Do improved patient recall and the provision of memory support enhance treatment adherence?
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Patient adherence to psychosocial treatment is an important but understudied topic. The aim of this study was to examine whether better patient recall of treatment contents and therapist use of memory support (MS) were associated with better treatment adherence. METHODS:Data were drawn from a pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants were 48 individuals (mean age = 44.27 years, 29 females) with Major Depressive Disorder randomized to receive either Cognitive Therapy (CT) with an adjunctive Memory Support Intervention (CT + Memory Support) or CT-as-usual. Therapist and patient ratings of treatment adherence were collected during each treatment session. Patient recall was assessed at mid-treatment. Therapist use of MS was manually coded for a random selection of sessions. RESULTS:Patient recall was significantly associated with better therapist and patient ratings of adherence. Therapist use of Application, a specific MS strategy, predicted higher therapist ratings of adherence. Attention Recruitment, another specific MS strategy, appeared to attenuate the positive impact of session number on patient ratings of adherence. Treatment groups, MS summary scores and other specific MS strategies were not significantly associated with adherence. LIMITATIONS:The measure for treatment adherence is in the process of being formally validated. Results were based on small sample. CONCLUSIONS:These results support the importance of patient recall in treatment adherence. Although collectively the effects of MS on treatment adherence were not significant, the results support the use of certain specific MS strategy (i.e., application) as a potential pathway to improve treatment adherence. Larger-scale studies are needed to further examine these constructs.
Project description:The current study examined whether and which specific contents of patients' memory for cognitive therapy (CT) were associated with treatment adherence and outcome. Data were drawn from a pilot RCT of forty-eight depressed adults, who received either CT plus Memory Support Intervention (CT + Memory Support) or CT-as-usual. Patients' memory for treatment was measured using the Patient Recall Task and responses were coded into cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) codes, such as CBT Model and Cognitive Restructuring, and non-CBT codes, such as individual coping strategies and no code. Treatment adherence was measured using therapist and patient ratings during treatment. Depression outcomes included treatment response, remission, and recurrence. Total number of CBT codes recalled was not significantly different comparing CT + Memory Support to CT-as-usual. Total CBT codes recalled were positively associated with adherence, while non-CBT codes recalled were negatively associated with adherence. Treatment responders (vs. non-responders) exhibited a significant increase in their recall of Cognitive Restructuring from session 7 to posttreatment. Greater recall of Cognitive Restructuring was marginally significantly associated with remission. Greater total number of CBT codes recalled (particularly CBT Model) was associated with non-recurrence of depression. Results highlight the important relationships between patients' memory for treatment and treatment adherence and outcome.
Project description:Therapist use of memory support (MS) alongside treatment-as-usual, with the goal of enhancing patient recall of treatment contents, has been of recent interest as a novel pathway to improve treatment outcome. The memory support intervention (MSI) involves treatment providers' using 8 specific MS strategies to promote patient memory for treatment. The present study examines to what extent therapist use of MS strategies and bundles improves patient recall of treatment contents and treatment outcome.The data were drawn from a pilot RCT reported elsewhere. Participants were 48 adults (mean age = 44.27 years, 29 females) with major depressive disorder (MDD), randomized to receive 14 sessions of either CT + Memory Support (n = 25) or CT-as-usual (n = 23). Therapist use of MS was coded using the Memory Support Rating Scale. Patient memory and treatment outcomes were assessed at baseline, midtreatment (patient recall only), posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up.Participants in CT + Memory Support received significantly higher amount of MS relative to CT-as-usual. Although not reaching statistical significance, small-to-medium effects were observed between MS strategies and patient recall in the expected direction. Although MS variables were not significantly associated with changes in continuous depressive symptoms, MS was associated with better global functioning. MS also exhibited small to medium effects on treatment response and recurrence in the expected direction but not on remission, though these effects did not reach statistical significance.These results provide initial empirical evidence supporting an active method for therapists to implement MS strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patient adherence has been identified as an important barrier to the implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments. OBJECTIVE:In cognitive behavioral treatments (CBT) for insomnia, the current study examined (a) the validity of therapist ratings of patient agreement and adherence against an established behavioral measure of adherence, and (b) the relationship between treatment agreement, adherence, and outcome. METHOD:Participants were 188 adults meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for chronic insomnia who were randomized to receive behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, or CBT for insomnia. Treatment agreement/adherence was measured by (a) weekly therapist ratings of patient agreement and homework completion, and (b) adherence to behavioral strategies (ABS) derived from patient-reported sleep diary. Outcome measures were Insomnia Severity Index and insomnia remission (Insomnia Severity Index <8). RESULTS:Therapist ratings of patient agreement as well as homework completion were significantly associated with sleep diary-derived global ABS. Therapist-rated patient agreement and homework completion as well as global ABS predicted greater insomnia symptoms reduction from pretreatment to posttreatment. Patient agreement also predicted insomnia symptoms reduction from pretreatment to 6-month follow-up. Patient agreement, adherence, and ABS measures during treatment significantly predicted insomnia remission at posttreatment, and all but therapist rating of homework completion predicted remission at 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:Greater patient agreement and adherence (therapist ratings and ABS) during treatment predicted better treatment outcome. Therapist-rated treatment agreement and adherence correspond well with patient-reported sleep diary-derived adherence measure. These simple, deployable therapist-rated patient agreement and adherence can potentially be useful for treatments for other disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record
Project description:Patients exhibit poor memory for treatment. A novel Memory Support Intervention, derived from basic science in cognitive psychology and education, is tested with the goal of improving patient memory for treatment and treatment outcome. Adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomized to 14 sessions of cognitive therapy (CT)+Memory Support (n = 25) or CT-as-usual (n = 23). Outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and 6 months later. Memory support was greater in CT+Memory Support compared to the CT-as-usual. Compared to CT-as-usual, small to medium effect sizes were observed for recall of treatment points at post-treatment. There was no difference between the treatment arms on depression severity (primary outcome). However, the odds of meeting criteria for 'response' and 'remission' were higher in CT+Memory Support compared with CT-as-usual. CT+Memory Support also showed an advantage on functional impairment. While some decline was observed, the advantage of CT+Memory Support was evident through 6-month follow-up. Patients with less than 16 years of education experience greater benefits from memory support than those with 16 or more years of education. Memory support can be manipulated, may improve patient memory for treatment and may be associated with an improved outcome.
Project description:Previous studies of cognitive therapy (CT) for depression have examined therapist adherence and the therapeutic alliance as predictors of subsequent symptom change. However, little is known about these CT process variables when CT is delivered in combination with antidepressant medication.In a sample of 176 depressed outpatients randomized to the combined condition of a clinical trial, we examined ratings of adherence and alliance as predictors of subsequent session-to-session symptom change across early CT sessions.Both adherence to Behavioral Methods/Homework and the therapeutic alliance significantly predicted session-to-session symptom change. In models in which patients' medication regimen and prior symptom change were covaried, only Behavioral Methods/Homework remained a significant predictor of subsequent symptom change.Our findings highlight the utility of Behavioral Methods/Homework in combined treatment for promoting early session-to-session symptom change.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Memory Support Intervention was developed in response to evidence showing that: (1) patient memory for treatment is poor, (2) poor memory for treatment is associated with poorer adherence and poorer outcome, (3) the impact of memory impairment can be minimized by the use of memory support strategies and (4) improved memory for treatment improves outcome. The aim of this study protocol is to conduct a confirmatory efficacy trial to test whether the Memory Support Intervention improves illness course and functional outcomes. As a "platform" for the next step in investigating this approach, we focus on major depressive disorder (MDD) and cognitive therapy (CT). METHOD/DESIGN:Adults with MDD (n?=?178, including 20% for potential attrition) will be randomly allocated to CT?+?Memory Support or CT-as-usual and will be assessed at baseline, post treatment and at 6 and 12 months' follow-up (6FU and 12FU). We will compare the effects of CT?+?Memory Support vs. CT-as-usual to determine if the new intervention improves the course of illness and reduces functional impairment (aim 1). We will determine if patient memory for treatment mediates the relationship between treatment condition and outcome (aim 2). We will evaluate if previously reported poor treatment response subgroups moderate target engagement (aim 3). DISCUSSION:The Memory Support Intervention has been developed to be "transdiagnostic" (relevant to a broad range of mental disorders) and "pantreatment" (relevant to a broad range of types of treatment). This study protocol describes a "next step" in the treatment development process by testing the Memory Support Intervention for major depressive disorder (MDD) and cognitive therapy (CT). If the results are promising, future directions will test the applicability to other kinds of interventions and disorders and in other settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT01790919 . Registered on 6 October 2016.
