Serum-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) impact on vascular remodeling and prevent muscle damage in acute hind limb ischemia.
ABSTRACT: Serum is an abundant and accessible source of circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs). Serum-EV (sEV) pro-angiogenic capability and mechanisms are herein analyzed using an in vitro assay which predicts sEV angiogenic potential in vivo. Effective sEVs (e-sEVs) also improved vascular remodeling and prevented muscle damage in a mouse model of acute hind limb ischemia. e-sEV angiogenic proteomic and transcriptomic analyses show a positive correlation with matrix-metalloproteinase activation and extracellular matrix organization, cytokine and chemokine signaling pathways, Insulin-like Growth Factor and platelet pathways, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor signaling. A discrete gene signature, which highlights differences in e-sEV and ineffective-EV biological activity, was identified using gene ontology (GO) functional analysis. An enrichment of genes associated with the Transforming Growth Factor beta 1 (TGF?1) signaling cascade is associated with e-sEV administration but not with ineffective-EVs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis on the inhibitor of DNA binding I (ID1) promoter region, and the knock-down of small mother against decapentaplegic (SMAD)1-5 proteins confirmed GO functional analyses. This study demonstrates sEV pro-angiogenic activity, validates a simple, sEV pro-angiogenic assay which predicts their biological activity in vivo, and identifies the TGF?1 cascade as a relevant mediator. We propose serum as a readily available source of EVs for therapeutic purposes.
Project description:Serum-derived extracellular vesicles (sEV) from healthy donors display in-vivo pro-angiogenic properties. To identify patients that may benefit from autologous sEV administration for pro-angiogenic purposes, sEV angiogenic capability has been evaluated in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) subjects (D), in obese individuals with (OD) and without (O) T2DM, and in subjects with ischemic disease (IC) (9 patients/group). sEV display different angiogenic properties in such cluster of individuals. miRNomic profile and TGF? content in sEV were evaluated. We found that miR-130a and TGF? content correlates with sEV in-vitro and in-vivo angiogenic properties, particularly in T2DM patients. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified a number of genes as among the most significant miR-130a interactors. Gain-of-function experiments recognized homeoboxA5 (HOXA5) as a miR-130a specific target. Finally, ROC curve analyses revealed that sEV ineffectiveness could be predicted (Likelihood Ratio+ (LH+)?=?3.3 IC 95% from 2.6 to 3.9) by comparing miR-130a and TGF? content 'in Series'. We demonstrate that sEV from high cardiovascular risk patients have different angiogenic properties and that miR-130a and TGF? sEV content predicts 'true ineffective sEVs'. These results provide the rationale for the use of these assays to identify patients that may benefit from autologous sEV administration to boost the angiogenetic process.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate targeted cellular interactions in normal and pathophysiological conditions and are increasingly recognised as potential biomarkers, therapeutic agents and drug delivery vehicles. Based on their size and biogenesis, EVs are classified as exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies. Due to overlapping size ranges and the lack of specific markers, these classes cannot yet be distinguished experimentally. Currently, it is a major challenge in the field to define robust and sensitive technological platforms being suitable to resolve EV heterogeneity, especially for small EVs (sEVs) with diameters below 200 nm, i.e. smaller microvesicles and exosomes. Most conventional flow cytometers are not suitable for the detection of particles being smaller than 300 nm, and the poor availability of defined reference materials hampers the validation of sEV analysis protocols. Following initial reports that imaging flow cytometry (IFCM) can be used for the characterisation of larger EVs, we aimed to investigate its usability for the characterisation of sEVs. This study set out to identify optimal sample preparation and instrument settings that would demonstrate the utility of this technology for the detection of single sEVs. By using CD63eGFP-labelled sEVs as a biological reference material, we were able to define and optimise IFCM acquisition and analysis parameters on an Amnis ImageStreamX MkII instrument for the detection of single sEVs. In addition, using antibody-labelling approaches, we show that IFCM facilitates robust detection of different EV and sEV subpopulations in isolated EVs, as well as unprocessed EV-containing samples. Our results indicate that fluorescently labelled sEVs as biological reference material are highly useful for the optimisation of fluorescence-based methods for sEV analysis. Finally, we propose that IFCM will help to significantly increase our ability to assess EV heterogeneity in a rigorous and reproducible manner, and facilitate the identification of specific subsets of sEVs as useful biomarkers in various diseases.
