Influence of the Reaction Temperature on the Nature of the Active and Deactivating Species During Methanol-to-Olefins Conversion over H-SAPO-34.
ABSTRACT: The selectivity toward lower olefins during the methanol-to-olefins conversion over H-SAPO-34 at reaction temperatures between 573 and 773 K has been studied with a combination of operando UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and online gas chromatography. It was found that the selectivity toward propylene increases in the temperature range of 573-623 K, while it decreases in the temperature range of 623-773 K. The high degree of incorporation of olefins, mainly propylene, into the hydrocarbon pool affects the product selectivity at lower reaction temperatures. The nature and dynamics of the active and deactivating hydrocarbon species with increasing reaction temperature were revealed by a non-negative matrix factorization of the time-resolved operando UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The active hydrocarbon pool species consist of mainly highly methylated benzene carbocations at temperatures between 573 and 598 K, of both highly methylated benzene carbocations and methylated naphthalene carbocations at 623 K, and of only methylated naphthalene carbocations at temperatures between 673 and 773 K. The operando spectroscopy results suggest that the nature of the active species also influences the olefin selectivity. In fact, monoenylic and highly methylated benzene carbocations are more selective to the formation of propylene, whereas the formation of the group of low methylated benzene carbocations and methylated naphthalene carbocations at higher reaction temperatures (i.e., 673 and 773 K) favors the formation of ethylene. At reaction temperatures between 573 and 623 K, catalyst deactivation is caused by the gradual filling of the micropores with methylated naphthalene carbocations, while between 623 and 773 K the formation of neutral poly aromatics and phenanthrene/anthracene carbocations are mainly responsible for catalyst deactivation, their respective contribution increasing with increasing reaction temperature. Methanol pulse experiments at different temperatures demonstrate the dynamics between methylated benzene and methylated naphthalene carbocations. It was found that methylated naphthalene carbocations species are deactivating and block the micropores at low reaction temperatures, while acting as the active species at higher reaction temperatures, although they give rise to the formation of extended hydrocarbon deposits.
Project description:In small-pore zeolite catalysts, where the size of the pores is limited by eight-ring windows, aromatic hydrocarbon pool molecules that are formed inside the zeolite during the Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) process cannot exit the pores and are retained inside the catalyst. Hydrocarbon species whose size is comparable to the size of the zeolite cage can cause the zeolite lattice to expand during the MTO process. In this work, the formation of retained hydrocarbon pool species during MTO at a reaction temperature of 400 °C was followed using operando UV-vis spectroscopy. During the same experiment, using operando X-ray Diffraction (XRD), the expansion of the zeolite framework was assessed, and the activity of the catalyst was measured using online gas chromatography (GC). Three different small-pore zeolite frameworks, i.e., CHA, DDR, and LEV, were compared. It was shown using operando XRD that the formation of retained aromatic species causes the zeolite lattice of all three frameworks to expand. Because of the differences in the zeolite framework dimensions, the nature of the retained hydrocarbons as measured by operando UV-vis spectroscopy is different for each of the three zeolite frameworks. Consequently, the magnitude and direction of the zeolite lattice expansion as measured by operando XRD also depends on the specific combination of the hydrocarbon species and the zeolite framework. The catalyst with the CHA framework, i.e., H-SSZ-13, showed the biggest expansion: 0.9% in the direction along the c-axis of the zeolite lattice. For all three zeolite frameworks, based on the combination of operando XRD and operando UV-vis spectroscopy, the hydrocarbon species that are likely to cause the expansion of the zeolite cages are presented; methylated naphthalene and pyrene in CHA, 1-methylnaphthalene and phenalene in DDR, and methylated benzene and naphthalene in LEV. Filling of the zeolite cages and, as a consequence, the zeolite lattice expansion causes the deactivation of these small-pore zeolite catalysts during the MTO process.
Project description:The experimental study of the thermal decomposition of methyl decanoate was performed in a jet-stirred reactor at temperatures ranging from 773 to 1123 K, at residence times between 1 and 4 s, at a pressure of 800 Torr (106.6 kPa) and at high dilution in helium (fuel inlet mole fraction of 0.0218). Species leaving the reactor were analyzed by gas chromatography. Main reaction products were hydrogen, carbon oxides, small hydrocarbons from C1 to C3, large 1-olefins from 1-butene to 1-nonene, and unsaturated esters with one double bond at the end of the alkyl chain from methyl-2-propenoate to methyl-8-nonenoate. At the highest temperatures, the formation of polyunsaturated species was observed: 1,3-butadiene, 1,3-cyclopentadiene, benzene, toluene, indene, and naphthalene. These results were compared with previous ones about the pyrolysis of n-dodecane, an n-alkane of similar size. The reactivity of both molecules was found to be very close. The alkane produces more olefins while the ester yields unsaturated oxygenated compounds. A detailed kinetic model for the thermal decomposition of methyl decanoate has been generated using the version of software EXGAS which was updated to take into account the specific chemistry involved in the oxidation of methyl esters. This model contains 324 species and 3231 reactions. It provided a very good prediction of the experimental data obtained in jet-stirred reactor. The formation of the major products was analyzed. The kinetic analysis showed that the retro-ene reactions of intermediate unsaturated methyl esters are of importance in low reactivity systems.
