Selepressin, a novel selective vasopressin V1A agonist, is an effective substitute for norepinephrine in a phase IIa randomized, placebo-controlled trial in septic shock patients.
ABSTRACT: Vasopressin is widely used for vasopressor support in septic shock patients, but experimental evidence suggests that selective V1A agonists are superior. The initial pharmacodynamic effects, pharmacokinetics, and safety of selepressin, a novel V1A-selective vasopressin analogue, was examined in a phase IIa trial in septic shock patients.This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial in 53 patients in early septic shock (aged ?18 years, fluid resuscitation, requiring vasopressor support) who received selepressin 1.25 ng/kg/minute (n?=?10), 2.5 ng/kg/minute (n?=?19), 3.75 ng/kg/minute (n?=?2), or placebo (n?=?21) until shock resolution or a maximum of 7 days. If mean arterial pressure (MAP) ?65 mmHg was not maintained, open-label norepinephrine was added. Co-primary endpoints were maintenance of MAP >60 mmHg without norepinephrine, norepinephrine dose, and proportion of patients maintaining MAP >60 mmHg with or without norepinephrine over 7 days. Secondary endpoints included cumulative fluid balance, organ dysfunction, pharmacokinetics, and safety.A higher proportion of the patients receiving 2.5 ng/kg/minute selepressin maintained MAP >60 mmHg without norepinephrine (about 50% and 70% at 12 and 24 h, respectively) vs. 1.25 ng/kg/minute selepressin and placebo (p?
Project description:Importance:Norepinephrine, the first-line vasopressor for septic shock, is not always effective and has important catecholaminergic adverse effects. Selepressin, a selective vasopressin V1a receptor agonist, is a noncatecholaminergic vasopressor that may mitigate sepsis-induced vasodilatation, vascular leakage, and edema, with fewer adverse effects. Objective:To test whether selepressin improves outcome in septic shock. Design, Setting, and Participants:An adaptive phase 2b/3 randomized clinical trial comprising 2 parts that included adult patients (n?=?868) with septic shock requiring more than 5 ?g/min of norepinephrine. Part 1 used a Bayesian algorithm to adjust randomization probabilities to alternative selepressin dosing regimens and to trigger transition to part 2, which would compare the best-performing regimen with placebo. The trial was conducted between July 2015 and August 2017 in 63 hospitals in Belgium, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and the United States, and follow-up was completed by May 2018. Interventions:Random assignment to 1 of 3 dosing regimens of selepressin (starting infusion rates of 1.7, 2.5, and 3.5 ng/kg/min; n?=?585) or to placebo (n?=?283), all administered as continuous infusions titrated according to hemodynamic parameters. Main Outcomes and Measures:Primary end point was ventilator- and vasopressor-free days within 30 days (deaths assigned zero days) of commencing study drug. Key secondary end points were 90-day mortality, kidney replacement therapy-free days, and ICU-free days. Results:Among 868 randomized patients, 828 received study drug (mean age, 66.3 years; 341 [41.2%] women) and comprised the primary analysis cohort, of whom 562 received 1 of 3 selepressin regimens, 266 received placebo, and 817 (98.7%) completed the trial. The trial was stopped for futility at the end of part 1. Median study drug duration was 37.8 hours (IQR, 17.8-72.4). There were no significant differences in the primary end point (ventilator- and vasopressor-free days: 15.0 vs 14.5 in the selepressin and placebo groups; difference, 0.6 [95% CI, -1.3 to 2.4]; P?=?.30) or key secondary end points (90-day mortality, 40.6% vs 39.4%; difference, 1.1% [95% CI, -6.5% to 8.8%]; P?=?.77; kidney replacement therapy-free days: 18.5 vs 18.2; difference, 0.3 [95% CI, -2.1 to 2.6]; P?=?.85; ICU-free days: 12.6 vs 12.2; difference, 0.5 [95% CI, -1.2 to 2.2]; P?=?.41). Adverse event rates included cardiac arrhythmias (27.9% vs 25.2% of patients), cardiac ischemia (6.6% vs 5.6%), mesenteric ischemia (3.2% vs 2.6%), and peripheral ischemia (2.3% vs 2.3%). Conclusions and Relevance:Among patients with septic shock receiving norepinephrine, administration of selepressin, compared with placebo, did not result in improvement in vasopressor- and ventilator-free days within 30 days. Further research would be needed to evaluate the potential role of selepressin for other patient-centered outcomes in septic shock. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02508649.
