patients who had been hospitalized with HBV or HIV monoinfection or HBV/HIV coinfection using ICD-9-CM codes. We compared liver-related admissions between the three groups. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors of in-hospital mortality, length of stay and total charges. A total of 72 584 discharges with HBV monoinfection, 133 880 discharges with HIV monoinfection and 8156 discharges with HBV/HIV coinfection were included. HBV/HIV coinfection was associated with higher mortality compared to HBV monoinfection (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.30-2.15) but not when compared to HIV monoinfection (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.96-1.54). However, the presence of HBV along with cirrhosis or complications of portal hypertension was associated with three times greater in-hospital mortality in patients with HIV compared to those without these complications (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.80-5.02). Length of stay and total hospitalization charges were greater in the HBV-/HIV-coinfected group compared to the HBV monoinfection group (+1.53 days, P < 0.001; $17595, P < 0.001) and the HIV monoinfection group (+0.62 days, P = 0.034; $8840, P = 0.005). In conclusion, HBV/HIV coinfection is a risk factor for in-hospital mortality, particularly in liver-related admissions, compared to HBV monoinfection. Overall healthcare utilization from HBV/HIV coinfection is also higher than for either infection alone and higher than the national average for all hospitalizations, thus emphasizing the healthcare burden from these illnesses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Safety-net hospitals provide care for racially/ethnically diverse and disadvantaged urban populations. Their hospitalized patients with cirrhosis are relatively understudied and may be vulnerable to poor outcomes and racial/ethnic disparities. AIMS:To examine the outcomes of patients with cirrhosis hospitalized at regionally diverse safety-net hospitals and the impact of race/ethnicity. METHODS:A study of patients with cirrhosis hospitalized at 4 safety-net hospitals in 2012 was conducted. Demographic, clinical factors, and outcomes were compared between centers and racial/ethnic groups. Study endpoints included mortality and 30-day readmission. RESULTS:In 2012, 733 of 1,212 patients with cirrhosis were hospitalized for liver-related indications (median age 55 years, 65% male). The cohort was racially diverse (43% White, 25% black, 22% Hispanic, 3% Asian) with cirrhosis related to alcohol and viral hepatitis in 635 (87%) patients. Patients were hospitalized mainly for ascites (35%), hepatic encephalopathy (20%) and gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) (17%). Fifty-four (7%) patients died during hospitalization and 145 (21%) survivors were readmitted within 30 days. Mortality rates ranged from 4 to 15% by center (p = .007) and from 3 to 10% by race/ethnicity (p = .03), but 30-day readmission rates were similar. Mortality was associated with Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD), acute-on-chronic liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma, sodium and white blood cell count. Thirty-day readmission was associated with MELD and Charlson Comorbidity Index >4, with lower risk for GIB. We did not observe geographic or racial/ethnic differences in hospital outcomes in the risk-adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS:Hospital mortality and 30-day readmission in patients with cirrhosis at safety-net hospitals are associated with disease severity and comorbidities, with lower readmissions in patients admitted for GIB. Despite geographic and racial/ethnic differences in hospital mortality, these factors were not independently associated with mortality.
Project description:Little is known about the prevalence and severity of portal hypertension in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the prevalence and noninvasive predictors of portal hypertension in patients with NAFLD.Signs of portal hypertension, including esophageal varices, splenomegaly, portosystemic encephalopathy, and ascites, were investigated in 354 patients with NAFLD.One hundred patients had portal hypertension at the time of NAFLD diagnosis (28.2%), 88 of these patients had septal fibrosis or cirrhosis (88%). Fibrosis stage correlated with presence (r = 0.41, P < .0001) and number of findings (r = 0.48, P = .006) of portal hypertension. Of the 204 patients with no or mild fibrosis (stages, 0-2), 12 patients had portal hypertension (6%); they had a significantly higher grade of steatosis, based on biopsy analysis, compared with the 192 patients without portal hypertension (94%). Thrombocytopenia, hyperbilirubinemia, cirrhosis, and obesity were associated independently with portal hypertension. Esophageal varices were found in 57 of the 128 patients undergoing endoscopic screening (44.5%) and were associated independently with thrombocytopenia, type 2 diabetes, and splenomegaly.Signs of portal hypertension were present in 25% of patients at the time of diagnosis of NAFLD; most had advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis. Portal hypertension can occur in a small proportion of patients with mild or no fibrosis and is associated with the extent of steatosis. Features of advanced liver disease and insulin resistance might identify patients with NAFLD and portal hypertension, and those expected to derive the most benefit from endoscopic screening for esophageal varices.