Project description:Naphthalene and benzene are widely-used volatile organic compounds. The aim of this research was to examine the toxicological effects of naphthalene and benzene against Tribolium castaneum as an animal model. Adult insects were exposed to these aromatic compounds to assess mortality after 4-48 h of exposure. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) for naphthalene, naphthalin, and benzene were 63.6 µL/L, 20.0 µL/L, and 115.9 µL/L in air, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed expression changes in genes related to oxidative stress and metabolism [Glutathione S-Transferase (Gst), and Cytochrome P450 6BQ8 (Cyp6bq8)]; reproduction and metamorphosis [Hormone receptor in 39-like protein (Hr39), Ecdysone receptor: (Ecr), and Chitin synthase 2 (Chs2)]; and neurotransmission [Histamine-gated chloride channel 2 (Hiscl2)] in insects exposed for 4 h to 70.2 µL/L naphthalene. Adults exposed to benzene (80 µL/L; 4 h) overexpressed genes related to neurotransmission [GABA-gated anion channel (Rdl), Hiscl2, and GABA-gated ion channel (Grd)]; reproduction and metamorphosis [Ultraspiracle nuclear receptor (USP), Ecr; and Hr39]; and development (Chs2). The data presented here provides evidence that naphthalene and benzene inhalation are able to induce alterations on reproduction, development, metamorphosis, oxidative stress, metabolism, neurotransmission, and death of the insect.
Project description:Homogeneous Sc(OTf)3 used in nitromethane showed excellent catalytic activity for the direct allylation reactions of general alcohols including benzylic, propargylic, allylic, and some aliphatic alcohols with allyltrimethylsilane under mild and neutral reaction conditions. Metal-free ?-silyl-substituted carbocations are intermediates generated by the highly oxophilic Sc(OTf)3-assisted rapid removal of a hydroxyl group in alcohols, which is supported by the result that allylation of (R)-1-(naphthalen-2-yl)ethan-1-ol with allytrimethylsilanes using the Sc(OTf)3 catalyst combined with (R)- or (S)-[1,1'-binaphthalene]-2,2'-diol ligands gave only racemic 2-(pent-4-en-2-yl)naphthalene in quantitative yield. The present study resolves the argument about the uncertain catalytic activity of Sc(OTf)3.
Project description:In this study, stable hybrid materials (Mt-Fe(III)Phen), made by the ?-oxo Fe(III)-phenanthroline complex [(OH2)3(Phen)FeOFe(Phen)(OH2)3]4+ (Fe(III)Phen) intercalated in different amounts into montmorillonite (Mt), were used as a trap for immobilizing gaseous benzene and naphthalene and their mono chloro-derivatives at 25 and 50 °C. The entrapping process was studied through elemental analysis, magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and evolved gas mass spectrometry. Naphthalene and 1-chloronaphthalene were found to be immobilized in large amount at both temperatures. Molecular modeling allowed designing of the structure of the interlayer in the presence of the immobilized aromatic molecules. Adsorption is affected by the amount of the Fe complex hosted in the interlayer of the entrapping hybrid materials. On the contrary, under the same conditions, benzene and chlorobenzene were not adsorbed. Thermal desorption of naphthalenes was obtained under mild conditions, and immobilization was found to be reversible at least for 20 adsorption/desorption cycles.
Project description:Structural dynamics of a Mn-Na2 WO4 /SiO2 catalyst were detected directly under reaction conditions during the oxidative coupling of methane via in situ XRD and operando Raman spectroscopy. A new concept of fluctuating storage and release of an active phase in heterogeneous catalysis is proposed that involves the transient generation of active sodium oxide species via a reversible reaction of Na2 WO4 with Mn7 SiO12 . The process is enabled by phase transitions and melting at the high reaction temperatures that are typically applied.