Project description:The present study was designed to determine the effects of continuously infused norepinephrine (NE) plus (1) terlipressin (TP) or (2) arginine vasopressin (AVP) or (3) placebo on sublingual microcirculation in septic shock patients. The primary study end point was a difference of ? 20% in the microvascular flow index of small vessels among groups.The design of the study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. NE was titrated to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP) between 65 and 75 mmHg after establishment of normovolemia in 60 septic shock patients. Thereafter patients (n = 20 per group) were randomized to receive continuous infusions of either TP (1 ?g/kg/hour), AVP (0.04 U/minute) or placebo (isotonic saline). In all groups, open-label NE was adjusted to maintain MAP within threshold values if needed. The sublingual microcirculatory blood flow of small vessels was assessed by sidestream dark-field imaging. All measurements, including data from right heart catheterization and norepinephrine requirements, were obtained at baseline and 6 hours after randomization.TP and AVP decreased NE requirements at the end of the 6-hour study period. The data are medians (25th and 75th interquartile ranges (IQRs)): 0.57 ?g/kg/minute (0.29 to 1.04) vs. 0.16 ?g/kg/minute (0.03 to 0.37) for TP and 0.40 ?g/kg/minute (0.20 to 1.05) vs. 0.23 ?g/kg/minute (0.03 to 0.77) for AVP, with statistical significance of P < 0.05 vs. baseline and vs. placebo. There were no differences in sublingual microcirculatory variables, systemic hemodynamics, oxygen transport and acid-base homeostasis among the three study groups during the entire observation period. The proportions of perfused vessels increased in relation to baseline within all study groups, and there were no significant differences between groups. The specific data were as follows (median (IQR)): 9.7% (2.6 to 19.8) for TP, 8.9% (0.0 to 17.8) for AVP, and 6.9% (3.5 to 10.1) for placebo (P < 0.05 vs. baseline for each comparison), as well as perfused vessel density 18.6% (8.6 to 36.9) for TP, 20.2% (-3.0 to 37.2) for AVP, and 11.4% (-3.0 to 19.4) for placebo (P < 0.05 vs. baseline for each comparison).The present study suggests that to achieve a MAP of 65 to 75 mmHg in septic patients treated with NE, the addition of continuously infused low-dose TP or AVP does not affect sublingual microcirculatory blood flow. In addition, our results suggest that microcirculatory flow abnormalities are mainly related to other factors (for example, volume status, timing, hemodynamics and progression of the disease) rather than to the vasopressor per se.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00995839.
Project description:Septic shock remains associated with significant mortality rates. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and analogs with V1A receptor agonist activity are increasingly used to treat fluid-resistant vasodilatory hypotension, including catecholamine-refractory septic shock. Clinical studies have been restricted to healthy volunteers and catecholamine-refractory septic shock patients excluding subjects with cardiac co-morbidities because of presumed safety issues. The novel selective V1A receptor agonist selepressin, with short half-life, has been designed to avoid V2 receptor-related complications and long-term V1A receptor activation. Cardiovascular safety of selepressin, AVP, and the septic shock standard of care norepinephrine was investigated in a rabbit model of early-stage atherosclerosis.Atherosclerosis was established in New Zealand White rabbits using a 1% cholesterol-containing diet. Selepressin, AVP, or norepinephrine was administered as cumulative intravenous infusion rates to atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic animals.Selepressin and AVP induced a slight dose-dependent increase in arterial pressure (AP) associated with a moderate decrease in heart rate, no change in stroke volume, and a moderate decrease in aortic blood flow (ABF). In contrast, norepinephrine induced a marked dose-dependent increase in AP associated with a lesser decrease in the heart rate, an increase in stroke volume, and a moderate increase in ABF. For all three vasopressors, there was no difference in responses between atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic animals.Further studies should be considered using more advanced atherosclerosis models, including with septic shock, before considering septic shock clinical trials of patients with comorbidities. Here, selepressin and AVP treatments did not display relevant cardiovascular risk in early-stage rabbit atherosclerosis.