Project description:Little is known about the influence of patients' pretreatment characteristics on the adherence-outcome relation in cognitive therapy (CT) for depression. In a sample of 57 depressed adults participating in CT, the authors examined interactions between pretreatment patient characteristics and therapist adherence in predicting session-to-session symptom change.Using items from the Collaborative Study Psychotherapy Rating Scale, the authors assessed 3 facets of therapist adherence: cognitive methods, negotiating/structuring, and behavioral methods/homework. Two graduate students rated Sessions 1-4 for adherence. Symptoms were assessed prior to each session with the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Moderators were assessed as part of patients' intake evaluations.After correcting for multiple comparisons, patient gender remained a significant moderator of the relationship between cognitive methods and next-session symptom change; cognitive methods more strongly predicted greater symptom improvement for women as compared to men. Pretreatment anxiety and number of prior depressive episodes were significant moderators of the relationship between behavioral methods/homework and next-session symptom change, with greater behavioral methods/homework predicting symptom improvement more strongly among patients high in pretreatment anxiety and among patients with relatively few prior depressive episodes.This is the first study to provide evidence of how therapist adherence is differentially related to outcome among depressed patients with different characteristics. If replicated, these findings may inform clinical decisions regarding the use of specific facets of adherence in CT for depression with specific patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:A central goal of health care is to improve patient outcomes. Although several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of therapist guided internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD), a significant proportion of patients do not respond to treatment. Consequently, the aim of this study was to identify individual characteristics and treatment program related factors that could help clinicians predict treatment outcomes and adherence for individuals with SAD. METHOD:The sample comprised longitudinal data collected during a 4-year period of adult individuals (N = 764) treated for SAD at a public service psychiatric clinic. Weekly self-rated Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR) scores were provided. Rates of symptomatic change during treatment and adherence levels were analysed using multilevel modelling. The following domains of prognostic variables were examined: (a) socio-demographic variables; (b) clinical characteristics; (c) family history of mental illness; and (d) treatment-related factors. RESULTS:Higher treatment credibility and adherence predicted a faster rate of improvement during treatment, whereas higher overall functioning level evidenced a slower rate of improvement. Treatment credibility was the strongest predictor of greater adherence. Having a family history of SAD-like symptoms was also associated with greater adherence, whereas Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms, male gender, and family history of minor depression predicted lower adherence. Also, the amount of therapist time spent per treatment module was negatively associated with adherence. CONCLUSIONS:Results from a large clinical sample indicate that the credibility of ICBT is the strongest prognostic factor explaining individual differences in both adherence level and symptomatic improvement. Early screening of ADHD-like symptoms may help clinicians identify patients who might need extra support or an adjusted treatment. Therapist behaviours that promote adherence may be important for treatment response, although more research is needed in order to determine what type of support would be most beneficial.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While the efficacy of cognitive therapy (CT) has been well established for social anxiety disorder (SAD) in several randomized controlled trials, there are still large differences between trials with respect to effect sizes. The present study investigates the question of whether enhanced training and the use of behavioral experiments (BEs) increases the efficacy of traditional CT, based on verbal methods of cognitive restructuring. METHODS/DESIGN:A mixed within/between conditions design will be applied, with therapists and patients being randomly allocated to one of two conditions: (1) training of CT plus BEs, (2) training of CT "as usual". Sixty patients with the primary diagnosis of SAD will be recruited and treated in the outpatient clinic of the Department of Psychology, University of Frankfurt. To ensure adherence to therapist protocols, all therapists will be trained and supervised by the project coordinators. In addition, videotaped treatment sessions will be independently evaluated to guarantee both adherence to protocols and the quality of the intervention. Treatment effects will be assessed by independent SAD symptom ratings using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale as the primary outcome measure and self-report measures as secondary outcome measures. DISCUSSION:The present cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) trial will be the first to clarify the contribution of BEs to the efficacy of CT in a randomized controlled design. Study results are relevant to clinical training and implementation of evidence-based treatments. TRIAL REGISTRATION:German Clinical Trials Register International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) identifier: DRKS00014349. Trial status: recruiting.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Measurement of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) competency is often resource intensive. A popular emerging alternative to independent observers' ratings is using other perspectives for rating competency. AIMS:This pilot study compared ratings of CBT competency from four perspectives - patient, therapist, supervisor and independent observer using the Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS). METHOD:Patients (n = 12, 75% female, mean age 30.5 years) and therapists (n = 5, female, mean age 26.6 years) completed the CTS after therapy sessions, and clinical supervisor and independent observers rated recordings of the same session. RESULTS:Analyses of variance revealed that therapist average CTS competency ratings were not different from supervisor ratings, and supervisor ratings were not different from independent observer ratings; however, therapist ratings were higher than independent observer ratings and patient ratings were higher than all other raters. CONCLUSIONS:Raters differed in competency ratings. Implications for potential use and adaptation of CBT competency measurement methods to enhance training and implementation are discussed.