Project description:Although extracellular vesicle (EV) surface electrostatic properties (measured as zeta potential, ?-potential) have been reported by many investigators, the biophysical implications of charge and EV origin remains uncertain. Here, we compared the ?-potential of human blood EVs (BEVs) and semen EVs (SEVs) from 26 donors that were HIV-infected (HIV+, n = 13) or HIV uninfected (HIV-, n = 13). We found that, compared to BEVs that bear neutral surface charge, SEVs were significantly more negatively charged, even when BEVs and SEVs were from the same individual. Comparison of BEVs and SEVs from HIV- and HIV+ groups revealed subtle HIV-induced alteration in the ?-potential of EVs, with the effect being more significant in SEVs (??-potential = -8.82 mV, p-value = 0.0062) than BEVs (??-potential = -1.4 mV, p-value = 0.0462). These observations were validated by differences in the isoelectric point (IEP) of EVs, which was in the order of HIV + SEV ? HIV-SEV ? HIV + BEV ? HIV-BEV. Functionally, the rate and efficiency of SEV internalization by the human cervical epithelial cell line, primary peripheral blood lymphocytes, and primary blood-derived monocytes were significantly higher than those of BEVs. Mechanistically, removal of sialic acids from the surface of EVs using neuraminidase treatment significantly decreased SEV's surface charge, concomitant with a substantial reduction in SEV's internalization. The neuraminidase effect was independent of HIV infection and insignificant for BEVs. Finally, these results were corroborated by enrichment of glycoproteins in SEVs versus BEVs. Taken together, these findings uncover fundamental tissue-specific differences in surface electrostatic properties of EVs and highlight the critical role of surface charge in EV/target cell interactions.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are biological vectors that can modulate the metabolism of target cells by conveying signalling proteins and genomic material. The level of EVs in plasma is significantly increased in cardiometabolic diseases associated with obesity, suggesting their possible participation in the development of metabolic dysfunction. With regard to the poor definition of adipocyte-derived EVs, the purpose of this study was to characterise both qualitatively and quantitatively EVs subpopulations secreted by fat cells. Adipocyte-derived EVs were isolated by differential centrifugation of conditioned media collected from 3T3-L1 adipocytes cultured for 24 h in serum-free conditions. Based on morphological and biochemical properties, as well as quantification of secreted EVs, we distinguished two subpopulations of adipocyte-derived EVs, namely small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) and large extracellular vesicles (lEVs). Proteomic analyses revealed that lEVs and sEVs exhibit specific protein signatures, allowing us not only to define novel markers of each population, but also to predict their biological functions. Despite similar phospholipid patterns, the comparative lipidomic analysis performed on these EV subclasses revealed a specific cholesterol enrichment of the sEV population, whereas lEVs were characterised by high amounts of externalised phosphatidylserine. Enhanced secretion of lEVs and sEVs is achievable following exposure to different biological stimuli related to the chronic low-grade inflammation state associated with obesity. Finally, we demonstrate the ability of primary murine adipocytes to secrete sEVs and lEVs, which display physical and biological characteristics similar to those described for 3T3-L1. Our study provides additional information and elements to define EV subtypes based on the characterisation of adipocyte-derived EV populations. It also underscores the need to distinguish EV subpopulations, through a combination of multiple approaches and markers, since their specific composition may cause distinct metabolic responses in recipient cells and tissues.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid-bound particles that are naturally released from cells and mediate cell-cell communication. Integrin adhesion receptors are enriched in small EVs (SEVs) and SEV-carried integrins have been shown to promote cancer cell migration and to mediate organ-specific metastasis; however, how integrins mediate these effects is not entirely clear and could represent a combination of EV binding to extracellular matrix and cells. METHODS:To probe integrin role in EVs binding and uptake, we employed a disintegrin inhibitor (DisBa-01) of integrin binding with specificity for ?v?3 integrin. EVs were purified from MDA-MB-231 cells conditioned media by serial centrifugation method. Isolated EVs were characterized by different techniques and further employed in adhesion, uptake and co-culture experiments. RESULTS:We find that SEVs secreted from MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells carry ?v?3 integrin and bind directly to fibronectin-coated plates, which is inhibited by DisBa-01. SEV coating on tissue culture plates also induces adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells, which is inhibited by DisBa-01 treatment. Analysis of EV uptake and interchange between cells reveals that the amount of CD63-positive EVs delivered from malignant MDA-MB-231 breast cells to non-malignant MCF10A breast epithelial cells is reduced by DisBa-01 treatment. Inhibition of ?v?3 integrin decreases CD63 expression in cancer cells suggesting an effect on SEV content. CONCLUSION:In summary, our findings demonstrate for the first time a key role of ?v?3 integrin in cell-cell communication through SEVs. Video Abstract.