Suprapubic varicose vein formation during pregnancy following pre-pregnancy pelvic vein embolisation with coils, without any residual pelvic venous reflux or obstruction.
ABSTRACT: Suprapubic varicose veins are usually indicative of unilateral iliac vein occlusion and venous collateralisation. We report two cases of suprapubic varicose veins following pelvic vein embolisation and subsequent pregnancy; both presented without residual pelvic venous reflux or pelvic venous obstruction. In both cases, there was no significant flow in the suprapubic veins indicating that they were not acting as a collateral post-pregnancy. One patient had this venous abnormality treated successfully with TRansluminal Occlusion of Perforators, followed by foam sclerotherapy to the main part of the suprapubic vein. This patient has since completed the reminder of her lower limb varicose vein treatment. We suggest that pregnancy may have caused prolonged intermittent compression of the left common iliac vein, and that this, together with the physiological impact of previous embolisation procedures, obstructed venous drainage from the left leg resulting in collateral vein formation within the 9-month gestation period.
Project description:<b>Purpose:</b> To evaluate medium-term clinical outcomes of transcatheter embolization and stenting in women with several pelvic venous disorders responsible for chronic pelvic pain and varicose veins of the lower limbs. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> The study population included 327 consecutively recruited patients referred to the interventional radiology unit from January 2014 to December 2019 due to chronic pelvic congestion (91; 27.83%), lower limb varices (15; 4.59%), or a combination of both the symptoms (221; 67.58%). Preprocedural pelvic, transvaginal Doppler ultrasound (US), and MRI were conducted in all the patients and revealed anatomical varicosities and incompetent pelvic veins in 312 patients. In all the patients, selective catheterization demonstrated uterine venous engorgement, ovarian plexus congestion, or pelvic vein filling. Retrograde flow was detected on catheter venography in the left ovarian vein (250; 78%), the right ovarian vein (85; 26%), the left internal iliac vein (222; 68%), and the right internal iliac vein (185; 57%). Patients were followed-up at 1, 6, and 12 months, and years thereafter systematically by the referring angiologist and the interventional radiologist of center. They were contacted by telephone in November and December 2020 to assess pain perception and quality of life by using the visual analog scales from 0 to 10 with assessments made at the baseline and last follow-up. Of the 327 patients (mean age, 42 ± 12 years), 312 patients were suffering from pelvic congestion syndrome and 236 patients was suffering from lower limb varices. All underwent embolization by using ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx<sup>®</sup>). Eighty-five right ovarian veins, 249 left ovarian veins, 510 tributaries of the right internal iliac vein, and 624 tributaries of the left internal iliac vein were embolized. A cohort of patients also underwent nutcracker syndrome angioplasty (6.7%) and May-Thurner syndrome angioplasty (14%) with a stent placement. <b>Results:</b> The initial technical success rate was 80.9% for embolization of pathological veins and 100% for stenting of stenoses. Overall, 307 patients attended 12-month follow-up visits and 288 (82%) patients completed the telephone survey at mean 39 (±18)-month postintervention. Main pelvic pain significantly improved from 6.9 (±2.4) pre- to 2.0 (±2.4) postembolization (<i>p</i> < 0.001), as did specific symptoms in each category. Improvement or disappearance of pain was achieved in 266/288 (92.36%) patients with improved quality of life in 276/288 (95.8%) patients. There were 16 minor and 4 major adverse events reported on the follow-up. <b>Conclusion:</b> Pelvic vein embolization (Onyx<sup>®</sup>) is an effective and safe procedure with high clinical success and quality of life improvement rates.