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: V(2)-receptor (V(2)R) stimulation potentially aggravates sepsis-induced vasodilation, fluid accumulation and microvascular thrombosis. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of a first-line therapy with the selective V(2)R-antagonist (Propionyl(1)-D-Tyr(Et)(2)-Val(4)-Abu(6)-Arg(8,9))-Vasopressin on cardiopulmonary hemodynamics and organ function vs. the mixed V(1a)R/V(2)R-agonist arginine vasopressin (AVP) or placebo in an established ovine model of septic shock. METHODS: After the onset of septic shock, chronically instrumented sheep were randomly assigned to receive first-line treatment with the selective V(2)R-antagonist (1 ?g/kg per hour), AVP (0.05 ?g/kg per hour), or normal saline (placebo, each n = 7). In all groups, open-label norepinephrine was additionally titrated up to 1 ?g/kg per minute to maintain mean arterial pressure at 70 ± 5 mmHg, if necessary. RESULTS: Compared to AVP- and placebo-treated animals, the selective V(2)R-antagonist stabilized cardiopulmonary hemodynamics (mean arterial and pulmonary artery pressure, cardiac index) as effectively and increased intravascular volume as suggested by higher cardiac filling pressures. Furthermore, left ventricular stroke work index was higher in the V(2)R-antagonist group than in the AVP group. Notably, metabolic (pH, base excess, lactate concentrations), liver (transaminases, bilirubin) and renal (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen plasma levels, urinary output, creatinine clearance) dysfunctions were attenuated by the V(2)R-antagonist when compared with AVP and placebo. The onset of septic shock was associated with an increase in AVP plasma levels as compared to baseline in all groups. Whereas AVP plasma levels remained constant in the placebo group, infusion of AVP increased AVP plasma levels up to 149 ± 21 pg/mL. Notably, treatment with the selective V(2)R-antagonist led to a significant decrease of AVP plasma levels as compared to shock time (P < 0.001) and to both other groups (P < 0.05 vs. placebo; P < 0.001 vs. AVP). Immunohistochemical analyses of lung tissue revealed higher hemeoxygenase-1 (vs. placebo) and lower 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations (vs. AVP) in the V(2)R-antagonist group. In addition, the selective V(2)R-antagonist slightly prolonged survival (14 ± 1 hour) when compared to AVP (11 ± 1 hour, P = 0.007) and placebo (11 ± 1 hour, P = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Selective V(2)R-antagonism may represent an innovative therapeutic approach to attenuate multiple organ dysfunction in early septic shock.
Project description:The Surviving Sepsis Guidelines suggest the use of vasopressin in case of catecholamine-refractory septic shock. Terlipressin (TP) as a V1-selective AVP analogue is a potential alternative, though data regarding the first-line administration in septic shock are scarce. The present study explored and compared the effects of first-line vs. second-line infusion of TP or sole norepinephrine regarding organ function, fluid and norepinephrine requirements and survival in fulminant ovine septic shock. Peritoneal sepsis was induced in 23 ewes after laparotomy and faecal withdrawal from the caecum. After onset of shock, causal and supportive sepsis therapy (antibiotics, peritoneal lavage, fluids and open-label norepinephrine) was performed in all animals. Concurrently, animals were randomized to receive 0.9% sodium chloride (control group) or TP (2?µg?kg-1?h-1, first-line group) after shock onset. In the second-line TP group, TP (2?µg?kg-1?h-1) was started once norepinephrine requirements exceeded 0.5?µg?kg-1?min-1. No significant differences were found between groups regarding survival, haemodynamics as well as fluid- and catecholamine-requirements. Kidney function and electron microscopic kidney injury were comparable between groups. In the present model of fulminant ovine septic shock, first-line TP infusion had no significant effect on fluid and norepinephrine requirements or organ dysfunction as compared to second-line TP infusion or placebo.