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have raised high expectations as a novel class of diagnostics and therapeutics. However, variabilities in EV isolation methods and the unresolved structural complexity of these biological-nanoparticles (sub-100 nm) necessitate rigorous biophysical characterization of single EVs. Here, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in conjunction with direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM), micro-fluidic resistive pore sizing (MRPS), and multi-angle light scattering (MALS) techniques, we compared the size, structure and unique surface properties of breast cancer cell-derived small EVs (sEV) obtained using four different isolation methods. AFM and dSTORM particle size distributions showed coherent unimodal and bimodal particle size populations isolated via centrifugation and immune-affinity methods respectively. More importantly, AFM imaging revealed striking differences in sEV nanoscale morphology, surface nano-roughness, and relative abundance of non-vesicles among different isolation methods. Precipitation-based isolation method exhibited the highest particle counts, yet nanoscale imaging revealed the additional presence of aggregates and polymeric residues. Together, our findings demonstrate the significance of orthogonal label-free surface characteristics of single sEVs, not discernable via conventional particle sizing and counts alone. Quantifying key nanoscale structural characteristics of sEVs, collectively termed 'EV-nano-metrics' enhances the understanding of the complexity and heterogeneity of sEV isolates, with broad implications for EV-analyte based research and clinical use.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction and systemic inflammation are major factors in the development of sarcopenia, but the molecular determinants linking the two mechanisms are only partially understood. The study of extracellular vesicle (EV) trafficking may provide insights into this relationship. Circulating small EVs (sEVs) from serum of 11 older adults with physical frailty and sarcopenia (PF&S) and 10 controls were purified and characterized. Protein levels of three tetraspanins (CD9, CD63, and CD81) and selected mitochondrial markers, including adenosine triphosphate 5A (ATP5A), mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (MTCOI), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced form (NADH):ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit B8 (NDUFB8), NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit S3 (NDUFS3), succinate dehydrogenase complex iron sulfur subunit B (SDHB), and ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase core protein 2 (UQCRC2) were quantified by Western immunoblotting. Participants with PF&S showed higher levels of circulating sEVs relative to controls. Protein levels of CD9 and CD63 were lower in the sEV fraction of PF&S older adults, while CD81 was unvaried between groups. In addition, circulating sEVs from PF&S participants had lower amounts of ATP5A, NDUFS3, and SDHB. No signal was detected for MTCOI, NDUFB8, or UQCRC2 in either participant group. Our findings indicate that, in spite of increased sEV secretion, lower amounts of mitochondrial components are discarded through EV in older adults with PF&S. In-depth analysis of EV trafficking might open new venues for biomarker discovery and treatment development for PF&S.
Project description:Exosomes, or small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), serve as intercellular messengers with key roles in normal and pathological processes. Our previous work had demonstrated that Dsg2 expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells enhanced both sEV secretion and loading of pro-mitogenic cargo. In this study, using wild-type Dsg2 and a mutant form that is unable to be palmitoylated (Dsg2cacs), we investigated the mechanism by which Dsg2 modulates SCC tumour development and progression through sEVs. We demonstrate that palmitoylation was required for Dsg2 to regulate sub-cellular localisation of lipid raft and endosomal proteins necessary for sEV biogenesis. Pharmacological inhibition of the endosomal pathway abrogated Dsg2-mediated sEV release. In murine xenograft models, Dsg2-expressing cells generated larger xenograft tumours as compared to cells expressing GFP or Dsg2cacs. Co-treatment with sEVs derived from Dsg2-over-expressing cells increased xenograft size. Cytokine profiling revealed, Dsg2 enhanced both soluble and sEV-associated IL-8 and miRNA profiling revealed, Dsg2 down-regulated both cellular and sEV-loaded miR-146a. miR-146a targets IRAK1, a serine-threonine kinase involved in IL-8 signalling. Treatment with a miR-146a inhibitor up-regulated both IRAK1 and IL-8 expression. RNAseq analysis of HNSCC tumours revealed a correlation between Dsg2 and IL-8. Finally, elevated IL-8 plasma levels were detected in a subset of HNSCC