Project description:Multiple hot-compression tests were carried out on the 6082 aluminum (Al) alloy using a Gleeble-1500 thermal simulation testing machine. Data on flow stresses of the 6082 Al alloy at deformation temperatures of 623 to 773 K and strain rates from 0.01 to 5 s-1 were attained. Utilizing electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM), the dynamic recrystallization behaviors of the 6082 Al alloy during hot compression in isothermal conditions were explored. With the test data, a hot-working processing map for the 6082 Al alloy (based on dynamic material modeling (DMM)) was drawn. Using the work-hardening rate, the initial critical strain causing dynamic recrystallization was determined, and an equation for the critical strain was constructed. A dynamic model for the dynamic recrystallization of the 6082 Al alloy was established using analyses and test results from the EBSD. The results showed that the safe processing zone (with a high efficiency of power dissipation) mainly corresponded to a zone with deformation temperatures of 703 to 763 K and strain rates of 0.1 to 0.3 s-1. The alloy was mainly subjected to continuous dynamic recrystallization in the formation of the zone. According to the hot-working processing map and an analysis of the microstructures, it is advised that the following technological parameters be selected for the 6082 Al alloy during hot-forming: a range of temperatures between 713 and 753 K and strain rates between 0.1 and 0.2 s-1.
Project description:Diorganyl[2-(trimethylsilylethynyl)phenyl]silanes 1a-c and methyl-substituted phenylsilanes 1d and 1e were treated with a small amount of trityl tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate (TPFPB) as an initiator in benzene to afford the corresponding benzosiloles (2a-e) in moderate to good yields. However, no reaction was observed for the reaction using [2-(1-hexynyl)phenyl]diisopropylsilane lf. The methyl substituent was tolerated under the reaction conditions and increased the yield of the corresponding benzosilole depending on the substitution position. From the result using 1f, the current reaction was found to require the trimethylsilyl group, which can stabilize intermediary alkenyl carbocations by the ?-silyl effect. The current reaction can be considered an intramolecular chain hydrosilylation of alkynylarylsilanes involving silyl cations as chain carriers. Therefore, the silyl cations generated by hydride abstraction from hydrosilanes 1 with the trityl cation causes intramolecular electrophilic addition to the C-C triple bond to form ethenyl cations, which abstract a hydride from 1 to afford benzosiloles 2 with the regeneration of the silyl cations.
Project description:The nature and evolution of the hydrocarbon pool (HP) species during the Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) process for three small-pore zeolite catalysts, with a different framework consisting of large cages interconnected by small eight-ring windows (CHA, DDR, and LEV) was studied at reaction temperatures between 350 and 450 °C using a combination of operando UV-vis spectroscopy and online gas chromatography. It was found that small differences in cage size, shape, and pore structure of the zeolite frameworks result in the generation of different hydrocarbon pool species. More specifically, it was found that the large cage of CHA results in the formation of a wide variety of hydrocarbon pool species, mostly alkylated benzenes and naphthalenes. In the DDR cage, 1-methylnaphthalene is preferentially formed, while the small LEV cage generally contains fewer hydrocarbon pool species. The nature and evolution of these hydrocarbon pool species was linked with the stage of the reaction using a multivariate analysis of the operando UV-vis spectra. In the 3-D pore network of CHA, the reaction temperature has only a minor effect on the performance of the MTO catalyst. However, for the 2-D pore networks of DDR and LEV, an increase in the applied reaction temperature resulted in a dramatic increase in catalytic activity. For all zeolites in this study, the role of the hydrocarbon species changes with reaction temperature. This effect is most clear in DDR, in which diamantane and 1-methylnaphthalene are deactivating species at a reaction temperature of 350 °C, whereas at higher temperatures diamantane formation is not observed and 1-methylnaphthalene is an active species. This results in a different amount and nature of coke species in the deactivated catalyst, depending on zeolite framework and reaction temperature.
Project description:The title compound, C(44)H(30)N(4)O(2), was prepared from 6,6'-dibromo-2,2'-dieth-oxy-1,1'-binaphthalene through a coupling reaction with 4-(4,4,5,5-tetra-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)benzaldehyde followed by a Knoevenagel reaction with malononitrile. The dihedral angle between the symmetry-related naphthalene ring systems is 68.82?(8)° while the dihedral angle between the the naphthalene ring system and the adjacent benzene ring is 16.92?(7)°. Four symmetry-independent mol-ecules which are linked by inter-molecular C-H?? inter-action generate the packing motif in the crystal structure. One of the CN groups is disordered over two sets of sites in a 0.60?(2):0.40?(2) ratio.