Project description:Patients with distributive shock who require high dose vasopressors have a high mortality. Angiotensin II (ATII) may prove useful in patients who remain hypotensive despite catecholamine and vasopressin therapy. The appropriate dose of parenteral angiotensin II for shock is unknown.In total, 20 patients with distributive shock and a cardiovascular Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score of 4 were randomized to either ATII infusion (N =10) or placebo (N =10) plus standard of care. ATII was started at a dose of 20 ng/kg/min, and titrated for a goal of maintaining a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 65 mmHg. The infusion (either ATII or placebo) was continued for 6 hours then titrated off. The primary endpoint was the effect of ATII on the standing dose of norepinephrine required to maintain a MAP of 65 mmHg.ATII resulted in marked reduction in norepinephrine dosing in all patients. The mean hour 1 norepinephrine dose for the placebo cohort was 27.6?±?29.3 mcg/min versus 7.4?±?12.4 mcg/min for the ATII cohort (P =0.06). The most common adverse event attributable to ATII was hypertension, which occurred in 20% of patients receiving ATII. 30-day mortality for the ATII cohort and the placebo cohort was similar (50% versus 60%, P =1.00).Angiotensin II is an effective rescue vasopressor agent in patients with distributive shock requiring multiple vasopressors. The initial dose range of ATII that appears to be appropriate for patients with distributive shock is 2 to 10 ng/kg/min.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01393782. Registered 12 July 2011.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Early clinical data showed that some patients with vasodilatory shock are responsive to low doses of angiotensin II. The objective of this analysis was to compare clinical outcomes in patients requiring???5 ng kg-1 min-1 angiotensin II at 30 min (??5 ng kg-1 min-1 subgroup) to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP)???75 mmHg versus patients receiving?>?5 ng kg-1 min-1 angiotensin II at 30 min (>?5 ng kg-1 min-1 subgroup). Data from angiotensin II-treated patients enrolled in the ATHOS-3 trial were used. RESULTS:The subgroup of patients whose angiotensin II dose was down-titrated from 20 ng kg-1 min-1 at treatment initiation to???5 ng kg-1 min-1 at 30 min (79/163) had significantly lower endogenous serum angiotensin II levels and norepinephrine-equivalent doses and significantly higher MAP versus the?>?5 ng kg-1 min-1 subgroup (84/163). Patients in the???5 ng kg-1 min-1 subgroup were more likely to have a MAP response at 3 h versus those in the?>?5 ng kg-1 min-1 subgroup (90% vs. 51%, respectively; odds ratio, 8.46 [95% CI 3.63-19.7], P?<?0.001). Day 28 survival was also higher in the???5 ng kg-1 min-1 subgroup versus the?>?5 ng kg-1 min-1 subgroup (59% vs. 33%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.48 [95% CI 0.28-0.72], P?=?0.0007); multivariate analyses supported the survival benefit in patients with lower angiotensin II levels. The???5 ng kg-1 min-1 subgroup had a more favorable safety profile and lower treatment discontinuation rate than the?>?5 ng kg-1 min-1 subgroup. CONCLUSIONS:This prespecified analysis showed that down-titration to???5 ng kg-1 min-1 angiotensin II at 30 min is an early predictor of favorable clinical outcomes which may be related to relative angiotensin II insufficiency.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Europe 700.000 new cases of sepsis occur annually and more than 100.000 of these patients die due to multiorgan failure (MOF). We have identified shock-induced endotheliopathy (SHINE) to be associated with development of MOF and mortality. Furthermore, in patients with septic shock those with circulating levels of thrombomodulin (TM) above 10 ng/mL have twice the mortality (56% vs 28%) than those with levels below this level. Pilot studies indicate that infusion of iloprost (1 ng/kg/min) is associated with improved endothelial function in patients with septic shock. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This is a multicenter, randomized, blinded, investigator-initiated, adaptive phase 2B trial in up to 384 patients with septic shock-induced endotheliopathy defined by TM > 10 ng/mL who are allocated 1:1 to 72 hours continuous infusion of iloprost 1 ng/kg/min or placebo (equal volume of saline). The primary outcome is the mean daily modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score in the ICU up to day 90. Secondary outcomes include 28- and 90-day all-cause mortality, days alive without vasopressor in the ICU within 90 days, days alive without mechanical ventilation in the ICU within 90 days, days alive without renal replacement therapy in the ICU within 90 days, numbers of serious adverse reactions, and the number of serious adverse events within the first 7 days. DISCUSSION:This trial tests the safety and efficacy of iloprost vs placebo for 72 hours in patients with septic shock and SHINE. The outcome measures focus on the potential effect of the intervention to mitigate organ failure. TRIAL REGISTRATION:COMBAT-SHINE trial-EudraCT no. 2019-001131-31-Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04123444-Ethics Committee no. H-19018258.