patients who did not respond to immune checkpoint therapy, suggesting that these patients may benefit from prior anti-IL-8 treatment. In summary, these results suggest that intercellular communication through cell-cell adhesion, cytokine release and secretion of EVs are coordinated, and critical for tumour growth and development, and may serve as potential prognostic markers to inform treatment options. Abbreviations:Basal cell carcinomas, BCC; Betacellulin, BTC; 2-bromopalmitate, 2-Bromo; Cluster of differentiation, CD; Cytochrome c oxidase IV, COX IV; Desmoglein 2, Dsg2; Early endosome antigen 1, EEA1; Epidermal growth factor receptor substrate 15, EPS15; Extracellular vesicle, EV; Flotillin 1, Flot1; Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GAPH; Green fluorescent protein, GFP; Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, HNSCC; Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1, IRAK1; Interleukin 8, IL-8; Large EV, lEV; MicroRNA, miR; Palmitoylacyltransferase, PAT; Ras-related protein 7 Rab7; Small EV, sEV; Squamous cell carcinoma, SCC; Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, TIMP; Tumour microenvironment, TME.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, derived from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been demonstrated as key factors in the progression and drug resistance of multiple myeloma (MM). EV uptake involves a variety of mechanisms which largely depend on the vesicle origin and recipient cell type. The aim of the present study was to identify the mechanisms involved in the uptake of BMSC-derived small EVs (sEVs) by MM cells, and to evaluate the anti-MM effect of targeting this process. <b>Methods:</b> Human BMSC-derived sEVs were identified by transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and western blot. The effects of chemical inhibitors and shRNA-mediated knockdown of endocytosis-associated genes on sEV uptake and cell apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The anti-MM effect of blocking sEV uptake was evaluated <i>in vitro</i> and in a xenograft MM mouse model. <b>Results:</b> sEVs derived from BMSC were taken up by MM cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and subsequently promoted MM cell cycling and reduced their chemosensitivity to bortezomib. Chemical endocytosis inhibitors targeting heparin sulphate proteoglycans, actin, tyrosine kinase, dynamin-2, sodium/proton exchangers, or phosphoinositide 3-kinases significantly reduced MM cell internalization of BMSC-derived sEVs. Moreover, shRNA-mediated knockdown of endocytosis-associated proteins, including caveolin-1, flotillin-1, clathrin heavy chain, and dynamin-2 in MM cells suppressed sEV uptake. Furthermore, an endocytosis inhibitor targeting dynamin-2 preferentially suppressed the uptake of sEV by primary MM cells <i>ex vivo</i> and enhanced the anti-MM effects of bortezomib <i>in vitro</i> and in a mouse model. <b>Conclusion:</b> Clathrin- and caveolin-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis are the predominant routes of sEV-mediated communication between BMSCs and MM cells, and inhibiting endocytosis attenuates sEV-induced reduction of chemosensitivity to bortezomib, and thus enhances its anti-MM properties.
Project description:Seminal plasma (SP) contains a unique concentration of miRNA, mostly contained in small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) such as exosomes, some of which could be clinically useful for diagnosis and/or prognosis of urogenital diseases such as prostate cancer (PCa). We optimized several exosome-EV isolation technologies for their use in semen, evaluating EV purifying effectiveness and impact on the downstream analysis of miRNAs against results from the standard ultracentrifugation (UC) method to implement the use of SP sEV_miRNAs as noninvasive biomarkers for PCa. Our results evidenced that commercial kits designed to isolate exosomes/EVs from blood or urine are mostly applicable to SP, but showed quantitative and qualitative variability between them. ExoGAG 3500× g and the miRCURY Cell/Urine/CSF 1500× g methods resulted as equivalent alternative procedures to UC for isolating exosomes/sEVs from semen for nanoparticle characteristics and quality of RNA contained in vesicles. Additionally, the expression profile of the altered semen sEV-miRNAs in PCa varies depending on the EV isolation method applied. This is possibly due to different extraction techniques yielding different proportions of sEV subtypes. This is evidence that the exosome-EV isolation method has a significant impact on the analysis of the miRNAs contained within, with important consequences for their use as clinical biomarkers. Therefore, miRNA analysis results for EVs cannot be directly extrapolated between different EV isolation methods until clear markers for delineation between microvesicles and exosomes are established. However, EV extraction methodology affects combined models (semen exosome miRNA signatures plus blood Prostate specific antigen (PSA) concentration for PCa diagnosis) less; specifically our previously described (miR-142-3p + miR-142-5p + miR-223-3p + PSA) model functions as molecular marker from EVs from any of the three isolation methods, potentially improving the efficiency of PSA PCa diagnosis.