Results of a prospective multicentre myeloablative double-unit cord blood transplantation trial in adult patients with acute leukaemia and myelodysplasia.
ABSTRACT: Double-unit cord blood (CB) grafts may improve engraftment and relapse risk in adults with haematological malignancies. We performed a prospective high-dose myeloablative double-unit CB transplantation (CBT) trial in adults with high-risk acute leukaemia or myelodysplasia (MDS) between 2007 and 2011. The primary aim was to establish the 1-year overall survival in a multi-centre setting. Fifty-six patients (31 acute myeloid leukaemia, 19 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, 4 other acute leukaemias, 2 myelodysplastic syndrome [MDS]) were transplanted at 10 centres. The median infused total nucleated cell doses were 2·62 (larger unit) and 2·02 (smaller unit) x 10(7) /kg. The cumulative incidence of day 100 neutrophil engraftment was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80-96). Day 180 grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) incidence was 64% (95%CI: 51-76) and 36% (95%CI: 24-49) of patients had chronic GVHD by 3-years. At 3-years post-transplant, the transplant-related mortality (TRM) was 39% (95%CI: 26-52), and the 3-year relapse incidence was 11% (95%CI: 4-21). With a median 37-month (range 23-71) follow-up of survivors, the 3-year disease-free survival was 50% (95%CI: 37-63). Double-unit CBT is a viable alternative therapy for high-risk acute leukaemia/ MDS in patients lacking a matched unrelated donor. This is especially important for minority patients. The relapse incidence was low but strategies to ameliorate TRM are needed.
Project description:Malignancy relapse remains a major obstacle for successful allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is associated with fewer relapses. However, when studying effects of cGVHD on relapse, it is difficult to separate from acute GVHD effects as most cases of cGVHD occur within the first year after transplant at the time when acute GVHD is still active.This study based on CIBMTR registry data investigated cGVHD and its association with the incidence of late relapse and survival in 7,489 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), who were leukemia free at 12 months after myeloablative allogeneic HCT.Forty-seven percent of the study population was diagnosed with cGVHD at 12 months after transplant. The protective effect of cGVHD on late relapse was present only in patients with CML [RR, 0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-0.59; P < 0.0001). cGVHD was significantly associated with higher risk of treatment-related mortality (TRM; RR, 2.43; 95% CI, 2.09-2.82; P < 0.0001) and inferior overall survival (RR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.41-1.73; P < 0.0001) for all diseases. In patients with CML, all organ sites and presentation types of cGVHD were equally associated with lower risk of late relapse.These results indicate that clinically relevant antileukemia effects of cGVHD on late relapses are present only in CML but not in AML, ALL, or MDS. Chronic GVHD in patients who are 1-year survivors after myeloablative allogeneic HCT is primarily associated with higher TRM and inferior survival.
Project description:Acute leukaemia or advanced myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS ? 5% blasts) in Fanconi anaemia (FA) patients is associated with a poor prognosis. We report 21 FA patients with acute leukaemia or advanced MDS who underwent haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) at the University of Minnesota between 1988 and 2011. Six patients had biallelic BRCA2 mutations. Eight patients received pre-transplant cytoreduction, with 3 achieving complete remission. HCT donor source included human leucocyte antigen-matched sibling (n = 2) or alternative donors (n = 19). Neutrophil engraftment was 95% for the entire cohort, and the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease was 19%. 5-year overall survival (OS) was 33%, with a relapse rate of 24%, with similar OS in patients with biallelic BRCA2 mutations. Our study supports the use of HCT in the treatment of FA patients with acute leukaemia or advanced MDS, however, the role of chemotherapy prior to HCT remains unclear for this population. FA patients with biallelic BRCA2 are unique and may benefit from higher dose chemotherapy relative to other complementation groups.
Project description:Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the sole curative therapy for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). However, there is concern regarding graft failure and relapse in patients who undergo cord blood transplantation (CBT). We conducted a retrospective study of the CBT outcomes in MDS patients using the Japanese Data Center for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation database. Seven hundred fifty-two de novo MDS patients of ?18 years of age (median, 58 years) undergoing their first CBT between 2001 and 2015 were examined. Two-thirds of the patients were male, and were RAEB. The cumulative incidences of neutrophil and platelet engraftment at day 100 were 77 and 59%, respectively. The 3-year overall survival (OS) was 41% and the median survival of the patients was 1.25 years. A multivariate analysis of pre-transplant variables showed that the age, gender, cytogenetic subgroups, number of RBC transfusions, HCT-CI and year of CBT significantly influenced the outcome. The cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 32 and 21%, respectively. A survival benefit was observed in patients who developed cGVHD, but not aGVHD. Our results suggest that CBT is an acceptable alternative graft and that a graft-versus-MDS effect can be expected, especially in patients who develop cGVHD.
Project description:Cord blood transplantation (CBT) after high intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning has limitations. We investigated cyclosporine-A/mycophenolate mofetil-based intermediate intensity (cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg, fludarabine 150 mg/m2, thiotepa 10 mg/kg, total body irradiation 400 cGy) unmanipulated double-unit CBT (dCBT) with prioritization of unit quality and CD34+ cell dose in graft selection. Ninety adults (median age, 47 years [range, 21-63]; median hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index, 2 [range, 0-8]; 61 [68%] acute leukemia) received double-unit grafts (median CD34+ cell dose, 1.3 × 105/kg per unit [range, 0.2-8.3]; median donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match, 5/8 [range 3-7/8]). The cumulative incidences of sustained CB engraftment, day 180 grade III-IV acute, and 3-year chronic graft-versus-host disease were 99%, 24%, and 7%, respectively. Three-year transplant-related mortality (TRM) and relapse incidences were 15% and 9%, respectively. Three-year overall survival (OS) is 82%, and progression-free survival (PFS) is 76%. Younger age and higher