Project description:The Parkes Weber syndrome is a congenital vascular malformation, characterized by varicose veins, arterio-venous fistulas and overgrown limbs. No broadly accepted animal model of Parkes Weber syndrome has been described. We created side-to-side arterio-venous fistula between common femoral vessels with proximal non-absorbable ligature on common femoral vein limiting the enlargement of the vein diameter in Wistar rats. Contralateral limb was sham operated. Invasive blood pressure measurements in both iliac and inferior cava veins were performed in rats 30 days after fistula creation. Tight circumference and femoral bone length were measured. Histopathology and morphology of soleus muscle, extensor digitorum longus muscle, and the common femoral vessel were analyzed. 30 days following arterio-venous fistula creation, a statistically significant elevation of blood pressure in common iliac vein and limb overgrowth was observed. Limb enlargement was caused by muscle overgrowth, varicose veins formation and bone elongation. Arterio-venous fistula with proximal outflow limitation led to significant increase of femoral vein circumference and venous wall thickness. Our study indicates that the described rat model mimics major clinical features characteristic for the human Parkes Weber syndrome: presence of arterio-venous fistula, venous hypertension and dilatation, varicose veins formation, and the limb hypertrophy. We reveal that limb overgrowth is caused by bone elongation, muscle hypertrophy, and venous dilatation. The newly established model will permit detailed studies on the mechanisms underlying the disease and on the efficacy of novel therapeutic strategies for the Parkes Weber syndrome treatment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To explore the diagnostic performance of triggered angiography non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (TRANCE-MRI) for the evaluation of venous pathology of the lower extremity.<h4>Methods</h4>This was a single-centre prospective cohort study of 25 patients with suspected venous disease in the lower extremities. Each patient received Doppler ultrasonography (for venous evaluation) before the scheduled TRANCE-MRI (for venous and arterial evaluations) on a 1.5?T MR scanner (Philips Ingenia, Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands), followed by lymphography and computed tomography angiography that were arranged according to the diagnostic indications.<h4>Results</h4>The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of TRANCE-MRI were 85.7%, 88/9 and 88%, respectively. The inter-rater agreement for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the thigh between the ultrasonography and TRANCE-MRI results was substantial agreement (Cohen's kappa ?, 0.72). In ultrasonography-negative cases, TRANCE-MRI detected four additional cases (16%, 4/25) of DVT; three cases (12%, 3/25) of venous compression caused by pelvic lymphadenopathy, hip prosthesis or knee joint effusion; one case (4%, 1/25) of vena cava anomaly; two cases (8%, 2/25) of occult peripheral artery disease (PAD); and one case (4%, 1/25) of an occluded bypass graft.<h4>Conclusion</h4>TRANCE-MRI can be used as an alternative and objective tool for assessing lower extremity diseases, especially suspected venous pathology. Compared with ultrasonography, TRANCE-MRI plays a better role in assessing varicose veins of the lower extremities and deep veins of the pelvis and abdomen. However, false-positive results may occur in the left common iliac vein of elderly patients. Finally, occult PAD rarely occurs in patients with suspected lower extremity venous disease. Therefore, we recommend performing the TRANCE-MRV protocol instead of the full protocol (MRV?+?MRA) in the clinical setting in patients with venous scenarios.
Project description:Despite the high prevalence of chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins in the Western world, suitable pharmaceutical therapies for these venous diseases have not been explored to date. In this context, we recently reported that a chronic increase in venous wall stress or biomechanical stretch is sufficient to cause development of varicose veins through the activation of the transcription factor activator protein 1.We investigated whether deleterious venous remodeling is suppressed by the pleiotropic effects of statins. In vitro, activator protein 1 activity was inhibited by two 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, rosuvastatin and atorvastatin, in stretch-stimulated human venous smooth muscle cells. Correspondingly, both statins inhibited venous smooth muscle cell proliferation as well as mRNA expression of the activator protein 1 target gene monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1). In isolated mouse veins exposed to an increased level of intraluminal pressure, statin treatment diminished proliferation of venous smooth muscle cells and protein abundance of MCP1 while suppressing the development of varicose veins in a corresponding animal model by almost 80%. Further analyses of human varicose vein samples from patients chronically treated with statins indicated a decrease in venous smooth muscle cell proliferation and MCP1 abundance compared with samples from untreated patients.Our findings imply that both atorvastatin and rosuvastatin effectively inhibit the development of varicose veins, at least partially, by interfering with wall stress-mediated activator protein 1 activity in venous smooth muscle cells. For the first time, this study reveals a potential pharmacological treatment option that may be suitable to prevent growth of varicose veins and to limit formation of recurrence after varicose vein surgery.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To determine the effect of hydration as well as prone versus supine positioning on the pelvic veins during cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) venography.