Project description:This review of vasopressin in septic shock differs from previous reviews by providing more information on the physiology and pathophysiology of vasopressin and vasopressin receptors, particularly because of recent interest in more specific AVPR1a agonists and new information from the Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial (VASST), a randomized trial of vasopressin versus norepinephrine in septic shock. Relevant literature regarding vasopressin and other AVPR1a agonists was reviewed and synthesized. Vasopressin, a key stress hormone in response to hypotension, stimulates a family of receptors: AVPR1a, AVPR1b, AVPR2, oxytocin receptors and purinergic receptors. Rationales for use of vasopressin in septic shock are as follows: first, a deficiency of vasopressin in septic shock; second, low-dose vasopressin infusion improves blood pressure, decreases requirements for norepinephrine and improves renal function; and third, a recent randomized, controlled, concealed trial of vasopressin versus norepinephrine (VASST) suggests low-dose vasopressin may decrease mortality of less severe septic shock. Previous clinical studies of vasopressin in septic shock were small or not controlled. There was no difference in 28-day mortality between vasopressin-treated versus norepinephrine-treated patients (35% versus 39%, respectively) in VASST. There was potential benefit in the prospectively defined stratum of patients with less severe septic shock (5 to 14 ?g/minute norepinephrine at randomization): vasopressin may have lowered mortality compared with norepinephrine (26% versus 36%, respectively, P = 0.04 within stratum). The result was robust: vasopressin also decreased mortality (compared with norepinephrine) if less severe septic shock was defined by the lowest quartile of arterial lactate or by use of one (versus more than one) vasopressor at baseline. Other investigators found greater hemodynamic effects of higher dose of vasopressin (0.06 units/minute) but also unique adverse effects (elevated liver enzymes and serum bilirubin). Use of higher dose vasopressin requires further evaluation of efficacy and safety. There are very few studies of interactions of therapies in critical care--or septic shock--and effects on mortality. Therefore, the interaction of vasopressin infusion, corticosteroid treatment and mortality of septic shock was evaluated in VASST. Low-dose vasopressin infusion plus corticosteroids significantly decreased 28-day mortality compared with corticosteroids plus norepinephrine (44% versus 35%, respectively, P = 0.03; P = 0.008 interaction statistic). Prospective randomized controlled trials would be necessary to confirm this interesting interaction. In conclusion, low-dose vasopressin may be effective in patients who have less severe septic shock already receiving norepinephrine (such as patients with modest norepinephrine infusion (5 to 15 ?g/minute) or low serum lactate levels). The interaction of vasopressin infusion and corticosteroid treatment in septic shock requires further study.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) targets on needs for resuscitation, organ dysfunction, mitochondrial respiration and inflammatory response in a long-term model of fecal peritonitis.<h4>Methods</h4>Twenty-four anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs were randomly assigned (n = 8/group) to a septic control group (septic-CG) without resuscitation until death or one of two groups with resuscitation performed after 12 hours of untreated sepsis for 48 hours, targeting MAP 50-60 mmHg (low-MAP) or 75-85 mmHg (high-MAP).<h4>Results</h4>MAP at the end of resuscitation was 56 ± 13 mmHg (mean ± SD) and 76 ± 17 mmHg respectively, for low-MAP and high-MAP groups. One animal each in high- and low-MAP groups, and all animals in septic-CG died (median survival time: 21.8 hours, inter-quartile range: 16.3-27.5 hours). Norepinephrine was administered to all animals of the high-MAP group (0.38 (0.21-0.56) mcg/kg/min), and to three animals of the low-MAP group (0.00 (0.00-0.25) mcg/kg/min; P = 0.009). The high-MAP group had a more positive fluid balance (3.3 ± 1.0 mL/kg/h vs. 2.3 ± 0.7 mL/kg/h; P = 0.001). Inflammatory markers, skeletal muscle ATP content and hemodynamics other than MAP did not differ between low- and high-MAP groups. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) after 12 hours of untreated sepsis was, respectively for low- and high-MAP groups, 50% (4/8) and 38% (3/8), and in the end of the study 57% (4/7) and 0% (P = 0.026). In septic-CG, maximal isolated skeletal muscle mitochondrial Complex I, State 3 respiration increased from 1357 ± 149 pmol/s/mg to 1822 ± 385 pmol/s/mg, (P = 0.020). In high- and low-MAP groups, permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers Complex IV-state 3 respiration increased during resuscitation (P = 0.003).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The MAP targets during resuscitation did not alter the inflammatory response, nor affected skeletal muscle ATP content and mitochondrial respiration. While targeting a lower MAP was associated with increased incidence of AKI, targeting a higher MAP resulted in increased net positive fluid balance and vasopressor load during resuscitation. The long-term effects of different MAP targets need to be evaluated in further studies.