<h4>Methods</h4>Under institutional review board approval, 8 healthy subjects were imaged with balanced steady state free precession, non-contrast CMR venography to measure common and external iliac vein volumes and common femoral vein cross-sectional area in the supine, prone and decubitus positions after dehydration and again following re-hydration. CMR venography from 23 patients imaged both supine and prone were retrospectively reviewed and measurements of common femoral and iliac veins areas were compared using Wilcoxon test.<h4>Results</h4>Common femoral vein area on CMR venography increased with prone positioning (83?±?35 mm<sup>2</sup>) compared to supine positioning (59?±?21 mm<sup>2</sup>) (p?=?0.02) and further increased with hydration to 123?±?44 mm<sup>2</sup> (p?<?0.01). With right and left side down decubitus positioning, the common femoral vein area on dehydration increased from 29?±?17 mm<sup>2</sup> in the ante-dependent position to 134?±?36 mm<sup>2</sup> in the dependent position (p?<?0. 001). Similarly, common and external iliac veins increased in volume with prone, 5.4?±?1.9 cm<sup>3</sup> and 5.8?±?1.9 cm<sup>3</sup> compared to supine positioning 4.6?±?1.8 cm<sup>3</sup> and 4.5?±?1.9 cm<sup>3</sup> (p?=?0.01) and further increase with hydration to 6.7?±?2.1 cm<sup>3</sup> and 6.3?±?1.9 cm<sup>3</sup> (p?=?0.01). CMR venography on patients also demonstrated an increase in mean common femoral vein luminal area from 103?±?44 mm<sup>2</sup> in supine position to 151?±?52 mm<sup>2</sup> with prone positioning (p?<?0.001) as well as increases in common and external iliac vein volumes from 6.5?±?2.6 cm<sup>3</sup> and 8.0?±?3.4 cm<sup>3</sup> in the supine position to 7.5?±?2.5 cm<sup>3</sup> and 9.3?±?3.6 cm<sup>3</sup> with prone positioning (p?<?0.01).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Common femoral and common/external iliac vein size on CMR venography may be affected by position and hydration status. Routine clinical CMR venography of the pelvis could include prone positioning and avoiding dehydration to maximize pelvic vein distension.
Project description:This study evaluated the stretching and dilatation of venous segments ex vivo in subjects with primary varicose veins in comparison with comparable segments from subjects that used the supplement Pycnogenol (150 mg/d) for 3 months before surgery. Subjects with varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency voluntarily used Pycnogenol for a period of at least 3 months. The segments of veins removed with surgery (in 30 subjects that had used Pycnogenol and in 10 comparable control subjects that had not used the supplement) were compared with normal, unused vein segments harvested for bypass grafting. The segments were suspended and a weight was attached to the distal part of the veins for 3 minutes and dilated with pressurized water. Digital images were recorded; the veins were measured before and after stretching to evaluate elongation. The manipulation of the vein segment was minimal. Tests were completed within 20 minutes after harvesting the veins. All segments were 4 cm long. The stretching test indicated a significantly higher level of passive elongation in control, varicose segments (2.29; 0.65 mm) in comparison with 1.39; 0.2 mm in vein segments from Pycnogenol-using patients. The dilation test showed an average higher dilation (2.19; 0.3 mm) in control varicose veins in comparison with varicose veins from Pycnogenol-using patients (1.32; 0.7 mm) (p < 0.05). Stretching and dilatation were lower in veins from Pycnogenol-using subjects (p < 0.05). The measurement of destretching and the recovery after dilatation indicated a better tone and recovery of the original size/shape in varicose segments from patients using Pycnogenol. Varicose segments had a more significant persistent dilatation and elongation in comparison with normal vein segments. Pycnogenol seems to decrease passive dilatation and stretching and gives vein walls a greater tonic recovery and elasticity that allows the vein to recover its original shape after dynamic stresses.
Project description:<h4>Abstract</h4>Although venous duplex ultrasonography (USG) is reliable for diagnosing lower extremity venous disease (LEVD), cross-sectional imaging studies were usually required before intervention or surgery. Patients of LEVD with renal insufficiency usually restrict the use of contrast-enhanced imaging modalities. In seeking an alternative imaging solution for these patients, we explore the clinical utility of triggered angiography non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (TRANCE-MRI) in the assessment of LEVD.We collected data from patients presenting to a tertiary wound-care center with symptoms of LEVD from April 2017-November 2019. Each participant underwent baseline USG followed by TRANCE-MRI on a 1.5T MR scanner (Philips Ingenia, Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands). Inter-rater reliability was measured using Cohen's kappa (κ).All 80 participants (mean age, 61.9 ± 14.8 years; 35 males, 45 females) were assessed and were classified into one of five disease groups, deep vein thrombosis (n = 38), venous static ulcer (n = 16), symptomatic varicose veins (n = 18), recurrent varicose veins (n = 3), and lymphoedema (n = 5). The inter-rater reliability between TRANCE-MRI and doppler USG showed substantial agreement (κ, 0.73). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of TRANCE-MRI were 90.5%, 88.1%, and 88.8%, respectively. In 59 (73.8%) USG-negative patients, we were able to diagnose positive findings (deep venous thrombosis, n = 7; varicose veins, n = 15; lymphedema, n = 10; iliac vein compression with thrombosis, n = 6; external venous compression, n = 5; vena cava anomaly, n = 2; occult peripheral artery disease, n = 5; ccluded bypass graft, n = 1) by using TRANCE-MRI. Of these, 9 (15.3%) patients underwent additional vascular surgery based on positive TRANCE-MRI findings.TRANCE technique provides the limb's entire venous drainage in clear images without background contamination by associated arterial imaging. Additionally, simultaneous evaluation of bilateral lower extremities can help determine the lesion's exact site. Although TRANCE-MRI can provide MR arteriography and MR venography, we recommend performing only MR venography in symptomatic LEVD patients because the incidence of occult arterial disease is low.
Project description:The objectives are to evaluate the application of computed tomography venography (CTV) in the diagnosis of iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS), and to assess the factors related to the incidence and development of IVCS and the recurrence of varicose veins.Imaging data of 120 patients with chronic venous disease (CVD) of the lower extremity and 68 subjects without CVD (control) were retrospectively reviewed by radiologists blinded to the groups. CTV, conventional venography, and Doppler ultrasound were compared in the diagnosis and contributing factors for IVCS were also analyzed.CTV required less procedure time than venography or color ultrasonography (P?<?.001). The rate of iliac venous compression diagnosed by CTV was higher in the CVD group (53.3%) than in the control group (22.1%) (??=?17.425, P?<?.001). Risk factors for IVCS included gender, hyperlipidemia, and course of disease (P?<?.05). Development of femoral vein collateral was more common in patients with IVCS (P?<?.05). The duration of disease was positively associated with the severity of iliac vein compression (r?=?0.321, P?<?.001). IVCS was an important contributing factor for varicose vein recurrence (51.2%). In patients with IVCS and venous ulcer (C5-C6), the healing time of the ulcer treated with stent was significantly shorter compared with those without stent treatment (P?<?.001).CTV is accurate for the diagnosis and severity evaluation of IVCS. IVCS might be a contributing factor for varicose vein recurrence. Iliac vein stent implantation as a safe and effective interventional therapy promotes the healing of venous ulcer caused by IVCS.
Project description:An ectopic kidney is defined as an atypically placed kidney, due to improper migration from the fetal pelvis, during embryogenesis. The presented CT scan of 72-year-old male with pain and visible hematuria reveals that the right kidney is located in the pelvis. The ectopic kidney has malrotation with a calcified artery and 2 veins. One draining in the right common iliac vein and the other connected to the left common iliac vein-near the bifurcation of vena cava inferior. Usually, pelvic ectopy is asymptomatic. However, it may lead to elevated blood pressure, increased risk of stone formation, infections, and traumatism, due to the atypical anatomical position. Variations in the anatomy of the kidney and its vascular supply are of clinical importance. It is possible to encounter a radiological, surgical, or cancer case, such as the presented.
Project description:Chronic venous diseases, including varicose veins, are characterized by hemodynamic disturbances due to valve defects, venous insufficiency, and orthostatism. Veins are physiologically low shear stress systems, and how altered hemodynamics drives focal endothelial dysfunction and causes venous remodeling is unknown. Here we demonstrate the occurrence of endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in human varicose veins. Moreover, the BMP4-pSMAD5 pathway was robustly upregulated in varicose veins. In vitro flow-based assays using human vein, endothelial cells cultured in microfluidic chambers show that even minimal disturbances in shear stress as may occur in early stages of venous insufficiency induce BMP4-pSMAD5-based phenotype switching. Furthermore, low shear stress at uniform laminar pattern does not induce EndMT in venous endothelial cells. Targeting the BMP4-pSMAD5 pathway with small molecule inhibitor LDN193189 reduced SNAI1/2 expression in venous endothelial cells exposed to disturbed flow. TGFβ inhibitor SB505124 was less efficient in inhibiting EndMT in venous endothelial cells exposed to disturbed flow. We conclude that disturbed shear stress, even in the absence of any oscillatory flow, induces EndMT in varicose veins <i>via</i> activation of BMP4/pSMAD5-SNAI1/2 signaling. The present findings serve as a rationale for the possible use of small molecular mechanotherapeutics in the management of varicose veins.